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76-9 

Ss-^ ALBERT R. MANN 
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003577214 



Printed by 

Turnbull £5° Spears 

Edinburgh 



THE 



BOOK OF BREAD 



BY 



OWEN SIMMONS, F.C.S. 

(OWEN AND OWEN) 

Highest Possible Medallist in the United Kingdom in Bread-making in 1886 
Technological Examiner (1888-9) to the National Associktion of Master Bakers and Confectioners of 

Great Britain and Ireland 

Certificated by Examinations under Government [Science and Art Department) in Chemistry, Mechanics, Machine 

Construction and Hygiene, and in Bread-making under the City and Guilds of London Institute [with ^'Honours ") 

Expert since 1888 to " The British Baker " 

Bread Judge at the International Exhibitions 

Juror to the Universal Food and Cookery Association 

Lecturer on Bread-making Technology at the International Exhibitions, at the Borough Polytechnic, and 

" The National School of Bakery " 
etc., etc. 



Maclaren & Sons 

Offices of The British Baker' 

37 and 38 Shoe Lane, London, E.G. 

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All rights reserved 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

The Illustrations ... ii 



SECTION I 
Ingredients and their Uses .... 15 

SECTION II 
The Good and Faulty Points of a Loaf . . . . 72 

SECTION III 

The Changes in Flour and Bread during Storage, Fermentation, Baking, 

AND Digestion . . . . . . , . .129 

SECTION IV 
The Finishing of the Dough .... . 141 

SECTION V 
Machinery, Appliances, Ovens, Firing, Draught and Ventilation 192 

SECTION VI 
Methods of Fermentation and Manufacture . 228 

SECTION VII 
Useful Data . . . 315 

Index . ,321 



PREFACE 

A LT HOUGH almost incredible, it is now just upon twenty years since 
the first contribution from the author's pen appeared in the Trade 
Press. For fifteen years, since 1888, when first approached by the publishers 
of The British Baker and of this present work, the author's articles in that 
prominent journal have been quite continuous, as many as three having 
occasionally appeared in one weekly issue. During that long connection, 
a phenomenally large correspondence of many hundreds of letters, containing 
almost every conceivable inquiry concerning difficulties in the bakery busi- 
ness, have been received from throughout the British Empire, and these 
correspondents have many times suggested and requested the writing of a 
book. These requests have been followed by distinct offers from the present 
publishers, which in turn had to be refused, because the very secret of the 
success, as others say, attending these contributions, namely, the close 
association with the commercial side of the subject, has militated against 
obtaining the necessary time and opportunity for treating sufficiently well 
a matter of such importance, and entailing an immeasurably greater strain 
than the usual weekly article. Even the recent invitation to produce this 
" Book of Bread" as a suitable companion to the most excellent " Book of 
Cakes," was, after great consideration, declined with regret ; but the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, is that, not until the author saw 
his repeated refusal was endangering the continuance of a long and valued 
connection, did he reluctantly yield to persuasion, and then proceed with all 



8 PREFACE 

his might to arrange for doing thoroughly that which he had undertaken. 
Thus the origin of this book. 

After reference to the extent of the Trade Press contributions, a word 
of explanation is due, concerning the name of the author of this work as 
given on its title-page. Anonymity is distinctly repulsive in all matters 
personal, but in matters technical it has considerable advantages. Both 
by correspondence and by many positions held, the author has been thrown 
into contact, in different capacities, with a large number of all sections of 
the trade, and, although always having the courage of his opinions when 
necessary, he has preferred privacy and reserve, not wishing to force them 
personally upon others, or to appear egotistical. He has also experienced great 
pleasure in discussing, and hearing opinions concerning his own articles, 
which, of course, could not have been so freely done had their authorship 
been recognised. The author's work has mostly been done under three 
distinct names, as of individuals, a unity in trinity, and although one of them 
had become known in well-informed circles, and is now announced on the 
accompanying title-page, the reputation of another is affording the author 
much satisfaction, pleasure, and amusement, especially when, as occasion- 
ally, some of the subject matter is quoted authoritatively to himself 

Amongst about 350 distinct books and pamphlets on this trade contained 
in The British Baker office alone, there are many excellent contributions by 
gentlemen who have been good enough to mention the author therein, such 
as those, taken at random, of Messrs J ago, J. & A. Kirkland, Blandy, Vine, 
Gribbin, Cobley, Vass, and Chidlow. On a different system to the above, it 
was originally intended to produce the author's own twenty years' contribu- 
tions in the form of an Encyclopedia. The author started to read his own 
contributions and letters, classifying the various subjects in alphabetical 
order, which was rendered more possible by the excellent services of his 
assistant, Mr Frederick Pile : the extent, however, of the task being then 








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PREFACE 



more thoroughly reaHsed, further reading of those contributions had 
to be discontinued, and others could barely be commenced, therefore the 
Encyclopedia idea had, for the present, to be abandoned. The various 
headings had to be rearranged into their present sections, and the book, 
already most expensive in production, and voluminous, now consists of 
an exhaustive treatment of merely the questions suggested by the author's 
own correspondents, which, however, by extending over so long a time 
and so wide an area, may be fairly taken as representing, and including, 
practically all, as seen by the index, the baker, in his ordinary avocations, 
would find useful or would desire to know. 

The contents will be seen to include full information on the various 
ingredients and mechanical appliances used by bakers, concerning which the 
author is most constantly consulted. The good and bad points in a loaf of 
bread, and how they should be respectively obtained and avoided, are fully 
discussed. The two most important and unique features, however, clearly 
distinguishing this book from anything hitherto produced, are, firstly, the 
most expensive illustrations, which fulfil a promise arising from the 
publication of diagrams of exhibition prize loaves in The British Baker 
four years ago ; and, secondly, the tabulated results, in the concluding section, 
of over 360 experiments, and different methods of bread-making, together 
with the results and the concentrated information of many years of close 
observation and experience. 

Most of the loaves, that are photographically reproduced in colours, 
have been selected from those winning prizes at competitions, but others 
have been specially supplied for the purposes of this book by well-known 
gentlemen engaged in the family and wholesale trades ; the author's thanks 
are therefore specially due for such loaves to Messrs Spiking & Co., London, 
bakers to the Royal Family, Messrs W. Skinner & Sons, Ltd., the well 
known firm of Glasgow, Mr A. L. Johnston, Wimbledon, the Chairman 



lo PREFACE 

of the Educational Board of the National School of Bakery, Mr Peters, 
London, and Mr R. Marshall, of Bellshill, Scotland, the two latter gentle- 
men being also particularly known as prominent prize-winners. 

In conclusion, the author hopes, by reason of his having performed the 
duties of an apprentice of an operative sufficiently long for his purpose, and 
of an employer, subsequently to his classical and scientific training, to have 
succeeded in here supplying the link between the bakery and the laboratory, 
in driving right home in simple language, to the needs of the baker and of 
the miller, when flour is too often blamed for other faults ; and, further, the 
author hopes this humble effort will earn a reception by his clientele no 
worse than that accorded to his other productions of a more evanescent and 
desultory character. 

OWEN SIMMONS. 

360, COLDHARBOUR LaNE, LONDON, S.W. 



THE ILLUSTRATIONS 

nPHESE illustrations which are distributed throughout the book are 
largely self-explanatory. We have before published diagrams of ex- 
hibition prize loaves, and at the time, four years ago, asked for photographs 
such as these, but were told that such would be far too expensive for the 
usual journal, and, moreover, at that date the present excellence could not 
have been attained. However critical readers may be, they will be forced 
to admit that never before have they seen such a complete collection of 
prize loaves illustrated in such an excellent manner. The author had 
originally no conception of the number of experiments with different pro- 
cesses, conducted at great expense of money and time, that would be 
necessary to produce the plates in their present condition. Trial after trial 
and proof after proof has been rejected as insufficiently satisfactory. One 
of the highest authorities on colour photography in the kingdom undertook 
to produce these illustrations by an entirely new process, but the great 
expense incurred had to be sacrificed, the result being less perfect than 
anticipated. It may seem strange to those unaccustomed to this work, that 



12 THE ILLUSTRATIONS 

one of the chief difficuhies has been to reproduce the whiteness of the crumb 
of the loaves, and that being so, preference for nearly all of the sections has 
been given to the ordinary photography. The loaves are now produced 
photographically correct, of exactly full size, and the colours are as nearly 
perfect as it is possible for them to be by any process at present known. 
The representations will at any rate answer a very large number of corre- 
spondents, who do not appear to visit the exhibitions, and write to know the 
style of loaf required in various classes, and as to whether their own is 
anywhere near the standard. 

The 1st illustration is that of an excellent tin loaf to which we recently, 
in agreement with other judges, had the pleasure of awarding a first prize. 

The 2nd is a section of the same loaf. 

The 3rd is a section of a 2 -lb. loaf from South Wales, being worse 
than the above only in texture. 

The 4th illustration is that of a pan loaf with crumby and greased ends 
from Scotland. 

The 5th is a section of a similar loaf. 

The 6th is a prize English crumby loaf from Liverpool. 

The 7th is a section of the same. 

The 8th is a prize batch loaf from Belfast (Ireland) with greased sides. 

The 9th is a typical Scotch square — the national loaf of Scotland. 



THE ILLUSTRATIONS 13 

The loth is a section of the same. 

The I ith is a section of a Scotch square, or crumby, or plain, that won 
the championship at one of the London Exhibitions. 

The 1 2th is a splendid " Crusty Cottage" from London ; made by one 
of the most regular of prize-winners. 

The 13th is a coloured section of the same loaf. 

The 14th is a beautiful bromide photograph (in the Edition de Luxe) 
of another champion cottage, after being exposed in the prize case all the 
week. 

The 15th is a cottage loaf from Wales. It is, like all the other plates, 
a photograph in full size, and the peculiar appearance is- due entirely to the 
tilting, so as to show the top. 

The 1 6th is an English Coburg or Brunswick, selected as the best of 
its class in a recent competition. 

The 17th is a section of same. In spite of the hole, which in a photo- 
graph is rendered exceedingly conspicuous, the loaf totalled more points than 
other poor loaves sent. 

The 1 8th is a fancy or crusty brick. Observe the notches. 

The 19th is a section of a typical French loaf from Scotland baked in 
a shallow pan. 

The 20th, 21st, and 22nd are photographs taken at The British Baker 



14 THE ILLUSTRATIONS 

office, by its own photographer, of various shapes of bread that were recently 
received from all parts. 

The 23rd is a disreputable so-called fancy brick taken at same time. 

The 24th is a typical Irish batch, plain or turnover loaf, that was 
awarded a prize at last year's London Exhibition. Originally taken full 
size, but reduced now to exactly half, because too large for the page. 

The 25th is a section of the loaf that won first prize in the " Malted 
Brown " class at last year's London Exhibition. 

The 26th is the usual wheatmeal loaf supplied by a gentleman of 
distinction doing a first-class family trade. 

The 27th is a section of a milk loaf supplied from the same 
establishment 

The 28th is a collection of Vienna bread ordinarily supplied by a 
first-class London firm, which is also distinguished in this department at 
exhibitions. 



SECTION I 

INGREDIENTS AND THEIR USES 

" Content, if here th' unlearn'd their wants may view, 
The learn'd reflect on what before they knew." 

Pope. 



MALT AND MALT EXTRACT 

A /T ALT consists of barley or other grain, such as maize and rye, that has 
been steeped in water till it germinates or sprouts, then dried as on a 
kiln ; and is interesting to bakers because of its use for making home-made 
or patent yeasts or barms, and, more particularly of late, because of the 
various kinds of extracts from it that are supplied to the baker in a con- 
centrated form. 

Although the use of malt by the baker has greatly lessened in 
some districts owing to the admirable supply of ready-made yeast, it 
is still much used in others, such as in Scotland and the colonies, with 
which the author has much correspondence. Not only is the quantity 
of malt, when making patent yeast, of importance, — the more the malt the 
better, all things equal, and the stronger the yeast, — but also the quality and 
character. The best for bakers is a short, crisp, and pale malt, and not 
one that is hard, steely, dark, or highly coloured ; the latter often contains 
less extract, and is worse colour for the bread. A baker requires a malt 
that has been slowly dried or kilned, not being overheated, but well venti- 
lated, so that its moisture would be well removed by the draught, enabling 
it to break up in the hand easily. If too quickly dried, and without a good 
current of air to carry off the evaporating moisture, it will be hard ; but if 



1 6 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

the superfluous water be driven off from the start, and the heat be gradually 
and slowly raised, it will be more mealy, as it should be, whereby more small 
granules of starch, in proportion to large ones, are present, and also more 
diastasic properties, the strength of the latter varying very much in different 
malts. 

If the malt should not be good the subsequent mashing must not 
be above 158 or 166 degs. F., and the heat must rise slowly, other- 
wise the starch would become scalded, which takes place at 10 degs. below 
this, and the barm immature. Some prefer the malt ground coarse, because 
the mass would more easily keep porous ; but we have noticed that some 
distilleries that we have visited use a finely-ground malt, and consider it 
better for yeast growth. About a ton namely, 2240 lbs., of malt extract can 
be obtained from 10 quarters, namely 3360 lbs., of malt. When making malt 
extract, the malt should be moistened for two or three days, the water being 
thoroughly mixed with the malt : then should be spread out and kept fairly 
warm, whereupon it sprouts, that is, its germ begins to grow in the same 
way as it would if sown in the fields, and pushes a sprout through the side of 
the grain, feeding on the interior starch and other bodies. Something of 
the same thing happens when wheat at harvest time is left in the fields after 
being cut, and cannot be carted because of wet weather ; and the growth and 
the damage will be more if the weather be warm and sultry than if colder. 
During the malting or sprouting, special ferments are developed and convert 
the starch of the grain into sugar. The ferments and sugar are wanted in 
malt, but their formation and the growing of the germ must be stopped at 
the right moment, or else the products formed will be consumed. This 
growing is stopped by heating which, however, must be high enough to kill 
the germ without killing or weakening the ferments, the one with which we 
are concerned being called diastase. When the growing of the germ is 
stopped and the conversion of the starch into sugar is complete, the 
originally raw grain has become commercial malt, and must then, for the 
purpose of extracting all the soluble matters thus formed, be well steeped in 
water, this then, after being strained, would be an extract of malt The pro- 






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Section of Prize Tin Loaf 

(ACTUAL SIZE,) 



MALT AND MALT EXTRACT 17 

portion of water present, however, by reason of its bulk is naturally incon- 
..venient and expensive for purposes of transport, and such would render it 
unprofitable or else bad value. This would finally, in spite of advertisements, 
interfere with its sale in the same way as similar circumstances have done 
in the case of patent yeast, that used often to be brewed at a central place and 
carted round to bakers, as the brewers' thick and the dried yeasts now are. It 
is necessary therefore to concentrate the extract by driving off much of the 
water by boiling, but boiling in the usual way, which would be at a tempera- 
ture of 212 degs., would kill all the ferments and diastase contained therein, 
therefore this thin extract is placed in a vacuum pan, in which, by the air 
pressure being reduced, it will boil and concentrate at a low temperature, 
which should not exceed 1 30 degs. F. 

There are really two separate classes of malt extract obtained according 
to the details of mashing or manufacture. One is more expensive than the 
other, even when made from the same malt, and should be used by the baker in 
different quantities and for different purposes. The one is, where the mashing 
of the malt has been conducted at a low temperature, say at 65 degs. F., 
whereby good colour is obtained and also a good amount of the ferment 
diastase in its most active condition ; the other is where the mashing has 
been conducted over a longer period, at a higher temperature of, say, 1 30 to 
150 degs. F., whereby practically all the constituents of the malt are rendered 
soluble. In the latter case the diastase becomes exhausted by being required 
to convert or change all the starch into soluble matters such as maltose, but 
in the former the starch is practically unchanged. It is obvious that the 
former, or cold water extract, namely, extracting at a low temperature, 
will yield very much less bulk of material, therefore costs more to marra- 
facture and sell. It is strong in diastase and proteids, or nitrogenous matters, 
and lower in maltose or sugar, and the extract obtained at the higher 
temperature, although from the same quality of malt, is low in diastase and 
proteids, and high in makose or malt sugar. As to which is better value 
to the baker depends on the purpose for which it is purchased, and it will 
at once be seen how ludicrous it is to indiscriminately buy these comparar 



1 8 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

lively modern products without knowing their constituents, and using them, 
as many do, without settled purpose, merely hearing that malt extract is 
a good thing, and without any consideration concerning the process of 
fermentation employed, or the character of the flour. 

A little knowledge is a dangerous thing, and we cannot help again 
mentioning a rather old joke, because the circumstance has happened 
again to us during the last few days, namely, of a correspondent asking 
how much diastase he should use as he was going to give it a trial instead 
of yeast. It is true that both yeast and diastase are called ferments, and 
are also used in what, by its action, is called in the bakehouse a ferment ; but 
yeast is a liviag plant, whereas diastase is merely a soluble albuminoid, and 
a result of germination, possessing digestive properties. It is the strongest 
and best known of the family of unorganised and hydrolytic ferments called 
enzymes. It is present naturally in malted grain, being largely and chiefly 
produced by the germination of barley, and to a less extent in wheat. It 
is present in barley in quantities of less than i per cent., yet is supplied 
in tins, with other products, as a concentrated solution of a syrupy nature, 
of sufficient strength to necessitate the use of only 4 to 8 ozs. to a sack 
of 280 lbs. flour, according to the make, at a total cost of fourpence-half- 
penny to sixpence. These quantities do not refer to some commercial malt 
extracts that contain very little of the active principle diastase. Contrary to 
some other ferments of its family, such as invertase, diastase acts on the starch 
of bread in a very marked degree, one part of diastase in good condition 
being able to convert about 2000 parts of starch. Under favourable con- 
ditions of temperature it will succeed in converting most of the starch 
exposed to its influence into maltose sugar and dextrine or goim. Its ability 
to thus digest starch, whereby a great portion of the product is maltose, and 
also the close similarity of its action to that of the digestive ferment, ptyalin, 
contained in human saliva, is the main cause of its importance. 

The formation of maltose sugar, with small quantities of dextrine, gives 
a characteristic flavour and moistness, and indirectly improves the size and 
colour (as noticed in some instances) by reason of the stimulating action 



MALT AND MALT EXTRACT 19 

which maltose has on yeast, which therefore more quickly and thoroughly 
(where the time is limited) does its work of aeration. During the stages of 
fermentation yeast feeds on maltose for the purpose of supplying alcohol 
and carbon dioxide, as is seen by the decrease in the specific gravity during 
the progress of a malt wort. It is therefore evident that if yeast, instead 
of obtaining its maltose by starch conversion, has it supplied ready for use, 
much work is saved. On the other hand diastase, unless accompanied 
by yeast, is unable to have action on starch cells that are not cracked, nor 
have their contents scalded or gelatinised. Starch is not gelatinised at 
a much less temperature than 149 to 153 degs. F., therefore, except as 
regards the few starch cells that become cracked or fissured by other means 
than hot liquor, diastase has generally been considered as being little use 
as a yeast stimulant, beyohd the amount of saccharine matter that might 
often accompany it. Although starch gelatinises as above, and thus allows 
the diastase to attack it at that temperature, we must remember that diastase 
itself is killed, or ceases to act, when above the temperature of 175 or 180 
degs. F., and, moreover, works at its height in a temperature of 40 to 50 
degs. less. It is therefore seen that the margin of time at the disposal of 
diastase for this conversion during baking, is the time that would be neces- 
sary for the loaf to ascend from the temperature of about 145 degs. F. to 
that of about 180 degs. F., or through a minimum of 30 degs. 

We have referred above to the different constituents of malt extract 
according to the method of preparation, and also to the period at which 
diastase can attack the starch — subjects on which questions are frequently 
asked. Although . one does not see much on these points in the bread- 
making press, we have an immense amount of papers concerning them, 
written by the most eminent men, and produced in the Chemical Society's 
Journal. We have just been reading some of these papers by Morris and 
Ling, and the following short particulars give good information on several 
points that have just been discussed. 

When diastase from well-grown, low-dried malt is allowed to act on 
starch paste or soluble starch, the starch is hydrolysed in about i| hours. 



20 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

whilst after forty-two hours the products are substantially those of maltose, and 
in such a solution nothing but maltose can be detected. Diastase prepared 
from malt grown under abnormal conditions (such as small quantities pre- 
pared in the laboratory) and diastase which has been slowly heated to 1 1 5 
to 120 degs. do not hydrolyse the starch completely to maltose, even if 
allowed to act in large excess : diastase which has been rapidly heated to 
115 to 1 20 degs. produces a more pronounced effect. 

Neither the final temperature at which a sample of malt has been 
kilned (considered alone), nor the " diastatic power " determined in 
accordance with Kjeldahl's " law of proportionality " by Lintner's method, 
is a criterion of its behaviour towards starch. When a diastase solution 
is heated above 65 degs., its reaction with starch paste appears to be 
quite different to that of a solution which has not been heated above 
60 degs. ; this is shown, not only by the specific rotatory and cupric 
reducing power of the dissolved matter, but also by the presence of dextrose 
among the final products of hydrolysis. 

A number of estimations of the " diastatic power " of malt were 
carried out in order to test the accuracy of Kjeldahl's " law of proportion- 
ality." It was found that the law does not hold either for green malt or for 
low-dried malt when their extract is allowed to act on a solution of starch at 
the ordinary temperature. The " diastatic power " as usually estimated may 
be misleading, since in order to meet the requirements of the " law of pro- 
portionality " only very dilute solutions of diastase should be employed. 

When yeast is allowed to act on a solution of starch-conversion products 
in the presence of active diastase, the quantity of matter fermented is greatly 
in excess of that which can be fermented by the yeast alone ; and when active 
diastase and yeast are allowed to act conjointly on the so-called stable-dextrine, 
which, under ordinary conditions, is neither degradable by diastase nor fer- 
mentable by yeast, it is entirely fermented. 

It is now shown that a similar action takes place when certain ungelatin- 
ised starch-granules are submitted to the joint action of malt extract and 
yeast, the quantity of starch decomposed by the joint action being about 



MALT AND MALT EXTRACT 21 

three times that dissolved by malt extract alone. The increased action in 
the presence of yeast is not due to the removal of the soluble product, 
maltose, from the field of action, and the consequent greater activity of the 
diastase. No increased diastatic action takes place in the presence of yeast 
if the fermentative power of the latter is checked by chloroform, neither does 
any increase of action take place when the malt extract is submitted to 
fermentation, and the yeast-cells removed, before the addition of the 
starch-granules. 

Precipitated diastase behaves in the same way as cold water malt 
extract, but to a less extent. 

The combined action of diastase and yeast only occurs with those 
starches which are attacked in the ungelatinised form by diastase, such as 
barley or malt starch. The granules of potato starch, according to the 
same authors as above referred to, are not acted on by diastase even in 
the presence of yeast. 

It is therefore seen that the constituents of malt-extract vary, but the 
following is an analysis of one that has attained popularity : — 

Nitrogenous matters (including diastase) . . 13-39 

Maltose and glucose . . . . . 50-95 

Dextrine . . . . . . 6.61 

Ash ...... . 5.36 

Water ....... 23.69 



100.00 



When a malt extract contains a large degree of diastasic strength, 4 
ozs. per sack of flour, as sometimes used, will have as much effect, as regards 
mellowing the flour, as would i lb. of another sort, which was low in 
diastase and high in maltose. The former, by acting on the flour, is best 
in the later stages of fermentation ; and the latter, by being directly ferment- 
able by yeast, is best, as a rule, in the prior stages. If only one stage, the 
user must be careful to add no excess, whereby there would be undesirable 
quantities of maltose and dextrine, which would make the bread sticky and 



2 2 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

clammy and difficult to bake. This stickiness, however, would often 
decrease as fermentation was allowed to proceed further, being consumed 
by the yeast, as can be proved by adding excess and baking portions of 
the dough at varying periods. Practically all the extracts on the market 
have an effect on the degrading of the flour or the feeding of the yeast, and are 
therefore quickeners of fermentation. As such, they have mostly been found 
useful in mellowing or peptonising and ripening harsh and strong flours, but 
with soft flour and a long process there is usually quite enough, if not too 
much, weakening already. Instead therefore of any further weakening it 
would be better, on the contrary, to give more salt, more labour, and 
something of an astringent nature, such as was once supplied by alum 
when the wheat was soft and malted in the fields. 

The ferments produced in wheat when sprouted or malted in the 
field, or in any raw or imperfectly malted grain, are of a weaker and 
lower order than properly prepared diastase, and cannot be placed quite 
in the same class by having less action on soluble starch, but they have 
action on gluten. In soft flours there is thus sufficient soluble matter without 
further adding about 6 to lo per cent., as would be done by malt extract 
during the bread-making process, some of which would be consumed by the 
yeast. Flours at one time were nearly all too soft ; a few years ago many 
were too harsh ; now, at the present moment, they are about normal. When too 
harsh, they can be improved by a judicious use of malt extract in flavour and 
moistness and also sometimes in bloom, because they can well do with the 
characteristic action of malt extract, namely, having their starch reduced and 
their soluble matters increased. The statement, as sometimes made, that 
malt extract prevents sour bread is risky, because with speed increased, 
and the time not shortened, the opposite would be the case. With harsh 
flours and short processes, the best way to use malt extract is to add it 
to a little scalded flour, and then stir in yeast and strain into trough for 
incorporating with rest of batch. With long processes, it is best to keep 
the malt extract out until last or dough stage, because in such processes as 
in Scotland any such quickener, where there is already a lot of soluble 



MALT AND MALT EXTRACT 23 

matter, would require much watching, or would be likely to produce harm. 
If used earlier, the proportion of flour in those stages should be increased, 
and the quickening allowed for subsequently. 

Although distillers' yeasts are quicker than barms, it is frequently 
found that in the Scotch process they will stand more malt extract 
with less effect, because when used the process is often considerably 
decreased in time, and has not the soluble and malt principles as would 
be the case with the barm. And also more can often be used in the 
case of Parisian barm than compound. Although in the greater portion 
of England, with most of the malt extracts on the market, it is customary 
to use about | to i lb. per sack of 280 lbs., we were recently concerned with 
some tests that were made for the purpose of demonstrating the value of a 
kneading machine, and conducted by American bakers, who added 3 lbs. to 
the batch of one barrel (196 lbs.) or less than three-quarters of a sack. The 
two cheapest constituents of malt extract are glucose and water, and the 
amount used per sack and the value must depend largely on these. A rough 
guide concerning concentration and quality can be obtained by seeing to what 
extent it will run to fine threads when pouring. Glucose being a cheap 
sugar, and a yeast food of less cost than malt extract, is in some cases 
added largely, and should not exceed about one-quarter or one-fifth the 
amount of maltose ; the amount that would be naturally present being less 
rather than otherwise, but according to the process. 

One is often asked if malt extract is a good substitute for potatoes. 
As in the case of the advantages or disadvantages of malt extract, 
according to the class or the manner of its use, so is it with potatoes. 
In the case of a sponge or dough they can be easily discontinued with or 
without a substitute, but in the case of a ferment (not the modern short 
one of just half an hour or so merely to start the yeast, but the larger and 
longer one for the purpose and absolute necessity of increasing a small 
quantity of yeast in order to do subsequently the work of a larger quantity), 
it is not reasonable to suppose that i lb. of liquid material will, under 
those conditions, be the same all round comfort as, say, the previous 14 lbs. 



24 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

of potatoes. It is just the difference between a piece of beefsteak and a cup 
of Bovril. One may be an extract from the other and possess all the 
nutriment, stimulant, and good constituents in a handy and more convenient 
form, but it has not the bulk of matter, it is more readily consumed, digested 
and forgotten ; and has not the same amount of stay or lasting effect. An 
extract of potato or an extract of flour would not make so good a ferment 
when required to be long and steady and progressive, as would the bulk 
of potato or bulk of flour, and an extract of malt on the same lines will not 
take the place of the crushed or entire malt, or other bulks of material. The 
extracts should be made more steady and filling in their effect, by having 
added to them portions of scalded and also raw flour, in order to represent 
the cells of the potato that had been scalded during cooking. 

The principles affecting flavour, moistness, and yield of bread are dis- 
cussed under their respective headings. 

Malt, and the matters extracted from it, is j. very old acquaintance of 
the bakehouse, and should therefore be better understood by the average 
baker than it appears to be in its new form. When first it came 
under notice in its new form the baker was asked to pay a royalty to 
the patentee, and to buy the utensils for the purpose of making it himself 
under the patented process, but the manufacture, although easy enough 
when understood, requires skill, plant, space ard knowledge, and like wheat 
buying, yeast brewing and biscuit making, al of which were once in the 
hands of the baker to a very much greater extent, has passed largely 
into the hands of more distant specialists. 

During the interval between writing *-he above and the reading of 
proofs, we have come across three very lon'j articles, which we wrote over 
ten years ago, in a very much more advanced style than is considered 
politic for the present book. Some of the^ same ground has been covered 
in the present contribution, but a summar)' of those articles in so far as it 
adds to what has already just been said, can be advantageously appended, 
as follows : — 

The embryo (germ) derives its food from the endosperm (starch), the 



Section of Good Commercial Tin Loaf> 

(ACTUAL SIZE.) 



MALT AND MALT EXTRACT 25 

latter being merely a dead storehouse of reserve material. The resting 
embryo contains no diastase ("of secretion"), but the latter appears during 
germination, and is secreted by tTie epithelium cells — by them only — and 
accumulated for the most part in the endosperm (from the nitrogenous 
matters of which it is first produced) in proportion to the development of 
the grain. The enzymes (diastase, etc. ) of the embryo degrade the starch 
cells, making them "mealy" in the same manner as the diastase of malt, 
and the resistance to their action depends on the "condition" of the grain. 
Embryo can be easily separated from the endosperm, showing there is no 
organic connection. The aleurone cells (sometimes called gluten cells) 
under the bran contain fat and oil, therefore much nutriment, but resist 
human digestion. The starch and its envelope of cellulose are dissolved 
respectively by two distinct enyzmes or ferments, the amylo-hydrolyst 
(diastase) and the cyto-hydrblyst. The word diastase, like the word gluten, 
is often used ambiguously. The more highly active form of diastase should 
be called "diastase of secretion," and the other less active form should be 
distinguished as " translocation diastase." The resting embryo, unlike the 
germinating embryo, is often said to contain " no diastase" by reason of its 
containing none of the powerful diastase of secretion, but it nevertheless 
(although for a long time overlooked) possesses the properties of the less 
active translocation diastase. During the developing of the embryo (as 
opposed to, and, of- course, preceding its germinating) translocation diastase 
is produced, and the unused residue of it constitutes the diastase of the 
resting embryo. The difference between these two diastases is that the 
diastase of secretion is easily able to liquefy starch paste and to erode the 
starch granule, whereas the translocation diastase is unable. These two 
diastases might also be respectively classed as the diastases of raw and 
germinated grain, or also barley diastase and malt diastase ; the former 
works worse at high temperatures, but better at low temperatures than the 
latter. When cane sugar is present the epithelium cells secrete no diastase ; 
the embryo must first use the cane sugar or any other easily absorbed food 
before secretion takes place. Cane sugar promotes better plant growth 



26 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

than dextrose, maltose, or milk sugar in the order named. The amount of 
sugars increase, but starch decreases during germination. 



POTATOES 

npHE potato tuber, which is often spoken of in the trade as "fruit," has 
been a friend to the baker for generations, and although being now, 
with good reason, rapidly forgotten has still some supporters. The author, 
practically throughout his life, has been strongly against their use and well 
remembers an insistence on their discontinuance costing him services of an 
excellent foreman, who was the first he ever employed. They are not con- 
venient and are not as cheap as they seem, they have no properties that 
cannot be as well supplied in other ways, in fact modern methods are 
such that there is no need for them. Where substitutes are tried and 
not found as good, it is because they are not properly understood, and 
an instance of this is considered under the heading of malt extract. What- 
ever advantages potatoes may be considered to have are outweighed by 
disadvantages. Millers spend thousands of pounds in order to remove all 
dirt and impurities from the flour, yet the users of potatoes, even if they 
carefully clean them themselves better than the odd boy would do, put in a 
considerable amount of dirt, as can be seen by comparing the colour of the 
potato liquor with that of clean water. Dirt is always present and often- 
times disease as well, especially in bad years, and the most careful over- 
hauling will not always eliminate it. The supposed cheapness does not 
pay the trouble and labour. The best that can be bought, such as one 
would use for the table, are the cheaper, as there is less waste, and better 
result. They should be of good size and mealy, and not too watery or 
spotty, and should not be of the class known as " Bakers' Potatoes." 

Let us see the difference in price and convenience between scalded 
potato starch and scalded wheat starch or flour. Do raw potatoes per 
pound cost more than flour per pound to buy ? There is not the difference 



POTATOES 27 

there used to be. The potato consists of about 75 per cent, water, 
17 per cent, starch and sugar, 5 per cent, albuminoids, and about i per 
cent, each of fat and ash. The flour, on the other hand, consists of about 
12 per cent, of water, 73 per cent, of starch and sugars, 12 per cent, of 
albuminoids, and similar quantities as the potato of fat, ash and 
cellulose. The starch, sugar and albuminoids are not only useful foods, 
but also are more profitable to buy than water, and it is clearly seen above 
how much water is bought in a potato. Not even the 25 per cent, of 
solid matter in the potato all finds its way to the bread, as there is the skin 
to come out of it, and if insufficiently cooked there will be a quantity of potato 
left adhering to the skin after straining, and this waste and skin all come off 
that 25 per cent. In addition, some potatoes get bad and are discarded, or, 
worse still, are not, and the price of the dirt bought with them, and the cost 
of removing it when bought, shows a great contrast to the pure, clean flour, 
which arrives all ready for use without waste and with but little water, and 
can be instantaneously cooked. The slight advantage the potato has over 
flour as regards the soluble albuminous matter is nothing, under the circum- 
stances of to-day, compared to the advantage of flour over potato as regards 
starch and everything else. 

The way to see the truth of the above is to let the matters extracted 
from the potato settle, pouring off the superfluous water or evaporating the 
whole to dryness and weighing the sediment, which will be found to be 
much less than anticipated. This sediment can be bought already pre- 
pared in this manner under the name of potato flour, and contains the whole 
of the matters of the potato, the starch as well as the nitrogen, as against 
potato starch which contains only what its name implies. Potatoes vary in 
strength according to season and also according to age, but the soHds of 
such a potato flour when refined and purified would contain nearly 99 per 
cent, of starch, and about ^ per cent, of mineral matter and { per 
cent, of albuminoids. A pound of it would equal fully 10 lbs. of potatoes 
as ordinarily purchased and would absorb about J a gallon or 5 lbs. of 
water. With the addition of raw flour, scalded flour and malt extract, 



28 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

no better yeast food for ordinary purposes would be wanted, and the saving 
in colour and trouble and risk would be great. 

The boldness in the loaf attributed to potatoes is only due to an 
increased vigour of fermentation by the food they supply, which in some 
cases, according to conditions, might be missed if not supplied in another 
way. If a sufficient quantity of yeast is used it will find plenty of oppor- 
tunity of getting food and making gas, which, in conjunction with gluten 
and proper management, is what makes boldness or bulk. When yeast 
could not be bought cheaply in a concentrated form, but had to be grown 
more largely in the bakehouse, the circumstances were different. The 
moistness claimed is due to their scalded starch cells during cooking. A 
wheelbarrow is a handy thing in which to carry a man home when he 
cannot walk, but it is not needed if a better conveyance can be obtained ; 
the simile applies with force to the purpose once served by potatoes and 
for which they have now been superseded. 

Not only are potatoes said to have deteriorated in quality because 
they are cultivated from tubers and not from seed, but there have 
recently been traced to them cases of poisoning, and one begins to 
wonder if by-and-by any food will be left unassailed. This poisoning 
is attributed to an active principle known as solanine which can be 
extracted from the potato fruit and belongs to the poisoning class. It 
is certainly present in the potato fruit but it is more difficult to say if it 
is present in the potato itself. It may occasionally develop in the skin, and 
is found also just under the skin, and will sometimes give a rank and bitter 
taste. We have known many cases where there was a bitterness in the 
bread, that has been traced to the ferment being left too long, and where 
brewers' yeast or hops had not been used, and where the bread was the 
picture of health and did not show the slightest signs of over-fermentation, 
such as referred to in another place. We have also known on the other hand 
ferments, especially at Bank holiday times, that have stood a surprisingly 
long while without taking any harm or bitterness, but the precaution, be it 
noted, was taken to strain the potatoes and set the ferment without the skins. 



SUGAR 



SUGAR 

npHIS well-known sweet crystalline substance is obtained from the sugar- 
cane, and also the beet, maple, and other plants. These canes are 
about an inch thick, and grow to a height of lo or 20 feet, the hottest places 
producing the best canes, and 100 of them will yield about 70 lbs. of sugar. 

The canes are first crushed and the juice squeezed out. The extracted 
juice is mixed with quicklime, and also boiled ; during boiling the impurities 
float to the top and are skimmed off; the crystallised is separated from the 
uncrystallised. The crystallised or crystals are ground, in much the same 
way as wheat is ground and refined into flour, into various grades of com- 
mercial sugar, one grade differing in colour very much from another from the 
same crystals, such, for instance, as castor sugar and icing sugar, merely from 
increased fineness. As in flour, the whiter or lighter the colour the purer 
would be the sugar. The uncrystallised, or the sugar that crystallises with 
difficulty, is sold as treacle, or golden syrup, and is very sweet, containing 
sometimes as much as one-third glucose to two-thirds cane sugar. Small 
quantities of treacle, or golden syrup, can be added to brown bread. The 
sugar known as "pieces" is a lower grade, corresponding to a low grade 
flour, containing more water and being worse colour. The highly refined 
sugars contain as much as 99 per cent, of suo-ar. 

So-called cane sugar is not necessarily sugar from the juice of the 
cane, but refers to any sugar of a high class with the same characteristics, 
irrespective of its source. Moreover, it is practically impossible to 
distinguish between the pure sugar from the beet of France and that 
from the cane of the West Indies ; it is only when the beet sugar 
is not sufficiently highly refined that any difference can be noted, and then 
by the taste. Cane sugar is very stable, and not therefore directly fermen- 
table by yeast, but must be inverted into glucose. Glucose, as discussed 
under a separate heading, is a lower form of sugar, and can be produced 
from soluble starch, etc., by acid as well as yeast, and is then cheap. There 



30 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

is a difference of opinion as to whether glucose or cane sugar is the sweeter. 
Sweetness is not necessarily an indication of sugar, because saccharine, 
which is often used for sweetening, being very much sweeter than cane 
sugar, is associated with coal-tar, and has no connection whatever with the 
carbohydrate family of which sugar is so important a member. 

The cheaper grades of cane sugar sometimes have rather considerable 
portions of glucose added, and the presence of the latter can easily be discovered 
by its well-known action on Fehling's solution, whereby a red coloration or 
precipitate is formed, according to the amount present, whereas pure cane 
sugar gives no such coloration. This glucose, sometimes called grape sugar, 
when bought at glucose price, is one of the best sugars for adding to bread, 
and I lb. per sack is suitable for average results. There is sugar con- 
tained in malt, known as malt sugar or maltose, also sugar contained in milk, 
known as lactose, therefore the amount of other sugar added per sack must 
depend on whether malt extract or milk be used at same time, and also on 
the process of bread-making, and the quality and character of flour. Any- 
thing from i lb. to 2 lbs. of total sugar per sack can be added, according 
to the above conditions, but too much will often make the ferment or sponge 
fret, and i lb., as in the case of glucose, will usually be found enough. In 
the case of making buns, the whole of the sugar required for the bun when 
put in the ferment will sometimes have a restraining instead of a stimulating 
effect, by reason of being in excess, and it is best to divide the sugar equally 
between ferment and dough. A quart of water, when cold, will dissolve and 
hold in solution about 5 lbs. of sugar, and more when heated, the specific 
gravity of sugar being about 1.6 ; but a solution containing anything like 30 
per cent., or one-third, will hinder yeast sown in it, and should not exceed 5 
or 10 per cent. 

The sugar naturally present in good average flour is from 2 to 3 per 
cent., in about equal proportions of cane sugar, sometimes called sucrose, 
and maltose ; the softer and less stable flours will contain more maltose, 
and, in some cases, also glucose, and the harder and stronger flours 
will often contain less maltose and more cane sugar. For the purposes of 



GLUCOSE 31 

bread-making it is not necessary to consider the various changes that take 
place in the character of sugar during boiHng to different degrees, as required 
for the various goods of the confectioner, but while boiling, as in the case of 
the original juice, a scum will often rise, and the greater the amount of it, the 
worse will be the quality of the sugar. When heated to about 400, as in an 
oven, sugar produces caramel, or caramelises ; that is to say, a dark brown 
substance is formed. 



GLUCOSE 

/""^ LUCOSE is a low stage of crystal sugar, and is made from flour during 
^-'^ fermentation ; but it can also be converted or made from starch, 
maltose, and dextrine, by acid without yeast. The acid usually employed 
is sulphuric or hydrochloric (or muriatic, as it is sometimes called), and this 
acid sometimes contains arsenic, as has been the case in the recent north- 
country beer-poisoning cases. It is cheaper to make this fermentable 
substance — glucose — by acid from ordinary commercial starch, from maize, 
or rice, than to make it from wheaten flour or barley malt by the gradual 
action of yeast. Glucose being a Substance produced by change, is there- 
fore, according to its percentage in a substance, a guide as to the amount 
of change that has taken place. When tested with Fehling's solution, the 
precipitate formed is of a bright red or brick colour, more so than in the 
case of maltose, the amount of precipitate being in relation to the amount 
of glucose. In the volumetric estimation of glucose, and also of invert- 
sugar, the author finds that the final point can be observed much more 
readily if the saccharine solution is alkaline and not acid. It is therefore 
advisable, after the inversion of cane-sugar by means of hydrochloric acid, to 
neutralise it, or render it alkaline, with potash before titrating with Fehlino-'s 
solution. This substance is very soluble in water, and being directly 
fermentable, is a good yeast food. It has a similar effect, as regards 
moisture, to malt extract, but it is sugar only, containing none of the 



32 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

nitrogenous matter or ferments, such as diastase, of the malt. It is sold in 
solid or liquid state, and is very cheap. The liquid, although a higher price, 
is preferable to the solid. 



SCALDED FLOUR 

TIJ^LOUR, or starch, is said to be scalded or gelatinised when, by the applica- 
tion of water of certain specific temperatures, its cellulose or outer 
covering swells and then bursts, liberating the interior and becoming 
soluble so as to form, when cool and sufficiently concentrated, a jelly-like 
mass. This change of state is familiar to most people in the form of blanc 
mange, which is merely the starch of maize, commonly known as corn-flour, 
after being scalded, and is altogether different from the result of mixing 
starch with water of a moderate heat. Ground rice, or whole rice, after 
being soaked, and several other starches, used in special instances, can also 
be likewise treated so as to become a yeast food or be added to the bread 
for other purposes. The range of temperature within which the substances 
likely to be used for this purpose becomes scalded, is from 120 to 160 degs. 
F., according to the class of substance, and its quality and condition, the 
larger cells or granules bursting, as a rule, sooner than the smaller. Potato 
and rice, however, both burst before flour, the first being larger and the 
second smaller. In order to avoid a very frequent disadvantage, namely, 
lumps, the flour or other material that we know to be used, in the Midlands 
especially, should be sifted, then mixed to a perfectly smooth batter with 
warm water — -no more of it than necessary — and not hot enough to scald, 
but as near the scalding point as possible, so as to simplify what follows. 
Divide the water with which about to scald into three portions, adding to 
the batter in three instalments, stirring vigorously all the time ; and this 
stirring and gradual adding of water is the important part which is often 
neglected by those not accustomed to it, but never by the Scotchman who 
understands this work. The first portion of water should certainly be 



p 't f 



"^^, 



>m 



< 

O 



K>« 



W 

D 
en 



X 



,^^_^j.*?'„' 



.'.i.>^ 



SCALDED FLOUR ^3 

boiling, and, perhaps, also the others, but if the quantity and heat of the 
batter be known, the remaining water can be regulated to keep the whole 
nicely above i6o degs., and beyond that there is no advantage ; but, on the 
other hand, the soluble albuminoids, or the diastasic properties of the flour, 
become coagulated, like the white of an egg, and lose their action, and the 
whole degraded more than necessary. When well stirred, so that all the 
starch becomes burst and the whole smooth and cool, some malt extract 
can be dissolved in other water and added, whereby the whole will become 
sweet. Raw flour would help to cool and also have some small effect like 
malt extract. By the time it has stood a little it will be cool enough for the 
yeast to be dissolved in other water and added. When added to the other 
liquor of batch, it should be strained through a fine sieve, so that nothing, 
unless thoroughly dissolved, can find its way to the loaf Other details must 
be arranged according to the utensils and process employed and the amount 
requiring to be prepared. 

We like 2 lbs. or 3 lbs. of scalded flour to a sack of flour, and should 
not recommend anyone to exceed 10 lbs., which is too much for most 
circumstances, although we recently had 13 lbs. per sack in a tin loaf that 
was good, light, and sufficiently soaked. The amount advisable depends 
on the care and skill exercised and individual circumstances, and should 
always be very small at first trial, being increased gradually. The larger 
amounts require more care than usually given as a permanency, and if they 
do not show in the crumb in respect of lumps, they must, especially in 
conjunction with malt extract, reduce the quality and strength of the flour. 
Where the flour has no quality to spare, and the whole process is conducted 
with no more care than often-times, and also with the least possible labour, 
the crust, as well as the crumb, will show the added material, when in good 
quantity. Although short eating when well baked, this crust will be grey, dull, 
and poor, as in the case of over-ripe bread. With a short process, best grade 
of flour, plenty of yeast, and gas to aerate, extra salt to toughen, and the dough 
made up into tins, one, of course, can more easily get the advantages of scalded 
materials as regards moistness, whiteness, and increased yield without the 

E 



34 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

disadvantages, according to quantity used, of heaviness, general poorness, 
and crumbliness. We once received a most satisfactory loaf from merely 
average country flour from an inventor of a special method in this con- 
nection, who, as advertised at the time, had succeeded in perfecting his 
process so as to avoid the pitfalls. The scalded material should be used 
fresh, and not allowed to get sour. Further information bearing on this subject 
will be found under the headings of dryness, colour, crumbliness, and yield. 



GLUTEN— THE CHIEF CONSTITUENT 

OF FLOUR 

' I ''HE gluten of a flour is its most valuable and important constituent, as 
it is the one substance that distinguishes the characteristic properties 
ofwheaten flour from the flours of other cereals. It is not only the sub- 
stance that is chiefly responsible for the bulk and the lightness of a loaf, 
but it is also of a very nitrogenous or nutritive value. It exists throughout 
the interior portion of the wheat berry, but it does not seem to be present 
in flour in its characteristic state until water is added and the flour made 
into dough. It cannot be separated from flour as an adhesive and sticky 
substance without being wetted, although the indication of its presence can 
be obtained by ascertaining the nitrogenous ratio in the flour by chemical 
reagents. There is a layer of cells just immediately inside the bran, or outer 
coating of the wheat grain, which are called gluten cells ; these, however, do 
not contain gluten in the same sense of the term as it is now universally used. 
At one time it was customary to class all albuminoids or nitrogenous matters 
together, under the term of gluten, whether they were soluble or insoluble. 
These so-called gluten cells, sometimes called cerealine cells, contain phos- 
phates, fat, cerealine, and soluble matters, but none of the insoluble. 

When flour is wetted into a moderately slack dough, and allowed to 
stand about an hour, and then washed between the fingers under water, 
the starch of the flour will flow away, leaving in the hand the adhesive 



GLUTEN ^5 

and tenacious substance known as gluten. If this be squeezed so as 
to free it from its loose water, a good average and suitable bread-making 
flour will be found to contain about 35 per cent. (30 to 40). Within 
certain limits, the higher the percentage, the better the flour for bread- 
making purposes, but sometimes there is found a very abnormal percentage 
of 50 or even 55 per cent., which is not desirable. A big quantity can 
sometimes be obtained from badly-matured grain, but its quality is such 
that it soon gets soft and sticky, and has not the elasticity as desired for 
good bread-making purposes. This lump of gluten, when freshly extracted 
from the flour, is known as " wet gluten." In order, however, to ascertain 
its percentage, apart from the water absorbed, it should be put into a 
slow oven, preferably one heated, as in laboratories, by a jacket of boiling 
water at ordinary pressure, whereby the heat does not vary, and does not 
get excessive. In about twenty-four hours the gluten will be entirely 
freed from its water, and then be known as "dry gluten," which is always 
about one-third of the wet, but varying slightly according to its water 
capacity. Dry gluten in flour can vary from 6 to 1,5 per cent., and re- 
present flours that are serviceable for various purposes. There are wider 
differences than these, as mentioned in the case of the wet gluten, but a 
fair average for soft flours would be from 6 to 9 per cent., and for strong 
flours from 9 to 16 per cent. 

Quality, however, of the gluten in flour is just as important as the 
quantity, and the quality depends largely on the percentage of its con- 
stituents. It was at one time considered that gluten was an elementary 
substance, having no constituents of which one need take particular notice. 
The percentage of these constituents is now found to account for practically 
all the differences in the bread-making qualities of flours, although of 
similar percentages of total gluten. These constituents are usually now 
named gliadin and glutenin, which are comparatively new terms. The students 
who, some years ago, attended the early classes in bread-making, will re- 
member the author drawing special attention to them as glutm and fibrin. 
Not only are there wide differences in the percentage of gluten in different 



36 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

flours, but, according to the skill and method of the operator, varying results 
will be given for one and the same flour. This is particularly noticeable 
when people first begin to use this test, and think they know all about it. 
The differences noted, according to the time the gluten stands and the 
amount of its washing, when estimating the total gluten, are, however, wider 
and more important when separating total gluten up into its constituents. 
Many of the analyses conducted by recognised authorities and men of the 
highest skill are conflicting, as the following will show. Fleurent's estima- 
tions of glutenin and gliadin differ remarkably from those of Osborne and 
Voorhees, who were the first to make this separation in this particular form, 
and to use the terms "glutenin" and "gliadin." While Fleurent looks 
upon one part of glutenin to three of gliadin as being the normal for 
flour, Osborne and Voorhees give the following figures for spring and 
winter wheats respectively : — 

Glutenin. Gliadin. 

Spring Wheat Flour . . . 4.683 3-963 

Winter Wheat Flour . . . 4-i73 3-9io 

That is to say, in both varieties of wheat the glutenin is in excess of 
the gliadin. In some determinations made by Jago, and published in the 
British Baker, the gliadin was extracted direct from the flour by treatment 
with alcohol, and gave the following results :-- 





Glutenin. 


Gliadin 


Spring Wheat Patent 


5-23 


4.81 


Spring Wheat Bakers 


7.29 


6.08 


Winter Patent 


3.69 


3-63 


Winter Bakers 


5.12 


4-43 


English Wheat Patent 


3-07 


Z-2>1 


Hungarian Patent 


4-79 


5-37 



Again, in both varieties of American flour the glutenin is the higher of 
the two, while in both English and Hungarian wheat flours it is a little 



GLUTEN 37 

the lower, but still a very high proportion of the whole. The gliadin is 
the tenacious or sticky part, like gum, that binds the flour ; it is more sus- 
ceptible to the action of moisture and soluble ferments, and more soluble 
in water than glutenin, which is insoluble in water and alcohol, also harder 
and more stable. The porosity and lightness of a loaf is due to the soft 
pasty and elastic gliadin. The latter is easily decomposed, like soluble 
albuminoids, and acts on the starch in a similar way. The substance 
mucin is very similar to gliadin, and is sometimes included in its per- 
centage. The absence of this gliadin in its right proportion in flours 
possessing a large percentage of gluten, accounts for the otherwise un- 
explained differences in the behaviour and strength when percentages of 
gluten are the same. The artificial removing of part of this gliadin from 
a flour is found to considerably decrease the bulk of a loaf in the same 
way as too little of it naturally present in the flour would affect. On the 
other hand too much of it will often cause soft and sticky dough, the 
extremes either way being undesirable, and in new flours it is in a more 
soluble condition. Cases have been noticed where the flour was dis- 
appointing, according to its percentage of gluten, and was afterwards found 
short in gliadin ; and where, on the other hand, gliadin was in excess, the 
dough rose well, and afterwards collapsed in the oven. 

Mr David Chidlow, the well-known American authority, with whom the 
author has had the pleasure of comparing notes, found that the percentage of 
gliadin in gluten was in Winter American Patents about 80 per cent., and in 
Spring American Patents 70 per cent. In Spring Wheat Clears, or Bakers' 
Grades, as they are known here, the percentage was found to be 60 per cent., 
and in Winter Clears it was 60 to 70 per cent. He further found that in patent 
flour each part expanded twenty-one times its volume, in Bakers' Grades 
each part expanded sixteen times, and that two flours possessing the same 
percentage of gluten, but differently divided into glutenin and gliadin, the 
one containing a bigger percentage of the latter always making the larger 
loaf. It is therefore seen how necessary it is to have the right percentage 
of gliadin ; and on this account there are certain processes that claim to 



38 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

convert glutenin into gliadin, and to adjust any excess of one or the other, 
whereby it is claimed that the gluten is increased to an equivalent of 20 
per cent. When flours are blended together the respective glutens also 
blend. It is this difference in the percentages of glutenin and gliadin 
that accounts for the differences between low grade, or bran flours, that 
often contain larger percentages of gluten than other flours of better 
bread-making quality, and between the highest-priced flour in the world, 
namely Hungarian Patent, which does not contain a large percentage of 
gluten, but what there is of it is good. 

Gluten, as seen by the differences above in wet and dry, is a large 
water absorber ; nevertheless, there are some flours with high percentage 
of gluten that are poor water absorbers ; and it is quite possible for 
a flour with 10 per cent, of dry gluten to produce a larger yield of 
bread, retaining more water, than one containing a higher percentage. 
Neither does excess of gluten increase the volume of the loaf in the 
same ratio, and when in excess, and not well matured, the loaf is frequently 
of bad shape, and also dry, but if there is too little the loaf will be small 
and flat. When the gluten is dried in the water-jacketted oven, as above 
described, it does not increase in size, but if heated at a high temperature, 
without being burned (it would often be in an ordinary baker's oven), when 
protected from too rash a heat, or, better still, when placed in a tube and boiled 
in oil, as is done in the aleurometer, it will then expand enormously to three or 
four times its original size. The relative expansions of the gluten under 
these conditions are carefully noted as a guide to its quality when tested in the 
laboratory. Although gluten is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, 
nitrogen, and sulphur, it has been found that, although there was no visible 
effect when exposing flour to the fumes of sulphur, that when attempting to 
wash out the gluten^ the latter was a slimy and sticky mass, and had none 
of its proper characteristics, washing away with the water without any 
cohesion. The dough, moreover, made from a flour thus treated, was very 
sticky and difficult to handle, even when containing only 9 gallons of water 
to the sack, which is just half the quantity that is used in some parts of 



GLUTEN 39 

Lancashire for tin bread. It is also practically impossible to wash out any 
gluten from a dough that has become ripe in the ordinary course of fer- 
mentation, although, up to a certain point, fermentation renders it more 
elastic and tenacious. 

Speaking of fermentation, one is reminded that when gluten is acted 
on by alcohol, the glutenin is thrown down as a grey precipitate, but 
can be dissolved by acetic, tartaric, and dilute hydrochloric acid. The 
commercial value of gluten in flour must depend on the relative supply 
and demand of strong flour in the market for bread-making purposes, and 
on the purpose for which the flour is required to be used. Although gluten 
is desirable for bread-making, it is, on the contrary, injurious to the proper 
manufacture of several kinds of biscuits, and, if present, is required to be 
reduced in its effect by extra sugar. At the present moment gluten is more 
than usually valuable, strong wheats and strong flours being relatively 
scarcer than softer varieties — sometimes the contrary is the case.^ 

In conclusion, it should be mentioned that gluten is much in demand in 
the case of persons suffering from diabetes, because not only does it supply 
the body with nutriment, like lean meat and casein of milk, but is also more 
nutritious than starch, and starch is prohibited to such patients because of 
its being changed into sugar in the digestive system the same as it is by 
fermentation. Gluten bread, which, however, should contain no starch 
whatever, is usually made from dry gluten that has been ground into powder, 
then worked up sometimes with bran, ground almonds, or other flavourings, 
together with eggs. Much of this powdered gluten comes from the starch 
factories on the continent, but much gluten bread has been made by extracting 
the gluten from a piece of unfermented dough (putting the residue of starch 
into one's other batch), whereupon the gluten, as in the tests above, would 
expand by its own action, which it would not do when once it had been dried. 
Some people seem to maintain that diabetic food should not be entirely free 
from starch, and some so-called gluten bread that the author has seen from 
America has contained a considerable proportion of starch, merely a portion 

1 It has become so since. 



40 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



of it being extracted by, apparently, punching the dough when under water. 
We append, however, an analysis of an excellent sample of gluten bread 
supplied by Messrs Bonthron & Co., of London, who are well-known 
specialists in this department. 





Gluten Bread. 




Moisture . 




20.51 


Flesh Formers 




75-76 


Fat 
Sugar 




3-73 
None 


Starch 




Trace only 



SALT 

npO the chemist many salts are known, a salt being merely a substance 
composed of an acid and a base. Generally speaking, however, one 
uses the word to mean sodium chloride, or common salt, which is composed 
of twenty-four parts of sodium and thirty-six of chlorine, with traces of calcium 
and other insoluble matters. 

Common salt is soluble in cold water, and not much more so in 
boiling water, but the boiling point is much higher in saturated solutions, 
being raised as much as 10 and 15 degs. It is insoluble in pure 
alcohol, and also an antidote to the latter. Bakers', or common, salt is 
produced largely in Cheshire, in Worcestershire, and in the United 
States, being obtained either from mines in the solid state or being 
evaporated from the water of brine springs. It will be remembered that 
not long ago considerable subsidence of foundations and also landslips 
occurred in Cheshire owing to the working of these mines. At one time 
also a considerable amount of salt was obtained by collecting salt from the 
sea ; and the author well remembers that one of the favourite walks of his 
schooldays was to some salterns, where the sea- water was let in at each tide 



SALT 41 

and evaporated, leaving the salt behind. Evaporation being an important part 
of the process, the price of salt not only depends on its supply and demand, 
but also greatly on the price of fuel and on the cost of the iron pans, which 
salt wears out very quickly. Fuel being more in demand, and brine con- 
taining much more salt than sea-water, the extraction from the latter has 
now been discontinued, at any rate at the favourite haunt above mentioned. 
Salt, as referred to in detail elsewhere, has a considerable effect on the 
flavour of bread, also on the speed of fermentation. At one time it used 
to be described as the bridle of the steed yeast. It checks fermentation in 
proportion to the quantity added, having a binding and preserving effect on 
the flour. We know of a bag of yeast that was accidentally placed upon a 
bar of salt for some hours, and the bread made from it was considerably 
below the usual. In warm weather, or when sponges are long, it is often 
advantageous to put about a third of the total salt in the sponge, the 
remainder in the dough. In the long process, of quarter, sponge, and 
dough, in Scotland it is customary to add the salt in the three stages. 

In England the almost universal amount is 3 lbs. to the sack 
{280 lbs.), which is normal in flavour; occasionally 2 J lbs. will be used, 
and if less, the bread will be insipid. With new or soft flour 3^ and 
often 4 lbs. is advisable, and this is the maximum usually ever heard of, 
but in Scotland a most usual amount is 6 lbs. Some in Scotland 
use as low as 4I lbs. when using half sponge and distillers' yeast, and, 
exceptionally, we know of 9 lbs. to the sack, which is very excessive. Even 
4I lbs. can, according to other conditions, be usually distinctly tasted. In 
small bread a normal amount in England is J oz. to the quart (2^ lbs.) 
of liquor, but in Scotland the general amount is i oz. to the pound of 
liquor, which is 5 ozs. to the gallon, or 5 lbs. to the sack. See also the 
tabulated methods at end of book. 



42 THE BOOK OF BREAD 



YEAST 

AT'EAST, although sold and used in other forms, is to the twentieth- 
century baker most familiar when in a compressed pasty mass. 
This pasty mass is more wonderful than many understand, and is composed 
of a conglomeration of countless and practically identical, yet for the most 
part wholly botanically disconnected, globular discs, usually known as yeast 
cells. Each of these myriads of cells is an independent plant, the smallest 
in the world known to the botanist, about 4000 of them placed end on end 
being necessary to measure i inch. When separated from the others, each 
cell can grow, under normal conditions of proper food and temperature, 
rapidly in a characteristic manner and multiply itself extensively. Yeast 
propagates its species usually by budding, but also in exceptional cases, 
such as practically never occur during bread-making, by producing spores 
within itself, known technically as the process of endogenous division. The 
sugar cane is a good instance of a plant belonging to the endogenous division 
which grows within or increases by internal layers. Even at the comparatively 
high temperatures now adopted during bread-making the formation of spores 
would take more than a day, and the starvation of the cells would have to 
be excessive, therefore this method of growth, although interesting from many 
standpoints, can be dismissed from serious consideration as far as the baker 
is concerned. 

In reference to budding, it will be noticed that if yeast cells, either 
singly, or in the mass as usual, be placed or sown in a suitable medium as, for 
instance, a little sugar and flour, and examined under a powerful micro- 
scope, on one or more sides a swelling will soon appear. Tl;iis becoming 
larger, the cell breaks, and the new cell, or bud, for some time remains 
attached to the old cell before separating itself and growing independently. 
A commercial yeast that can be guaranteed as a pure species must thus be 
produced from a single or isolated cell, and according to a calculation by 
Pasteur, ^who watched two cells grow into eight in two hours, no less than 



YEAST 43 

16,000,000 can be produced in a day. The medium, or liquor, in which 
the yeast thus grows will be found to have lost in weight, and to a larger 
extent than the increase in the weight of the yeast, showing that the yeast 
(all the fungi to which class yeast belongs do likewise, but to a less extent) 
decomposes or destroys more food than it requires for its sustenance. The 
solution, or wort, gets thinner, or attenuated, losing sweetness. In addition 
to loss in weight, heat, the monitor of all chemical changes, is produced, 
gases are evolved, many of the constituents are broken up into their 
respective elements, and the complex bodies are resolved into those of a 
more simple character. Without heat and suitable food these phenomena 
could not healthily occur, but the yeast would shrivel and finally die. Its 
vitality lasts for a long while, and, until actually starved, the yeast on 
being mixed with a warm sugar solution, or a malt wort, together with a 
little flour, and gently stirred occasionally, would be considerably revived 
into a normal and healthy condition. 

Yeast, although possessing some of the characteristics of the animal 
kingdom, is now recognised universally as a plant. The globular cells 
consist mainly of an outer coat or envelope of cellulose, and an inner slimy 
liquid of protoplasm. The cellulose sac, although varying in thickness, 
according to the age of the yeast, is continuous. Having, therefore, no 
inlet or outlet, the yeast's food must be drawn through the interstices of the 
cellulose, and thereby be in a dissolved condition. It is hard, according to 
the popular idea of a plant, to realise that a piece of compressed yeast no 
larger than one's thumb nail should, by being composed of these countless 
cells, contain hundreds of perfect plants, all independent of one another. 
The cells of which the ordinary foliage plant is composed are, unlike yeast, 
merely inter-dependent, that is, when separated they are unable to live. 
They, however, are so related to one another as to secrete an important 
substance known as chlorophyll, the green colouring matter of plants. This 
substance under the influence of light and heat breaks down the carbonic 
acid gas contained in the air, and thereby obtains the carbon necessary for 
the plant's structure. 



44 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

If a plant secretes no chlorophyll, it has no foliage, the foliage 
alone ever containing chlorophyll, thereby the plant would be of very 
simple construction. Thus we find yeast, although a plant, has no dis- 
tinct root or shoot, the two being merged in one ; neither does it, like 
the orchids that were recently kept healthy while on passage from abroad 
by being supplied with light from electric accumulators packed with 
them, require light for its nutrition. Yeast, therefore, having no de- 
velopment of root or of shoot, the root not being required by reason 
of there being no shoot to sustain, lives on organic substances such 
as sugars, starches, etc., actually in the process of decomposition, and 
absorbs their organic constituents before the latter are completely 
decomposed. It cannot feed directly on stable or cane sugar, or on 
sound starch, these substances having first to be inverted to glucose or 
grape sugar. 

Of the two great classes of plants yeast belongs to the cryptogamia, 
which are flowerless, and do not possess the sexual organs known as anthers 
and ovules. This class has four subdivisions ; the first, which is as far as 
we shall go, consists of thallophytes, which contain no leaves, having root 
and shoot merged, no vascular tissue, that is, pertaining to circulatory vessels, 
but only cells. These thallophytes, or simple plants, consist of (a) algse or 
seaweeds, which contain that important substance chlorophyll ; (d) lichens, 
which are formed by fungi weaving round seaweed ; and (c) fungi, which 
contain no chlorophyll, and to which section our commercial yeast belongs. 
Fungi are divided, moreover, into five main groups ; yeast, or saccharomyces, 
belongs to the ninth section of the ascomycetes group. Of saccharomyces 
there are only three really true species (i) cerevisiae, consisting of two 
varieties, according to Hansen ; (2) pastorianus, consisting of three varieties ; 
and (3) ellipsoideus, consisting of two varieties. Other so-called sac- 
charomyces, such as conglomeratus, glutinis, exiguus, mycoderma, albicans, 
etc., for reasons which we shall presently understand, are shown by Hansen 
to be misnamed. Under certain conditions of growth and temperature these 
species, in like manner as the top and bottom ferment varieties, can be made 



YEAST 45 

to resemble one another, but when again placed under the original conditions 
will revert to their original character. 

A perfect yeast food should essentially contain a correct proportion of 
carbohydrate, preferably glucose (CgHiaOg) (prepared sugar) and maltose 
(CiaHjaOn), also proteids (containing nitrogen), which, before they can 
nourish the yeast by percolating its cellulose, must be converted into a 
sub-group known as peptones ; also should contain phosphorus (P), 
potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and sulphur (S), which 
all more or less can subsequently be extracted from the yeast ash. These 
constituents of food make up the chemical composition of the yeast in the 
approximate proportions of 47 per cent, carbon (C), ^t, per cent, oxygen 
(O), 10 per cent, nitrogen (N), 6 per cent, hydrogen (H), and 3 per cent, 
ash. This ash, though small, by reason of containing many of the above- 
mentioned mineral substances, is very important. Phosphorus, potassium, 
and magnesium are herein combined with oxygen yielding fully 90 per cent, 
phosphoric acid (P2O5) and potash (KgO), with about 6 per cent, magnesia 
(MgO) and about i or 2 per cent, lime (CaO). Yeast cannot assimilate 
free nitrogen or free carbon, but only when they are presented to it 
suitably combined with oxygen, whereupon they are decomposed or split 
up ; neither can it, as in the case of the chlorophyll-containing plants, 
obtain its carbon from the CO2 of the air. To the same extent that its 
carbon for building up its structure is best derived from the sugars, so 
is its nitrogen, or stamina, best derived from peptones, it being unable to 
assimilate nitrogen in the form of nitrates. The peptones are the only 
class among proteids that are diffusible through the cellulose, and therefore 
available for the yeast's nutrition. Iron is not required for yeast growth ; 
moreover, the influence it has upon beer wort and boiling hops is not only 
superfluous but injurious. Some chemists say that beyond a trace [it exists 
in traces in some yeasts in the form of iron oxide (FcjOg)] it is even poisonous. 
Thus for brewing operations and other long processes of fermentation 
scientists reject any water supply containing iron. As regards phosphates 
(yeast contains three or four times more of the potassium than of the 



46 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

magnesium phosphates), Salamon says a certain quantity of them is neces- 
sary for healthy yeast growth, but that an excess strongly retards fermentation, 
injures the yeast's vitality, and in every way does more harm than good. 

Yeast cells, in addition to storing a certain amount of food in case of 
need, also secrete soluble ferments known as invertin and zymase, which, 
like the better known diastase, convert, when aided, starch into maltose and 
dextrine, and sugar into glucose, laevulose, and dextrose. The amount of 
zymase contained in yeast is very small, but sufficient for each cell if 
necessary to convert more sugar than required, thereby always assuring its 
sustenance as long as any carbohydrate remains. Besides producing 
maltose (sugar) and dextrine (gum) these soluble ferments, zymase and 
diastase, also convert the proteids into the necessary diffusible peptones ; 
the dextrine is not directly assimilable, but is gradually converted or hydro- 
lysed into maltose, thus providing of the latter in long fermentations a 
continuous supply. Below the temperature of 140 degs. F. the respective 
amounts of maltose and dextrine formed by inversion or hydrolysis remain 
constant, the amount of maltose being 81 per cent., and of dextrine, therefore, 
19 per cent; above this temperature, until 180 degs. F., when hydrolysis 
ceases, dextrine increases its ratio, and affects the flavour accordingly. 

In describing the various so-called varieties of yeast, it will be best to 
commence with the compressed. All bakers' yeast belong to the same 
family, as seen above, and differ from one another only in the same way as 
human beings, namely, according to their training and environment. 

The compressed yeasts of commerce, unless specified to the contrary, 
are the products of distilleries. Some brewers compress their yeasts in 
the same manner, but these varieties are always known as "brewers' com- 
pressed." Although we have distilleries in our own country, there being 
126 in Scotland alone, many of the popular brands of distillers' yeast reach 
us from France, Germany, and Holland. The yeast in question is, during 
the manufacture of spirits, produced from malt and raw grain. The raw 
grain, with due regard to variation in value, consists of barley, maize, rice, 
and rye. The latter cereal enters largely into the composition of the best 



YEAST 47 

varieties, and thus it was, owing to a European shortage of 28,000,000 
of quarters of rye alone — more than three times the whole of the 
United Kingdom wheat crop — that these yeasts some little time ago 
advanced in price. This mixture of raw grain is mashed for about three 
hours, commencing at a temperature of about 130 degs. F., and gradually 
increasing to about 20 degs. hotter. At the end of this period the total 
amount of grain is increased by an addition of about 20 per cent, of malt. 
The mashing is continued until all the starch (CgHioOs) contained in the 
grain is converted into maltose (C12H22O11) or sugar. The progress of the 
change is ascertained by the adding of iodine, which stains starch blue and 
yeast light brown. As soon as the starch conversion is complete, the mash 
is cooled by means of refrigerators, and fermented by the addition of 
previously made yeast. The object of the fermentation now set up is, in 
the case of those factories that cater for bakers, to produce a healthy 
and strong yeast as much as alcohol. For this purpose the wort must be 
well and frequently aerated, since air, or rather its constituent oxygen, is 
most essential to vigorous yeast growth. When the fermentation is most 
active, the yeast is skimmed off the surface, conducted to sieves for the 
removal of the husks, and to drain therefrom into cisterns to settle. When 
settled, the surface liquid is drawn off, and the remaining yeast sediment is 
(occasionally mixed with starch), squeezed, drained, and pressed, and then 
put into the bags ready for delivery, such as we receive it. 

There are, of course, variations in different distilleries in the same way 
as there are variations in bread-making in different bakeries. In some 
distilleries the preliminary stage known as the bub, corresponding, say, to 
a baker's ferment, is dispensed with, and the yeast grown' like an offhand 
dough in one stage, it being in these cases contended that the yeast is 
thereby improved, particularly in keeping qualities. In this preliminary 
stage lactic acid is frequently placed and developed, so that an excess of it 
should check the growth of this souring ferment afterwards, it being well 
known that these foreign ferments cannot develop when surrounded by 
their own products, in the same way that yeast cannot ferment healthily 



48 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

when surrounded by an excess of alcohol. Other dilute acids, such as 
sulphuric, have similar effect. The presence of oxygen or air is of the 
greatest importance, and thus in many distilleries this is pumped in at the 
bottom of the vat. Concerning this point, Pasteur says : — " To multiply in a 
fermentable medium, quite out of contact with oxygen, the cells of yeasts 
must be extremely young, full of life and health, and still under the influence 
of the vital activity which they owe to the free oxygen which has served to 
form them, and which they have perhaps stored up for a time. When older, 
they reproduce themselves with much difficulty when deprived of air, and 
gradually become more languid ; and if they do multiply, it is in strange 
and monstrous forms." Although aeration by pouring from tub to tub, and 
also by fermenting in shallow vessels, has always been recognised in this 
respect, the pumping in of air was not so essential when the alcohol or spirit 
was of more importance than the yeast. 

Yeast was at one time considered only as a bye-product, and not 
turned to the same commercial account as now to replace the home- 
made yeasts of bakers ; but now there is an enormous accumulation 
of spirit in bond, and the distilleries seem to keep working to get 
the yeast as much as anything, making it now almost a primary 
product. The injection of this oxygen into the vat, which gives the 
appearance of boiling, with practically nothing else but a little extra 
nitrogenous matter, has enormously increased the production of yeast, and 
the same can be done on a smaller scale with air in home yeast-brewing. 
Whereas in the ordinary way every pound of yeast sown would increase 
itself commercially to about five times, it is now found to increase to fully 
twenty times. In the same way special varieties of yeasts for bakers' use 
will probably be in the near future receiving more prominence, with special 
reference to their products and action. Low yeast is slower in its action 
than high yeast, and not so suitable for bakers. The great advantage of 
distillery yeast as sent to market is its accurate and scientific preparation, 
giving, in a concentrated form, a great amount of actual yeast in a healthy 
and matured condition, whereby it will work very quic)cly, and turn out 






<Wi 






?»",\ V 



*,t?.?. 



^-> 



■>!vi.?i 






't-> •* 



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■ V V, 






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'}%4^^- 






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"^ \ 



'■' % i- 



'irt-.K 



■(■;, <^l^'», '*,;■'' 



:ir/. 



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Section of Square (or Sandwich) Tin Loa£ 



ACTUAL SIZE. 



YEAST • 49 

bread in the shortest possible time. Not only will it enable this speed to 
be attained, such as cannot be so well provided by other commercial yeasts, 
but also it will generally produce better results if this quick-working tendency 
be encouraged. That is, although it will make good bread in small quantities 
over a long period like other yeasts, it will make better, especially as re- 
quired for the English trade, in larger quantities worked warmer over a 
short period. 

The vigour of yeast per pound not only depends on its origin and 
condition, but also on whether or not it contains such added matters 
as starch. It has been contended that quantities of starch, say up to 
ten per cent., are not a fraudulent adulteration, that they are added for the 
purpose of making the yeast keep better, that they do not interfere with the 
amount of yeast cells or power in a given pound, because they merely take 
the place of water. This is ingenious, and it may be said that even water 
in a glass is to some extent like a pile of marbles, that is with vacant 
spaces between its molecules, but there are compressed yeasts that are 
starch free, and can be easily discovered by testing, and these are those 
which should be purchased. If the yeast is dry and in good condition, as 
some are without starch, it is in itself evidence of careful manufacture and 
delivery. If it is admitted to contain a little starch, the little has a knack of 
getting large occasionally, and being not only dear at even sixpence per 
pound, but also dangerous to stock, because -an ounce sold over the counter 
renders the seller, although he sells it as received, liable to prosecution and 
costs. It is strange how so many people, when purchasing compressed 
yeast, always ask for German, whereas the best-known brands are mostly 
Dutch, French and Scotch, and it would be as well to remember that a 
highly respectable firm was recently prosecuted and fined for selling, in 
good faith, a class of china, known in the trade as Dresden, taking its name 
in the same way according to the place in which it was originally made, but 
which in this case had not come from that place. The law, as Bumble said, 
may be " a hass," but it is likewise very stubborn. The yeasts that origi- 
nally came from Germany were not so well grown for the baker's purpose, 



50 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

or so well washed, and were altogether less vigorous than those of 
to-day. 

Brewers' yeast, although occasionally receiving extra- attention and 
being sold occasionally in a compressed state, is as a rule, when sold in the 
liquid state or as " thick," unworthy of reliance for modern bread-making as 
compared with its modern rivals. One unsatisfactory circumstance is that 
in all liquid yeast one cannot so easily gauge how much actual yeast the liquid 
contains, or its state of health and maturity. Some people attempt to get 
over this by using even the liquid by the pound rather than by the measure, 
because froth is sometimes awkward to gauge. The real reason for 
brewers' yeast, although once so largely used, having deteriorated, is the 
comparatively little attention or consideration given to it, the chief object of 
the brewer being to produce beer, which he does by using less malt and 
more substitutes than formerly, and yeast, to be strong, can have nothing 
better than malt. Where yeast from the brewery is urgently needed, the 
brewer can give better quality than much of what he would consider was 
all he cared to sell in the ordinary way, namely, he could give some of 
that which he uses to start his own fermentations, or also some of that 
which oozes out of the bung-holes of the barrels when fermentation is being 
allowed to complete before finally corking. One rather curious feature 
about English brewers' yeast is, that before the laws were quite recently 
altered in Belgium, a large quantity was exported there as being the best 
obtainable. Ale yeast is better than stout in vigour and colour, and the 
darkness of brewery yeast is due to impurities and other matters sold with it. 

The bitterness caused by the hops can be minimised by the baker, 
by adding bran, well stirring with extra water, allowing yeast to settle and 
pouring away the top liquor. The yeast can also be treated with borax or 
other alkaline substances for the same purpose. The borax, although 
having considerable effect on soluble ferments, has very little on yeast. 
The bitterness would not, of course, be so much noticed in longer pro- 
cesses with smaller quantities of yeast as in short. Brewers' yeast, 
although occasionally, when compressed, possible in offhand doughs, 



YEAST 51 

should, as a rule, at least have a ferment, and also often a sponge as well as 
a dough. It wants much more nursing than distillers' yeast, and is not 
nearly so safe in warm weather although slower working, and even when 
made with plenty of malt is not worth the trouble and risk in spite of 
alleged flavour, when the distillery brands can be obtained, which, however, 
is not possible with some of our correspondents. 

There are many ways of making patent yeasts, which term should include 
all variations of flour-barm processes and home-made malt and hop yeasts, 
and has quite lost, like so-called patent or best flour, any connection with the 
Patent Office. The one thing, in addition to the trouble, appliances and ex- 
perience required for these yeasts, that made them unpopular and rendered 
them less and less employed was their irregularity and weakness, and this was 
due to the insufficient use of malt. This ingredient is, of course, somewhat 
expensive when good, but to stint it, as was often done, is very false 
economy. Too little malt and too much water was what crippled these 
yeasts, in the same way as substitutes for malt in beer-brewing spoilt brewers' 
yeast for bread-making purposes. Now that distillers' yeast, owing to the 
large accumulations of whisky, is becoming scarcer, and therefore dearer, 
there is, in remote parts, some inquiry for home-made yeast, and the growing 
of distillers' yeast in the bakehouse by means of malt, and this has par- 
ticularly been the case from several correspondents in Africa, Australia and 
elsewhere. The following process has been given to private correspondents, 
and has received their expressed approval : Take ^ lb. of best hops, boil in 
copper vessel or stew-pan (avoid any rust on iron pot) for ten minutes (not 
simmer for a long time, as sometimes done). When thus boiled, empty 
hops, with their boiling water, into a tub, making liquor up to 9 gallons at 150 
degs. F. When at this heat stir in 8 J lbs. to 9 lbs. crushed malt. Malt must 
not be boiled with the hops, as is sometimes done. Instead of getting 
extra strength out of it by this means, the malt is weakened and some of its 
effect destroyed, as its albuminoids are coagulated like the white of an egg, 
which is the same substance, when at 180 degs. F. Having added malt, let 
whole stand covered up for one and a half to two hours. Then strain into 



S2 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

shallow tub, well squeeze malt grains that remain in strainer, and well wash 
and rinse them with another gallon of water, making whole wort up to 
lo gallons. 

If regularity is desired, the density of this wort must be tested, and 
should always be the same ; but if by variation in the malt, or in the com- 
pleteness of its mashing, it should be weaker or stronger, that is, of lower 
or greater density (as shown by the hydrometer, which can be bought at 
most instrument makers, or at some chemists and opticians), then the 
quantity that is to be used subsequently must be varied. The best density 
is 30 higher than water, and, as water on most instruments is put at 1000, 
the density of the wort should be 1030, or about the same as good, pure 
milk, which varies between 1027 and 1032. One secret of good, reliable 
patent yeast is just there, and sufficient malt must be added to get it. 
There is more substance in some malt, weight for weight, than in others, 
and all operators do not get the same out of it ; therefore the result should 
be judged by density, all other points, of course, being equal. When all 
strained and in shallow tub, allow to cool to 75 degs. F. or 80 degs. F. It is 
essential that this cooling should be done rapidly, and refrigerators are 
therefore used in big bakeries. Add i lb. of salt and 1 quart of yeast from 
previous brewing. Stand this in a room from 65 degs. F. to 70 degs. F. 
Stir occasionally, or, better still, pour from one tub into another, so as to 
get air into it for reasons as explained above, and it will be ready for 
commencing bread-making stages in twenty-four to thirty hours. 

Purity and strength of the quart of yeast added and the purity of sur- 
rounding air and the tubs are, of course, important circumstances, but plenty 
of malt, plenty of pure air, and a steady and cool temperature have great 
effect. Take 5 pints, or 6 pints, of this yeast to each sack (280 lbs.) of flour 
for the ordinary bread-making process, which, of course, with this yeast, is 
longer than with distillers' yeast, owing to the latter being used in larger 
quantities. Brew at least twice a week. In hot countries the following 
guiding lines must have more emphasis : Malt strengthens, hops are antiseptic 
and check disease ferments, salt preserves, and coolness of the setting tempera- 



YEAST 5s 

ture keeps well in hand. Brew as frequently as possible, and do not use it 
beyond the fourth or fifth day after brewing in any case. One pound of malt 
to the gallon is all the better, although unusual, and even i^ lbs. is not 
wasted or really extravagant as some would seem to think. It must not, 
however, be thought that malt is anything but a food, and the presence of 
food does no good unless properly used, and does not, as some seem to 
think, take the place of any of the yeast, unless more reproduction be 
allowed. Another good antiseptic is hydrofluoric acid, which checks 
undesirable ferments or organisms but only very slightly affects yeast. 

Respecting the quality of yeast the safest test for the baker is to 
dissolve one's yeast, in the case of the compressed sorts, in exactly the 
same accurate way each day, whereby almost unconsciously a reliable test 
is afforded by which anything wrong can at once be detected. If one does 
not wish to trouble to make a separate ferment by way of a test, there is 
almost always a small batch of some fancy-bread or buns to be made. 
The ferment for that should always be made with the same quality and 
quantity of flour, the same amount and heat of water, the same amount of 
sugar, etc., and put in the same bowl and position, etc., or a part of it dipped 
out and put in a graduated jar. By this means the height to which it rose, 
the rapidity of the rise and fall, could and should be carefully noted, together 
with the result in batches in the bakery register that ought to be regularly 
kept. This is most simple and the trouble not noticeable when once well 
established. In laboratories, the power of the yeast is usually calculated 
by the amount of the gas evolved. A small quantity of yeast, such as I 
oz., is set away in a bottle with sugar or other special yeast food, kept at 
a regular temperature by special means, and then the gas collected in 
specially arranged jars, and the whole more accurately done than the baker, 
especially during a night's heavy order, could or would do. There are 
several details, and in all these small tests of any sort, the author has 
experienced that it is no good to write down or even explain methods 
without standing over the learner and seeing him do the work, when 
absolutely reliable results are desired. 



54 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

The author has kept one of these I ozs. of yeast going for three 
weeks entirely on sugar, adding more sugar and shaking up as soon 
as the gas diminished, whereupon activity was at once renewed, but 
the time came when the yeast would no longer convert the sugar 
into gas until the water was changed. Many such experiments afford 
much information and practice with the microscope, with which in- 
teresting differences in the yeast in various conditions and stages can be 
noted. But here, again, a little knowledge is most dangerous concerning 
commercial value of yeast, and the author well remembers that just about 
twenty years ago he was doing a good deal of this microscopical work, and 
thought he knew nearly all about it, but has been learning ever since. It 
is customary to refer to distillers' yeast as being composed of oval cells and 
brewers' of round, but it is impossible to tell the variety of yeast entirely by 
shape as some kinds vary according to age and amount of fermentation, 
and many samples have different characteristics under similar treatment. 
Before testing in a ferment as described above, or by i oz. yeast to half its 
weight of sugar, and four times its weight of flour in forty times its weight 
of water, much information can be obtained, in the case of compressed yeast 
as most often used, by examining in the dry state. 

When opening bag, the yeast must not be warm or sticky, should not smell 
like cheese but have a pleasant, fruity or apple smell, and leave no acid twang 
when tasting ; should break in the fingers with a clean fracture and with 
a kind of click, not being on the one hand soft or clammy, and on the other 
too dry or crumbly. The colour, in the case of distillers', should be creamy 
white, and in brewers' is darker. It should be kept in a cool, dry place, and 
in warm weather it would be as well to tear off the bags on arrival and 
press yeast tightly into a stone jar, where it should keep well for a week. 
We are frequently asked if it could be exported to such places as Tasmania 
where the journey is six weeks, but although cases of exporting to Madeira 
have come under the writer's notice as successful, it has been only at ex- 
pensive rates in quick liners, and used principally in the expensive hotels ; 
and although cases of keeping a month on the liners are not uncommon, 



YEAST 



55 



such distant places as Australia can better make their own yeast. The 
same may be said of Africa, where transport and distribution are yet 
excessively expensive. 

The desiccated or specially dried yeast, or yeast mixed with starch 
into yeast cakes as sold comparatively largely in America, is, in the writer's 
experience, very feeble : it takes a lot of growing before getting much 
activity for commercial batches. Desiccated yeast extract shows practically 
no falling off of fermentative activity after being kept for twelve months in 
a stoppered bottle. The addition of i per cent, of sodium chloride (common 
salt) or ammonium chloride to yeast extract only slightly diminishes its 
activity, but with 2 per cent, the effect is considerable ; i per cent, of 
sodium, ammonium, or magnesium sulphate or i per cent, of sodium nitrate 
produces the same effect as 2 per cent, of sodium or magnesium chloride. 
The presence of 2 per cent, of calcium chloride totally prevents fermentation, 
although the same amount of barium chloride is almost without influence. 
Borax has a slightly less effect than common salt. The largest and most 
active portion of the yeast-extract is separated at a low pressure and is 
opalescent ; further pressure separates a more transparent and less active 
liquid. The extract contains appreciable quantities of silicic acid, has no 
marked rotatory power, and can be filtered through a sandstone filter 
without losing its power of fermenting sugar. The filtrate from a ferment- 
ing sugar solution was found to contain no zymase, but a small quantity of 
invertin, showing that the former acts only within the yeast cell, but the 
latter partly outside it. The hydrolysis of sugar by invertin is a reversible 
change, and the enzyme has a slight synthetical action on invert-sugar. 

When compressed yeast is kept in a warm and moist place, or when 
it gets bruised or damaged, it is apt to start fermenting of its own accord, 
without being dissolved in the ordinary way in warm water and added 
food. This action is usually known as softening or autofermentation and 
liquefaction, and, as one of the terms implies, is a feeding on itself. In 
the same way as wheat when sprouting or feeding on itself, by exposure 
to too much warm moisture in the fields after cutting, affects the quality 



56 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

of the flour, so does the softening of yeast affect its strength and sometimes 
produce a bitterness. Unless, however, a bad odour is emitted, slight damage 
can often be compensated by increased quantity. The time required for the 
liquefaction of pressed yeast is greatly diminished by rise of temperature, 
whilst the rate of evolution of carbon dioxide is greatly increased. The 
evolution of gas ceases as soon as the yeast becomes liquid and hence is 
small at 50 degs. (122 degs. F.), owing to the rapid liquefaction of the 
mass (one to one and a half hours), whilst the total volumes evolved at 
39 degs. (102 degs. F.) and 26 degs. (79 degs. F.) do not differ greatly, 
although the times required for liquefaction are, according to some ex- 
periments by Messrs Harden and Rowland, five and fifty-three hours 
respectively. At 14 degs. (57 degs. F.) the time required is sixteen days, 
the rate of evolution being extremely slow, and the total volume evolved 
about 75 per cent, of that produced at 26 degs. Alcohol is produced 
simultaneously, the process being apparently a true alcoholic fermentation 
of the glycogen of the cell. Microscopic examination shows that as the 
evolution of gas proceeds the glycogen disappears and the vacuole of the 
cell increases in size. Finally, the vacuolar contents are discharged and 
the cell appears shrunken and irregular in outline, whilst the protoplasmic 
contents are highly granular. In the presence of oxygen, a process of 
oxidation accompanies the evolution of carbon dioxide, a considerable rise 
of temperature being produced and the total volume of carbon dioxide 
increased. When exposed to a continuous current of oxygen, a sample 
of yeast was found to lose 26 per cent, of its carbon. 

When yeast is dissolved and used in the ordinary way in commercial 
bread-making, the best range of temperature is from 75 to 95 degs. F., 
and could be preferably put into a smaller compass by saying 80 to 85 degs. 
The range of life could be put from 50 to 140 degs., but during bread- 
making there would be practically no action at 10 degs. higher than the 
minimum, and 10 degs. lower than the maximum would be as bad or 
worse. The effect of the temperature depends on the duration of exposure 
to it. Such extremes of cold and heat on the one hand paralyze, and on 



YEAST 57 

the other hand kill. It is, however, possible to revive yeast by gradual 
warming and coaxing after it has touched freezing-point for a short time, 
and cases have been known of gradual and dry heating up to 200 degs. for 
short time with subsequent action. Yeast will not stand being completely 
frozen for purposes of transit like frozen meat, and when using extra hot 
liquor for dough-making it is best to reduce the heat by first adding some 
flour before the yeast. 

The quantity of yeast to be used per sack of 280 lbs. flour must depend 
on the time and heat to be allowed for the bakehouse operations, and the 
strength, character and condition of the yeast as above indicated. This will 
also apply to the quantities of one class of yeast that should be substituted 
for another, but it can often be taken that i lb. of distillers' compressed will 
equal 3 or 4 pints of liquid brewers' and 1 2 pints of patent or home-made. 
Inasmuch as a really pure and distinct culture can only be guaranteed if 
produced from a single cell, and a pound of yeast is only a reproduction of 
that single cell by a matter of time, in the same way that the present 
millions of people in the world have sprung from Adam and Eve, a sack of 
flour can therefore be aerated by any quantity. In fact it can be aerated 
by yeast without adding any in the ordinary way, because there is always 
some falling from the air, as is well known in certain so-called spontaneous 
processes of bread-making as will presently be considered under the heading 
of barm, and also amongst the colonial methods, as tabulated in Section VII. 
In actual practice we have found good loaves produced by adding from 
4 ozs. up to 5 lbs. per sack, and as dealt with under flavour they will no 
more taste of yeast in the latter than the former. Whatever may be said 
about yeast not being able to reproduce itself in a stiff sponge or dough, it 
is a practical fact that the less added the longer must be the time allowed 
for maturity. We once summed up the position by saying 1 2 ozs. of distillers' 
yeast to the sack would make a good loaf, half the amount could, but double 
was better for daily work and treble for exhibition or small batches. 

In batches of much less size, it will usually be found that the proportion 
per sack must be nearly doubled, because there is less comfort as regards heat 



58 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

retaining and • also usually more surface, in proportion, for allowing gas to 
escape. Although we have always found the above relative proportions safe, 
which however must as explained vary according to conditions, we have just 
thought of consulting the opinions of others, and see Gribbin says the usual 
quantity per sack is a quart of liquid brewers' with ferment, sponge and dough, 
and also possible with sponge and dough, and that this would equal i lb. of 
distillers', also that i lb. of compressed brewers' per sack would be about right. 
Kirkland says 6 ozs. distillers' will equal 8 ozs. brewers' compressed, de- 
pending on when added, and that the flavour can be obtained by adding the 
malt without the hops. Vine says i pint of patent to the bushelin a potato 
terment. The whole question, however, must be settled according to 
individual circumstances and requirements. If it were otherwise the 
writer would not have, with traders throughout the empire, such an 
enormous and increasing correspondence, which, even with most complete 
and systematic classification and with increasing amount of assistance, is at 
times very exacting, every reply being of the fullest and most exhaustive 
character. 

Virgin barm and Parisian barm, of all the popular Scotch ones, 
are the two leading types. The only difference between these two is that 
Virgin barm is set without yeast or barm (this is the typical and old 
custom, but now very often it is stored with old barm), therefore is allowed 
to start fermenting entirely of its own accord, whereas Parisian is stored or 
started with barm left over from a previous brewing. 

For the former take lo lbs. malt, mash it ninety minutes in 3 gallons 
(30 lbs.) water at 160 degs. F. ; infuse 3 ozs. hops for a little time with 
I gallon boiling water, then strain both these infusions. Wash the draining 
malt grains with another gallon water just under boiling. Mix in 40 lbs. 
flour ; scald this mixture with 7 gallons boiling water, adding it in instal- 
ments of two, three, and two, and stirring sharply between each. Leave 
this tub of barm uncovered for twenty hours, then well aerate by turning 
it out into another tub, when at an average temperature for the year of 
about 80 degs. F. add 3 ozs. salt, 10 ozs. sugar, and little flour; stir 



YEAST 59 

occasionally. It is best used on fourth or fifth day after brewing, and 
should be stirred every twelve or twenty-four hours while thus slowly 
fermenting. For Parisian, instead of adding the above salt and sugar, 
add I to li gallons, according to time of year, of old barm about two 
days after brewing, and when the temperature of the barm is 80 degs. as 
above. Active fermentation will be over in rather less than a day ; tub 
should then be moved to a cooler place and not used until after barm 
has dropped some time. The "spontaneous" Virgin barm, owing to 
the surrounding conditions considerably affecting the time at which the 
process would start and the rate at which it would ferment when started, 
has lost favour. The Virgin barm is now either stored with old barm 
instead of being allowed to wait until starting spontaneously, and thus 
may be said to resemble Parisian barm, or else the Parisian as described 
by us above is employed. Some bakers have discarded malt and hops 
in their barms, and use flour and sugar solely ; about two-thirds of the 
flour would be scalded and the other third raw. 

Many other details, which will be found in the list of Scotch methods 
of bread-making given near the end of this book, have been furnished 
in various letters from our Scotch correspondents in the ordinary course 
of consultation. In his early days the author confined himself to a personal 
acquaintance with merely the English methods, and when first proceeding to 
closely study the highly interesting and instructive Scotch methods, he was 
much indebted to conversation and correspondence with Mr W. A. Thoms, 
of Alyth, who at that time was able' to take an active interest in such 
matters. The Edinburgh lectures of some ten years ago, and those of 
Mr A. Kirkland, of Irvine, have also been a valuable contribution to this 
branch of the subject, which, although chiefly of local importance con- 
cerning details, is also, as referred to in the chapter on methods of 
fermentation, of considerably wider importance with respect to the under- 
lying principles involved. Mr John Kirkland, who hails from Scotland, 
but is now a very near residential neighbour and acquaintance of the 
writer's, does Scotland an honour by the way in which he discharges 



6o THE BOOK OF BREAD 

his duties as head teacher at the National School of Bakery, and in re- 
ferring to the subject of Parisian barm, says : The essential thing about 
it is, that it consists of scalded flour, mixed with a strong decoction of 
malt. It is not usual to use any hops. For a small quantity 2 lbs. of 
malt may be mashed with 2 quarts of water at 165-170 degs. F., and this 
allowed to stand for about three hours. The liquor is then thoroughly 
squeezed from the grains into a small tub, and about 8 lbs. comparatively 
soft flour made into a thick, tough batter with this liqtior. The water 
for scalding (about 2 gallons) is then kept boiling, and is poured on to 
this batter, 2 quarts at a time, a man standing by with a long pole and 
vigorously stirring all the time the water is being poured on. This liquor 
is then kept in an open tub till the following day, when it will have 
thinned very much, owing to the diastasic action of the malt on the burst 
starch of the flour. When the liquor is cooled down to about 80 degs., 
it is stored or stocked with about a quart of barm from a previous day's 
making. In about twenty hours from time of storing this barm will be 
ready for use. It is generally used for making half or quarter sponges, 
but it will serve equally well to make straight dough. About i a gallon 
of this barm may be used to make a quarter or half sponge to stand twelve 
or thirteen hours. If a quarter sponge, then it has to be made into a batter 
sponge in the morning with all the remainder of the water required to make 
dough, except about a gallon required to rinse out the tub. This batter 
sponge will stand from one to one and a half hours, until it is just about 
to turn, when it is tipped into the trough or machine, and made into dough. 
If a half sponge had been made, this batter sponge stage would be left out. 
Those two methods of making and using Parisian barm are the common 
methods followed in Scotland. "Parisian" barm is not now much used 
anywhere else. 

If the so-called compound barm is desired, one should boil 10 pints 
(Scotch) of water and add 2 ozs. of hops ; cover up and allow the liquor 
to cool down to 170 degs. Now throw in from 12 ozs., for summer, to 
I lb. for winter, of malt to each pint of water. Stir all round thoroughly, 



SELF-RAISING FLOUR 6i 

and cover up once more for four to six hours, so that it may mash. Now 
pass the whole over the strainer, so as to take out the mah, and let it 
cool down to storing heat, namely, 86 degs. in winter, or about 80 degs. 
in summer. Put in -h ,a pint of old barm and 4 ozs. salt, mixing all well 
together ; cover up and let it work. It will soon be all covered over with 
little bells of a greenish colour, and make a hissing noise ; but it will be 
quite clear and placid in about twenty-four hours after storing, when it 
is ready for use. When dropping last time it is a healthy sign when 
covered with clear bells, when in good mature condition the small, clear 
bells should be only round sides and not in the centre. If going too 
fast add another time less store or have lower heat. In cold weather 
it is better to increase the barm rather than the heat very much. 

A good range of temperature for barms in different seasons is 75 to 
90 degs. F., and they should be made three times a week or not be more 
than three days old, having taken about two days to get ready. 



SELF-RAISING FLOUR 

A LTHOUGH good flour has a certain amount of natural expansion 
when mixed with nothing but water and baked, it is said to be " self- 
raising " when mixed with certain acids and carbonates in such a way as to 
react on one another, producing gas in sufficient quantity to render any 
goods, properly made therefrom, well raised and light. 

The acids and carbonates, or chemicals, added to the goods should 
neutralise one another, or be in such proportion as to neutralise other acids, 
already in the goods, as, for instance, sour milk, so as to leave no residue 
injurious to health or flavour. Most of them have action on one another, 
disengaging gas immediately water is added, but not before ; it is therefore 
necessary to keep them, when mixed before using, in a dry place, and mix 
them with good dry flour. If kept in a concentrated form, so as to be added 



62 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

in varying amounts to different classes of goods as required, it is best to mix 
with a little dry rice flour or ground rice, or other dry or dried starch. Owing 
to this immediate action on adding moisture, the gas evolved must not be 
allowed long enough to escape while the goods are being made, because, 
although it is the same gas as evolved by yeast, no more can be produced 
without adding fresh chemicals, not being produced naturally and gradually 
as by fermentation. 

Some chemicals as, for instance, tartaric acid, give off gas not only in 
larger quantities but also much quicker than others as, for instance, cream of 
tartar. Others, such as bicarbonate of ammonia, commonly called volatile 
or vol, give off their gas only by the action of heat, that is, when in the oven 
and not when being mixed with the milk or water. Some goods such, for 
instance, as so-called " soda scones," or soda cakes, can be raised by the addi- 
tion of a carbonate or base without any added acid, the gas being produced 
by the action of bicarbonate of soda on the acid of the buttermilk or sour 
milk. In such cases oftentimes, however, there is not enough acid to neutralise 
all the soda, and when the latter is in excess there is a strong and unpleasant 
flavour, which would be counteracted by a little cream of tartar. There is also 
often an unpleasant smell and flavour when volatile is used, which, however, 
has the advantage of being able to raise goods without other additions, leaves 
no solid residue, and is cheaper than many aerators. Volatile is handy for very 
small goods, and also for putting into flour for supplying to housewives, 
because by doing its work only when in the oven, its power cannot be lost 
by careless handling during the making of the goods, and also makes them 
break open in the centre with a nice-looking cauliflower top. Although 
cream of tartar is the most expensive of the acids generally used, there is 
nothing more satisfactory, in conjunction with half its weight of bicarbonate 
of soda, for the generality of purposes. If cheaper aerating agents, or any 
of the numerous substitutes are used, it is also best to have a portion of this 
mixture as a base to save accidents. There are different prices for different 
degrees of refinement in cream of tartar in a similar way as there are for 
flour, and its purity can be easily tested by adding, say, half a teaspoonful to 



SELF-RAISING FLOUR 6q^ 

a glass of boiling water, whereupon there should be no cloudiness. An 
ounce of bicarbonate of soda is supposed to give off about lo pints of gas, 
and magnesia, although more aperient, is not so strong. Tartaric acid is 
really about three to four times as strong as cream of tartar, but by its working 
more gas would usually be lost, and in practice it would be safer to take 
it as only twice as powerful. It is often added for cheapness, and although, 
like volatile, handy for breaking open some goods, it will be too powerful 
and quick in many instances, and should only be used in small proportions. 

It is no economy, when making for one's own use, to stint the quantity or 
quality of the chemicals, or weaken or cheapen, as done in some cases when 
supplying to housewives, by adding i or 2 lbs. of salt per sack, or other sub- 
stances, but it is best to make rather strong, so as to serve for the various goods 
required. Small things want more than large, and scones more than cakes. The 
quantities of chemicals added vary largely. One recipe of 8 lbs. of cream of 
tartar, and 4 lbs. of bicarbonate of soda to the sack of 280 lbs. of flour would, 
within personal experience, be found successful ; another would be 6 lbs. of 
cream to 3 lbs. of soda for same flour ; another would be 2I lbs. of cream, ^ lb. 
of tartaric, and 2 lbs. of soda to same quantity of flour ; another would be 4 ozs. 
of cream, 2 ozs. of soda to 8 lbs. of flour ; another might be 15 lbs. of flour, 4 ozs. 
of sodium carbonate, 2 ozs. of cream of tartar, 2 ozs. of tartaric acid ; another 
be 14 lbs. of flour, i oz. of tartaric acid, i oz. of cream of tartar, h an oz. of 
volatile (ammonium), 2 ozs. of sodium carbonate, with or without about 2 ozs. 
of fine starch. The chemicals must, of course, be powdered and sifted before 
adding to flour, or else the whole be sifted together afterwards. When 
mixed, they should be kept air-tight, and for own use should be prepared 
about once a week. Another suitable recipe would be 36 lbs. of flour (if a 
soft or damp flour, 4 lbs. of ground rice could be added with advantage ; 
there is, however, of course, no useful gluten in rice, therefore less 
strength than in flour), ij lbs. of cream of tartar, f of a lb. of carbonate 
of soda. 

When these and other aerating agents are sold in a small and concen- 
trated compass, for the purpose of mixing with the flour afterwards when 



64 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

about to be used, they are called baking powders, and as such are referred 
to below under the heading of alum. 



ALUM AND BAKING POWDERS 

'IP HE use of this substance in bread is now so seldom heard of that it 
-*- might have been left out of consideration, except that one does 
occasionally hear of one or two cases per annum amongst the many 
thousands of bakers. Also that there are certain baking powders and 
self-raising flours that contain it, and also some substances that appear to 
do so, by reason of giving a similar chemical reaction to the well-known 
one cTiaracteristic of alum. The determination of alum in flour or bread is 
at all times a very difficult and delicate operation, so delicate in fact that 
certain cases are recorded where the county analyst had certified the flour 
to contain alum, but the manufacturer, well knowing that he had added 
none, demanded an independent analysis, and the government authorities 
certified the substance as perfectly pure, and he was accordingly acquitted. 
It is now practically never found in flour as supplied by the miller, because 
the latter would get no advantage from it whatever, and the need of it by 
reason of its properties, which we shall explain, is now past so far as the baker 
of bread is concerned. It is now illegal to add it to flour, bread, or baking 
powder, although until recently the latter was exempted as not being an 
article of food, according to the Act. 

Alum is a compound of alumina, potash, and sulphuric acid, being 
thereby a strong astringent ; its effect during fermentation is to toughen the 
gluten, retard its decomposition, and check rapid inverting of the starch. It is 
this astringency that is objected to by some doctors, because in the same way 
as it hinders decomposition of the flour during fermentation so does it retard 
the digestion in the body, and have other effects, such as constipation. This 
effect in fermentation was very useful in the days when we were confined to 



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sir 



ALUM AND BAKING POWDERS 65 

the wheat from our own country in bad and wet seasons, because it prevented 
too much change taking place in already badly conditioned flour, which 
change would have caused a dark and close loaf. It was undoubtedly a great 
help when using sprouted wheat, which had to be used when there was 
nothing else, but with smaller crops, and improved methods, there is less 
damaged wheat than formerly, and, moreover, owing to importation there 
is less need to use even what there is. 

With badly conditioned flour, alum has the effect then of making the loaf 
hold more water, and also producing it whiter and bolder. The recognised 
method for its detection in flour is to take 5 grams of freshly cut chips of 
logwood and shake up with 100 c.c. methylated spirit, then mix 10 grams of 
flour with the same weight of water and i c.c. of recently made tincture of 
logwood and i c.c. of concentrated solution of ammonium carbonate. Pure 
flour will have a slight pinkish tint fading to dirty brown, afterwards lavender 
or dark blue, and if dried in oven the blue colour remains constant. With 
bread one can take 5 c.c. of tincture of logwood and 5 c.c. ammonium 
carbonate dilute to 100 c.c, immediately pour it over 10 grams of bread, 
stand five minutes and drain ; if pure the bread has a light red tint, then 
buff or light brown, the colours being the more intense of course the 
larger the quantity of alum, and also being accentuated when dry. 

It has sometimes been found that bread gave the reaction and coloration 
characteristic of alum although the flour from which it was made gave no 
such reaction, the reaction being due to the sourness of the bread, and the 
presence of phosphate of alumina that exists in combination with gluten, 
and is soluble by acetic acid. Flour naturally contains this alumina, but the 
reaction with logwood is very slight, unless the alumina be dissolved by acetic 
acid being added. In the case of bread, especially when sour by prolonged 
fermentation, acetic acid will be produced by fermentation, and the reaction 
characteristic of adulteration by alum can sometimes be found when fermen- 
tation has thus been allowed to proceed to sourness, whereas it cannot be 
found in a piece of the same dough tested when fermentation commenced. 

Baking powders also give the blue colour characteristic of the addition 



66 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

of alum when there is none present. A solution of tartaric acid gives it, 
although tartaric acid the same as cream of tartar and sodic bicarbonate 
give no coloration in the dry state. This blue colour characteristic of alum 
is produced by iron, lead, copper, and zinc, and there is strong evidence that 
when the coloration characteristic of alum is given with baking powders that 
contain none, that it is due to the small quantities of lead and iron that are 
present in the ingredients used to produce baking powder, and of course in 
the same way with self-raising flour. Small quantities and traces give purple, 
and larger quantities give the blue. At Nottingham there was a conviction 
for adding lo grains to the pound, and the reaction in bread has been known 
to be given by natural causes, and not by fraudulent adulteration, to the 
extent of representing about 650 grains to the sack. It will therefore be seen 
how intricate the whole subject is, and how, particularly in this respect, a 
" little knowledge is a dangerous thing," and also how curious are the changes 
that time brings about, whereby alum, which was formerly known as "ground 
hard," is now practically never used in bread, but has given place to a sub- 
stance almost precisely opposite in its chief effect, namely. Malt Extract, as 
composed in most cases. 



HOPS, LIME AND OTHER ANTISEPTICS 

A N antiseptic is any substance that preserves from, or resists changes 
leading to, putrefaction or decay. There are several antiseptics 
of interest to the baker, amongst them being the common salt or sodium 
chloride (NaCl), salicylic acid, the tannin contained in hops, and borax. 
Salt and alum have been fully treated under distinctive headings. Borax 
is a compound of boracic acid (BjOj) (a compound of boron and oxygen) 
and soda; boric acid (H3BO3) (boracic acid crystals containing 1^26204 + 
2H2O, made by adding sulphuric acid (H2SO4) to a hot concentrated 
solution of borax). Borax is not soluble in water, but boracic acid is 



HOPS, LIME AND OTHER ANTISEPTICS 67 

slightly, and turns blue litmus paper red, and yellow turmeric paper brown. 
Hops are always used, chiefly because of this presence of tannin, and tannin 
is used occasionally in white wines when showing signs of viscous or ropy 
disease. A solution of tannin can kill in two hours some bacteria that can 
live ten days in a solution of strychnine that would kill a man. 

These antiseptics, like ordinary salt, slightly retard the action of yeast as 
well as that of the disease germs, although the action on the latter is immensely 
greater. After a recent inquiry conducted by a Government Departmental 
Committee, it was recommended that salicylic acid be permitted only to the 
extent of i grain (there are 480 grains to an oz. and 5760 grains to a lb.) 
in a pint of liquid or i grain in a pound of solid food. Also that the only 
preservative which it shall be lawful to use in cream be boric acid, or mixtures 
of boric acid and borax, and in amount not exceeding 0.25 per cent, 
expressed as boric acid. The amount of such preservative to be notified by a 
label on the vessel. Also recommended that the only preservative permitted 
to be used in butter and margarine be boric acid, or mixtures of boric acid 
and borax, to be used in proportions not exceeding 0.5 per cent, expressed 
as boric acid. Also recommended that in the case of all dietetic preparations 
intended for the use of invalids or infants, chemical preservatives of all kinds 
be prohibited. Another admitted fact is that 5 to 10 grains per day is as 
much as an adult should take of boric acid. It was recently demonstrated 
that 5-grain doses of boric acid taken every four hours was sending a man 
to his coffin. 

Well now, it is well known that boric acid, being more tasteless than 
salt, is frequently put into milk in hot weather, and there was recently 
a case where a man was fined for putting an excess into his water- 
cress ; and we know the exact quantity that a certain large firm of cake 
makers put into their cakes, saying, that they have found that amount the 
best thing possible for preventing ropy cake, and we know of many other 
goods in which it is used. Therefore, when so small a quantity per day is the 
only safe amount, and it does not take very many pinches of the fingers to 
make up an oz., where people do not understand what they are doing, is it 



68 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

not then a very dangerous tool that might cut both ways ? If recommended 
therefore here, as some have suggested it to us, without studying the matter 
or without expert advice on all the circumstances, would it not stand some 
chance of bringing disrepute on the baking trade, the same as the arsenic 
in the impure acid, that made the glucose for the brewers, brought on the 
brewing trade when an overdose poisoned Liverpool ? The brewing trade 
is strong, and strongly represented everywhere, and it is not so fashionable 
for it to be attacked in the papers even when it does do wrong, as it is for 
bakers to be attacked for adding things such as alum and borax that many 
in the trade have never seen. The antidote of small pox is cow pox or 
vaccination ; as to whether it is wise to wilfully submit oneself to a mild form 
of disease in order to minimise the chance of catching a worse one, is a point 
on which there is much controversy. The writer has had very little effect 
from vaccination, but some people not only get very bad arms but seem 
quite upset and invalided in themselves. The moral of the above is obvious. 
Borates hold a large quantity of water of crystallisation, and therefore swell 
up when heated ; it is largely to this effect that cockroaches are killed by 
borax, which soon diminishes them. Owing to the recent prohibition of 
adding boric acid to foods in some districts on the continent, many experiments 
have been made, and it was found that, although about half of the quantity 
taken was expelled from the body within about twelve hours, the remainder 
disappeared but slowly, traces being found in the urine up to eight days 
afterwards, and that it retarded digestion, similar to alum, and was liable to 
set up irritation in the intestines. 

Lime may be mentioned as an antiseptic in more than one form. It 
will preserve eggs by stopping the pores of the shell. Bisulphite of lime is 
a good solution to sprinkle on the troughs ; it can be swished with a brush 
well into the corners, and has no ill-effect ; it does not require removing 
afterwards ; it is not like plastering with slaked lime, it is a thin liquid, and 
is further considered under the heading of troughs. Carbonate of lime was 
at one time used in bread in some parts of Scotland, and we have had 
personal experience with it in other districts. It was the foundation of 



HOPS, LIME AND OTHER ANTISEPTICS 69 

a special process of bread-making that was not long ago pushed somewhat 
extensively and favourably received, particularly in Scotland, the land of the 
inventor. We were reminded of this the other day by turning over some 
pages of a trade journal and seeing an inquiry concerning carbonate of lime, 
and the reply was that the substance was not known for bread-making use, 
and that probably carbonate of soda was meant. It is astringent like alum, 
and has a similar effect as regards checking diastasis, or changes produced by 
certain malt extracts, but it is not in usual quantities injurious to health like 
alum. It is found beneficial with soft and unsound flours, and for minimising 
some of the effects and tendencies of flour made from the sprouted or growy 
wheats of a wet season, or newly ground flour from sticky wheats. It must 
be interesting to note that, although of the opposite character to the more 
usual kind of malt extracts sold, it, by being astringent, makes the soft flour 
hold more water, thereby increasing yield of bread. It is used in bread in 
the form of clear lime water, the same as that which turns milky when 
breathed into, or mixed with the impurities of the air, as discussed under 
ventilation. It can be purchased at any chemist's or made on a commercial 
scale as follows : — 

If wanting liquor for five or six sacks of flour, have a tank containing 
about 50 or 60 gallons of pure clean water. Into this put 1 lb. of recently 
burned quicklime, and stir thoroughly. The water, according to the pro- 
portion it already naturally contains, will only hold in suspension about 
9 or 10 ozs. per 50 gallons, and when, in an hour or two, the remainder 
has settled to the bottom, the clear water on top may be run off by a tap 
or by a syphon tube, which should not be low enough to disturb the 
sediment. Not more than 7 gallons per sack — that is, about half the total 
liquor required per sack — of the lime water thus made should be used. The 
above is the best way of preparing this lime water where the convenience 
exists, because by such means one will get in the bread no excess, nor any 
undissolved lumps or impurities, as all such would sink to the bottom of the 
tank. A careful man could, however, for every sack of bread required, 
take the same proportion of lime as given above (maximum, li ozs. per 



70 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

sack), dissolve in a bucketful of water, and empty it all into the trough, 
except any residue that settled immediately after stirring up. It would, 
however, be much safer and better to put 2 ozs. into 10 gallons of water, 
and draw off 7 gallons of it for the sack (6 bushels) of bread. The lime 
unites with the gas of the air or the gas of the yeast, and results in chalk 
or calcium carbonate (CaCOg), which, however, in these quantities is not 
injurious. All water contains small quantities of this chalk or calcium 
carbonate, and its presence makes water what is known as " temporarily 
hard." This temporary hardness is destroyed by boiling, since that we find 
our boilers and kettles furred by a deposit of this carbonate, which the 
boiling has precipitated. The lime water prepared as above must not then 
be boiled. It has just occurred to us that, some few years ago, a friend of 
ours spoilt a batch by adding lime. He overheard the writer casually refer 
to it, and straightway, without further thought, commenced its use. The 
failure consisted in the fact that he had added a great excess, stirred it up, 
and used all, instead of decanting merely the clear liquid without sediment ; 
but even this could have been no worse than the plaster of Paris which, 
according to the papers, has recently been added to French flour. 

There are also many other antiseptics, of which, merely, a few need 
here be mentioned. Hydrofluoric acid, (and the fluorines) in small quantities 
arrests the action of lactic and other foreign germs, but, like hops, only 
slightly retards the yeast or alcoholic fermentation. It is used largely by 
brewers, and could also be added when making patent or home-made yeast. 
Alcohol is an antiseptic, and so is vinegar. Carbolic acid is a strong and 
familiar antiseptic, but its fumes are not nice in a bakery, and are liable to 
be absorbed by such ready absorbers as flour and bread. We had almost 
forgotten to mention that salicylic acid is often used in fruit juices and jams 
to retard any undesirable fermentation starting, and that 2 ozs. dissolved in 
alcohol are usually added to 25 gallons of juice, or 40 grains to the gallon ; 
its effect on the human system is injuriously depressive. Other powerful 
germ destroyers are, essential oil of bitter almonds, mint, eucalyptus, 
turpentine, and camphor, varying in strength in the order named, even the 



HOPS, LIME AND OTHER ANTISEPTICS 71 

camphor killing more than half of the organisms in contact, and the first 
being particularly strong. The best thing to keep flies and wasps away from 
goods, instead of muslin covers, is to have a few drops of some eucalyptus 
oil, the same as recommended for influenza, on a piece of wool in a dish, or 
else a spray of essence of lavender. 




SECTION II 



THE GOOD AND FAULTY POINTS 

OF A LOAF 



" Not sowing hedgerow texts and passing by, 
Nor dealing goodly counsel from a height 
That makes the lowest hate it, but a voice 
Of comfort and an open hand of help." 

Tennyson's Avlmer's Field. 



FLAVOUR 

WLAVOUR can be defined as the quality of a substance which pleasantly 
affects the taste or smell. In speaking, however, of the flavour of a 
loaf of bread, one must consider something more than mere taste, such as 
can be conveyed by a condiment. One can hardly consider flavour, apart 
from the freshness and moistness, and the "pleasantness" and relish ex- 
perienced during eating, and the ease with which it is masticated, or conduces 
to digestion. Further, when receiving bread at various times from almost 
all parts of the world, one has considerable difficulty in judging the flavour, 
because of the various characteristics that are liked or disliked according to 
the district. 

Taking two extreme types, namely, the long quarter sponge system of 
Scotland, and the short off-hand doughs that are now becoming so popular. 
A Scotchman frequently says, and undoubtedly believes, that there is no 
bread in the world so sweet, as that made from his, excessively long, process 
by Parisian Barm, but when making such a statement he cannot possibly 
72 



FLAVOUR 73 

have tasted bread from such a process as the four hours' system. Con- 
sumers, however, who are accustomed to the short process never fail to at 
once say, that the long process loaf, which a Scotchman calls sweet, is 
undoubtedly sour. It is quite obvious that with the long process, there must 
be some acid produced, and very much more than in a short one ; acid cannot 
possibly be sweet and will be liked or disliked according to the taste acquired 
for it, a person who has become accustomed to acids not liking similar foods 
without. Local customs and individual tastes, even of different people in 
the same district, are such important factors that one often feels it would be 
safer when judging a loaf of bread to entirely ignore the flavour, yet the 
difficulty is that flavour is unquestionably a most important element of a loaf, 
and as essential as the wheels to a coach. 

In order to taste the flavour of dough it is necessary for it to be baked, 
but much information can be acquired concerning the flavour of flour before 
being made into dough. The aroma of flour is volatile and can to some extent 
be criticised when the latter is in its natural state. When heated, by even 
holding in the hand, the aroma or smell evaporates very much more quickl)', 
giving more indication of what it would be when baked. Still more informa- 
tion can be obtained by taking a series of flours, some with which one has 
already been acquainted in the baked loaf, placing them in cups or glasses, 
pouring on them hot water, stirring and smelling immediately. Any oldness 
or characteristic will thus be immediately and rapidly given off, and conveyed 
to the senses, and can be accurately gauged by means of the known samples. 

When examining a loaf much information concerning flavour can be 
ascertained by observing the physical signs denoting changes or added 
ingredients such as discussed elsewhere. Much information can also 
be obtained by the smell even without tasting, but it is always safest 
in a critical test, although not possible when judging several hundreds of 
loaves at the exhibitions, to eat two or three pieces in order to neutralize 
any conflicting flavours that there might be in the mouth. Then proceed 
to carefully chew a piece, moving it about with the tongue and getting it on 
to the palate, noting carefully the readiness with which it breaks up in the 



74 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

mouth, and the series of sensations that will be experienced during gradual 
• swallowing ; and carefully note the final taste as the piece is' disappearing, 
and the after taste. Anyone noting the different sensations, thinking them 
out while eating, will, if unaccustomed to doing so, be surprised at the 
variations that are experienced, which will be unnoticed when eating in the 
ordinary way without closely studying. The differences in the sweetness 
and in the effort of chewing, and of the roughness or smoothness, the ten- 
dency for the mass to divide itself, or cling into a ball, rankness or otherwise 
will be found to be very great ; and after a little practice one will be able to 
accurately judge a large number of loaves almost by instinct, and without 
the same close application. 

The differences and peculiarities of the individual tastes of persons 
are undoubtedly the sheet anchor of a family business, and the salvation 
of the small trader in close contact with his customer, as against the 
wholesale trader who must have more uniformity and neutrality for a large 
number of customers with whom he is not in contact, the intermediate 
party, the grocer, usually buying by the eye and not by the palate. 
The flavour of bread must depend on the degree of fermentation, on 
the quality of the flour, on the condition of the latter, and whether or 
no it has become contaminated accidentally, and on the amount and char- 
acter of added substances. As a rule the conditions that tend to produce 
a high percentage of gluten during the growing of the wheat act against 
flavour. The conditions, however, that tend to a high percentage of gluten 
usually result in a better maturity of the flour, and the more matured the 
flour is, the less its flavour will deteriorate on keeping. 

The best flavoured flour, all other things equal, is the one that Is freshest 
milled. Flour becomes stale and loses its flavour quicker than those who 
have not looked into the subject would credit. We recently tested this matter 
more by accident than by anything else, having before thoroughly done so 
personally, by two parcels of the same brand of flour that had arrived at an 
interval of about nine months. We gave out portions of them for domestic 
purposes, merely asking for the two to' be used separately, and for any 



FLAVOUR 75 

characteristics to be noted. They were exactly the same make of flour, 
but we were told that one worked much drier, took more water to mix 
it, and that the children, who had no intimation that they were being 
experimented upon, immediately expressed their dislike to the flavour of 
some of the goods made. The older sample, which was nearly twelve 
months old, was more pronounced in flavoiir than the one nine months 
younger, although both were sound, and had been properly kept. If 
distinctly noticeable as nasty at twelve months, it must have lost its fresh 
aroma long before. It is not everyone who has a critical palate, and some 
flours keep better than others, and well that it is so, when sometimes flour 
used must be about twelve months old, especially when it has been a long 
time — perhaps all the winter — coming, and then rests for good periods in 
granary and bakery over here. 

The way to see the important effect of fermentation on flavour is to com 
pare a loaf raised naturally by the gas produced by yeast with the loaf that 
is raised by gas, which is prepared outside and then pumped in, as in some 
systems, or with a loaf that is raised by adding chemicals. The extent of the 
fermentation, rather than its rapidity, will be the ruling factor in the various 
differences that there will be between these two extremes. The presence 
of acid and change, as developed during fermentation, will strike the palate, 
and give the sensation known as flavour, in proportion as it is concealed or 
otherwise by other substances. For instance, salt not only has effect on 
flavour by steadying fermentation, but has a flavour of its own, which, 
according to the amount added, makes itself apparent, or hides, or counteracts 
other effects. If added in normal quantities, which in the South of England 
would be about 3 lbs. per sack, it is not tasted ; if added in much smaller 
quantities the bread would be insipid, unless some other flavour, such as acid, 
had been developed ; if added in quantities of 5 or 6 lbs. per sack, as 
customary in Scotland, the loaf will have a distinctly salt taste, unless, on 
the other hand, it should be largely covered by an excess of acid often 
produced by long processes. In exactly the same way it is possible to add 
commercial vinegar, or acetic acid, in certain small proportions that it cannot 



76 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

be tasted. Although not tasted, its presence must counteract some of the 
natural sweetnesses of the flour, which otherwise would convey, by means 
of the palate, the sensation known as good flavour. 

Much importance is placed by some people on the kind of yeast used, 
but on the same principle as the salt and vinegar, the yeast is not 
added in sufficient quantity to give a direct flavour of its own. In 
fact, any flavour is chiefly due to the amount of fermentation that 
the yeast is allowed, by time or heat, to produce. When the system 
of straight doughs first came into vogue with large quantities of yeast, 
it was frequently remarked by those who were counselled to use it 
that such large quantities of yeast would taste, and it was frequently futile 
for the author to point out the fallacy of such a statement. The indispu- 
table proof to the contrary, however, is given by the fact that bread is 
frequently made for special purposes with even 5 lbs. of yeast to the sack, 
and has no yeasty taste whatever when properly managed, in fact, not nearly 
so much of this so-called yeasty taste as in the case of very much less yeast 
under other conditions, as, for instance, with a small quantity worked a long 
time. If another proof were wanting, it is only necessary to calculate how 
much the customary i oz. or 2 ozs. of yeast to a quart of liquor when making 
small batches of buns, or fancy bread, would be to the sack, noting the 
absence of the taste of yeast. 

The difference between the different so-called sorts of yeast as used 
in commerce, such as breweis', patent, and distillers', is chiefly their 
degree of concentration, and the condition of fermentation necessary to 
suit them. In the case of brewers', however, there is usually present 
a very strong decoction of hops and other matters, which are quite 
distinct from the yeast itself, and which are sufficiently strong to make 
themselves noticeable. A similar bitter taste to that obtained from brewers' 
yeast, that has not been well washed or purified, is sometimes noticed in 
the case of continental, or other compressed or dried yeasts, when they have 
deteriorated during keeping, or undergone a partial decomposition known 
as softening. Some people are so wedded to the idea of brewers' yeast 



FLAVOUR 7 7 

making good-flavoured bread, .that they cannot conceive anything to the 
contrary ; it would, however, be just as reasonable to suppose that good 
meat never decomposes, or good fruit never becomes rotten. Speaking of 
fruit reminds one that the degree of flavour in bread is just as varying in 
its appreciation as different sorts of fruit, many of which require an acquired 
taste before being valued, and personally this has been particularly so with 
other foods, such as tomatoes. The addition of milk, sugar, lard, malt 
extract, glucose, and kindred substances, must, like salt and other ingredients 
mentioned, affect according to their proportion, and the stage of fermentation 
at which they are added. Some of them are directly fermentable by yeast, 
and if added at early stages are consumed before the loaf is baked. 

The flavour of a loaf can sometimes be judged by physical signs that tell 
the amount of fermentation and the degree of change in the flour, but it is not 
always so. We have had loaves to examine that have been the picture of 
health, evidently made from the best flour, in the best possible manner as 
regards its degree of change, but the flavour was distinctly bad and sur- 
prising. It was afterwards discovered that the ferment or prior stage, in 
which practically no flour had been placed, had been allowed to stand a very 
long time under bad conditions. It had thereby developed bad flavours 
which, like an excess of vinegar, were not afterwards hidden when added 
to the main batch. If the bad flavours or sourness developed in the prior 
stages, such as in the above ferment, be not in excess, they can oftentimes 
afterwards be counteracted so as not to be 'noticed in the loaf. A good 
instance of this is in the case of leaven bread, as made on the continent. 
The piece of leaven, which leaveneth the whole lump, is left over from the 
previous day's baking, and is absolutely sour ; this is mixed by gradual 
stages with the fresh flour, which, being in such large proportions to the 
original leaven, hides the sourness and makes good palatable bread. The 
same thing is seen in this country when a sponge has been over-ripe, and is 
largely counteracted by the sweetness of the flour which is used for the 
dough stage. Any sourness, moreover, would be very much less noticed if 
the dough were made larger than originally intended, that is, if the dough 



78 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

were, as it is called, stretched, because the original order of bread re- 
quired was subsequently increased. In the same way where one's circum- 
stances make one suppose that a long sponge is necessary, it is best to have 
this sponge as small as possible if one wants good-flavoured bread. 

Under the heading of crust, dryness, and baking we have referred at 
length to the varying effects of a quick oven. Shorter baking in a good heat 
will have considerable effect on the flavour, especially in driving off the stale 
gases, products or sourness that would have been present in the dough, 
according to its treatment. The degree of baking will have very much 
more effect on the loaf than the fuel with which the oven is heated. There 
is, however, a prejudice in favour of wood, especially when burned on the 
sole of the oven, as in several country districts, particularly in Germany 
and other parts of the continent. Nevertheless, although wood is as cheap 
as ever, and coal and coke during the last few years have been dearer, one 
finds from personally traversing the country, that wood-fired ovens are 
giving place to externally heated ones, especially of the steam-pipe kind. 
A loaf of bread, like flour, is particularly absorbent of flavours or aromas 
with which it comes into contact, but while in the oven, as has already been 
shown, moisture, alcohol, and gases are being driven off, it is therefore diffi- 
cult to see how a loaf can absorb anything at the same time as it is exuding. 
Nevertheless, there was recently a case in France where poisoning of certain 
people, by the bread, was traced to the fact that the oven had been heated 
with old and painted wood obtained from some demolished houses, and, 
further, there is now an edict to prohibit, for ovens, the use of such painted 
wood, or anything that can possibly be contaminated. 

Whatever may be said to the contrary, and we are fully aware of what has 
been said on this subject, there is undoubtedly a considerable difference in the 
flavour of different flours, not only according to the characteristics of the wheats, 
but also according to the way in which they have been milled. If an analysis 
be made of the moisture that has evaporated during milling, as might happen 
when the wheats had not been in a good condition or had sweated, there 
will be found therein phosphates and various volatile oils of characteristic 



FLAVOUR 79 

flavours. The Hungarians claim that by carrying the intermediate products 
of mining by hand instead of by a greater use of elevators, as is general in 
this country, that they thus preserve some of these volatile oils. In the 
old stone mills, undoubtedly, heating the germ by friction during milling 
produced an aroma that permeated the whole flour. We can now get a 
similar effect in the same way by taking separated germ, heating it and 
passing its fumes through flour that was not milled at the same time. 

-As an instance of the characteristic sweetness and nice flavour of a freshly 
ground flour, from a nice selection of wheat, in this country, as against those 
from harsher wheats, or those taking months to arrive, it may be mentioned 
that it has come under our personal observation that mice are great dis- 
criminators in this respect. We know a case where they consistently always 
elected to eat into a certain grade of flour in a baker's loft. They never 
touched anything else when that grade was there, and they always attacked 
it sooner after its arrival than they did any other. The same mill, which 
was noted for its specialite in flavour, also supplied another grade similar to 
it, but not so choice or special in flavour. When the two arrived together, 
the first-named was always attacked first ; when that was out of stock, but 
not before, the mice attacked the other grade from same mill, and afterwards 
the others. They so persistently attacked these two flours, and especially 
the first, in preference to all other grades in loft, that the baker frequently 
refused to order large quantities, unless he was going to use them rapidly, 
solely on this account. Absolute fact. 

The absorbing character of flour has already been referred to, and we 
have had many cases of tainted flour come under our notice. We know of 
a cargo of Vienna flour that was rejected because it was contaminated by 
the smell of oranges. We knew of other flour that had a most objectionable 
smell, and baffled all attempts at finding out what it was for a long time. It 
afterwards transpired that the flour had been made from wheat that had been 
shipped in a vessel that some years before had carried Guano manure. 
Unless one could personally vouch for such instances, they would seem 
incredible. We know of cases where in a consignment by railway of only a 



'8o THE BOOK OF BREAD 

few tons of flour, all milled together, and all railed in the same truck, some 
of the consignment was considered unusable by one customer out of several 
who had flour out of the same consignment, whereas no one else noticed 
anything unusual. This had been caused by the flour being covered by a 
newly dressed tarpaulin, and the few bags on the top that the sheet touched 
absorbed the smell. We know of cases of paraffin contamination through flour 
being put in a truck that some time before carried the oil. It was not the con- 
tact of the oil, but merely the smell arising from the dry floor of the truck 
and permeating the sack. New sacks will often convey a smell, and are, 
therefore, often filled with wheat offals before being filled with flour. But 
the curious thing is, perhaps, that such contamination, like a plague of red 
ants in bakeries, disappears almost as rapidly as it comes. Where it is only 
a dry contamination, such as from the mere efiluvia of the dressed sheet or 
the dry floor, there is no need to worry or to destroy the goods, and they are 
worth keeping at a small discount. The smell soon disappears, and, in proof 
of this, we have known many cases of such rejected flour being used by 
another man without the package being changed, or anything whatso- 
ever done to the consignment, and without the slightest indication that 
anything had even been wrong, even in cases where the new recipient had 
been told that the flour had been found tainted and rejected by others. 
'Flour that, in underground places, has come in contact with the worst of 
water has been all right inside, if shot from the sack before becoming musty. 
We know of shipwrecked cargoes of Vienna and other flour that have 
returned handsome profits to the buyers because others were afraid of the 
supposed excessive damage. For the first week or two that sacks of flour 
stand in water it seems that the soakage into the sacks is to the extent of 
about one inch per week. If the wheat has got thoroughly wet, causing the 
interior to become unsound, the damage is, of coiirse, permanent, but not so 
if merely the outside, or the bran, has become wet. In modern mills 
wheat is frequently passed through water or '' washed " for purposes of 
cleaning, and also occasionally damped for purposes of easier milling. If 
the sacks of flour have been packed in a truck on wet straw, or the latter 



m^ 




Section of Crumby Loaf. 

(ACTUAL S'ZE.) ' 



COLOUR 



8 



has afterwards got wet, any smell or dampness from the straw will quickly 
evaporate if suitably stored, and, particularly, during baking. Many 
instances of this have been afforded by the fact, that where one baker has 
complained of a strawy smell, the flour has been removed to another, and 
found to be thoroughly desirable. Bad flavours often evaporate in exactly 
the same way as the good flavours of fresh-milled flours do during storage. 



The Way Points have usually been allocated at Exhibitions. 





English, Welsh, and Irish. 


Scotch. 


Flavour 


Formerly. 
20 


Recently. 
25 


IS 


^ , (2) Of Crust 

Colour ) ( r\c r^ u 

(i) Of Crumb 


20 
20 


25 


10 

5 


Texture .... 


20 


25 


10 


Volume 

Maximum 


20 


25 


10 

50 


100 


100 



COLOUR 



A LTHOUGH colour is so much discussed in connection with bread, few 
who place so much importance upon it stop to inquire as to what 
colour really is. It should be defined as property inherent in light (or the 
condition in which it is transmitted), which gives to bodies different appear- 
ances to the eye, that is, it is merely a sensation, caused by the rays of light. 
Colour then is a sensation carried by means of the eye to the brain rather 



82 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

than anything actual, and varies according to the conditions under which it 
is transmitted. For instance, the same thing has a different appearance to 
different people which is well-known in the case of colour blindness, and also 
according to the surroundings, as in the case of flour on blue or white paper, 
and also according to the amount or character of the light, such as is the 
case between daylight and artificial light. 

The finer the flour is dressed or ground, the more the globules are open 
to the light, and the more complete the refraction, conveying to the brain 
by means of the eye purer or whiter light. This gives what we call better 
colour, although, of course, in reality white is the absence of colour or no 
colour at all. In the same way two loaves of bread from the same dough, 
and baked side by side, and therefore substantially the same, will sometimes 
be considered of different colour, one looking whiter than the other. The 
one, as will often be noticed in a tin loaf as compared with a crumby loaf, 
by proving more has become more porous than the other, whereby the more 
porous one by absorbing more of the rays of light appears to be the darker. 
On the other hand, a more silky loaf sometimes appears to be of better 
colour than it really is, according to the position in which it is held during 
examination. The colour of a flour depends on the percentage of its con- 
stituents. The whiteness is the result of starch, which is the largest portion 
of the flour, and depends on the degree of refinement and removal of dirt. 
Although whiteness is often spoken of as good colour, and good colour 
commands high price, there can be an excess of starch, dead white flour being 
of worse value for bread-making purposes than a flour possessing a yellow 
cast. The whiteness can be obtained by adding a highly refined starch from 
some other cereal, such as corn-flour, and can be obtained for less money. 

Flour made from good red wheat would be better than that made from 
a common white. If flour be too highly refined it will be approaching too 
near to pure starch, thereby losing the bulk-giving and moisture-retaining 
characteristic of gluten, and the bloom characteristic of sugar. The presence 
of yellow indicates the presence of good class gluten freed from the coarser 
portions. The patents of the flour will be yellow, but the lower grade, 



COLOUR 83 

although sometimes containing a higher percentage of gluten, would be 
browner, because of coming from nearer the bran and containing more 
impurities. The middle skin of wheat contains most of the colouring 
matter of the bran, but the inner layer contains some of the brown that is 
ground up in low grade flours. The germ of wheat, which in modern 
flours is practically absent, is yellow, and it or its oil would, of course, have 
some effect where present. The whitest flour is usually from the centre of 
the berry, and white can usually be taken to represent flour either from 
strong wheat highly refined and not so much strength left in it, or else 
flour from a soft wheat poor in gluten. Yellow represents quality, and 
brown would represent strength of lower character, while grey would be 
poor. 

The changes in colour of flour would be most during the first fortnight 
after milling, after that the change would be very slow. It is the yellow 
that would evaporate quickest, becoming bleached in proportion as it was 
exposed to light and air. These various tints can be seen when the flour is 
in a dry and natural state, but when pressed on a board and dipped in water 
the differences are very much more acute. Various changes occur during 
drying, and the flours can be best compared when they have been allowed 
to become again thoroughly dry by natural evaporation. When some flours 
are thus pressed and wetted up together, much information concerning their 
general commercial value can be obtained. Considerable experience, how- 
ever, is necessary in order to gauge the value that can be placed on the 
various tints, according to their behaviour during bread-making ; here, very 
particularly, it will be seen that the whitest flour is not always the best bread 
maker. The safest way is always to test the flour concerning which one 
wants to get information at the same time as other leading types with which 
one might be acquainted. Types vary considerably from year to year, and 
therefore any attempt to standardise them is often very misleading. 

It is very popularly supposed that fermentation always increases the 
colour of the bread, but fermentation can darken as well as bleach. In the 
case of the Scotch process, which is usually conducted with a considerable 



84 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

amount of care for a very long period, bleaching or whiteness is particularly 
noticeable. In the case, however, of long periods of fermentation with less 
precautions, not only is the yellow destroyed, but a dullness and darkness 
is produced, just as in the case when a dough from a strong or low grade 
flour is immature. A piece of dough during the process of being made 
into loaves will often become darker on the exterior if not covered up, 
and then will be seen in the form of streaks when turned inside in the 
process of moulding. The effect of time and fermentation on colour, both of 
crumb and crust, can be settled beyond dispute by making a dough, cutting 
off pieces at each hour over a long range of time, for baking and noting 
separately. 

The colour of bread is also affected by the ingredients that are added. 
Brewers' yeast with its attendant impurities, and potatoes with their dirt 
will darken, while scalded flour will whiten. Occasionally there are quite 
foreign colours found in bread, such, for instance, as red spots (known as 
bleeding bread), which are attributed to a very small organism with a very 
long name. They may be due to an insect or mould on the grain which is 
too small to be removed during milling, and the small amount of colour 
present in the dry state spreads considerably on being wetted. This colora- 
tion does not seem likely to be due to anything that has got in during 
bread-making. We have occasionally found violet patches in the dough 
which have been less noticeable when in the loaf; we have found this 
repeatedly to be present when the wheat contained garlic, and although this 
is no direct evidence of garlic being the cause, or of the cause being different 
to the case of the red spots mentioned above, it seems to be more usually 
present when garlic is than otherwise. On one occasion a greenish-blue 
spot was noticed in the crumb, and after considerable difficulty it was 
found to be caused by a piece of coloured string, the dye of which had 
spread. 

The condition of the gluten seems to have considerable effect on 
the colour and character of the crust, because an excess of sugar does 
not give that same foxy or red crust that comes from a cold or checked 



COLOUR 85 

fermentation. The gluten changes from a brown to a paler tint, 
according to the time that it is fermented. If good flour be fermented 
quickly with a comfortable heat, the crust will be of a nice brightness ; and 
if the flour be poor or overworked, the crust will be slaty and dull. When, 
a short time ago, maize was so cheap that considerable portions of corn-flour 
were said, in the land of its production, to be added to wheaten flour, it was 
noticed that it was more difficult to obtain a good crust colour, and also 
there was a distinct shortness in the eating. The intensity of the colour of 
the crust, all things being equal, should be in proportion to the time it is 
exposed to the heat of the oven ; sometimes, however, in the case of a cottage 
loaf, the part that first pulls away from the bottom which should, in the 
ordinary course, be most coloured, is not so. When this portion where the 
top parts from the bottom is variegated or unevenly browned, the circum- 
stance can almost always be taken as a sign of irregular fermentation or too 
much change. Sometimes there is seen to be a red ring round the crust ; this 
is due to the loaf being left on the boards when topped, and allowed to get 
dry on the surface. Therefore when the loaf is raised, on being put into the 
oven, the top pulls from the bottom, exposing to the heat the surface that is 
moist through being in contact with the bottom ; the damp surface taking 
on more colour than the dry, the acute division of the two leaves a line all 
round, or a ring. A high crust colour is obtained in some Scotch places by 
throwing salt on the furnace, and also, sometimes, by putting on wood when 
dry enough not to smoke ; intense colour thus obtained shows up the 
colour of the crumb to advantage by contrast. High colour is also, sometimes, 
obtained by washing the loaf with water or grease when coming out of the 
oven as well as when it was being placed therein. 

The bloom, or colour which a loaf takes on the crust during baking, 
will be affected by the quality, character, and grade of the flour, by any 
other ingredients that might be added, by the amount of fermentation, 
by the condition of the surface of the pieces of dough, when being set into 
the oven, and by the amount and character of the heat to which they are 
exposed. Highly dressed flour would, all things being equal, have a higher 



86 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

percentage of starch than a coarser flour, and as such have less in it that 
would attract the heat or bloom. In the same way the addition of sugar 
or malt extract would facilitate more colour than a pure flour, while the 
addition of fat would have a contrary effect. A good instance of fat re- 
pelling the heat of the oven is seen when hot-cross buns are crossed, as 
they are in some parts of the country, by a strip of paste containing butter 
or lard ; of course the paste has exactly the same heat as the bun under- 
neath it, yet the bun will take very much greater bloom than the strip 
of paste. 

Fermentation has considerable effect on bloom ; if the dough be in 
any way under-ripe there will be an excess of colour of a reddish hue, 
which, however, is almost distinct from what is known as bloom, and is 
usually called foxy, which is a blemish, whereas the term bloom applies to 
a desirable colour. The loaf that is over-ripe, on the other hand, will take 
less bloom, and in the case of a sour loaf the bloom is entirely absent. It 
is almost impossible in the latter case to get any brown coloration whatever, 
and certainly no bloom, which should really be defined as a bright and 
light brown or healthy-looking colour. 

The condition of the surface of the piece of dough when being- 
set into the oven is of primary importance in the case of bloom as, if 
the surface be really dry or skinny, there will be no bloom, no matter 
from what ingredients the dough has been made, or to what extent it 
has been fermented, or to what extent it is afterwards to be baked. It 
is almost as difficult for a dry .surface to take bloom as it would be 
in the case of a sour loaf no matter how intense the heat of the oven 
might be, but, of course, the hotter the oven under other conditions the 
greater would be the bloom. It is on this account that the pieces of dough 
while proving on the boards should be kept covered, whereby no skin 
would be allowed to form, or the surface become dry. The pieces can be 
covered up with a thin sack or flannelette, either dry or wet, but preferably 
the latter. Objection is sometimes made that the cloths after some little 
use begin to smell, but this need not be so ; they should be dipped in water. 



COLOUR 87 

and well wrung out, because if they are too wet they cannot be left on the 
loaves sufficiently long without sticking, and we have seen pieces of sack- 
ing sticking to loaves in the prize case at the Agricultural Hall. The 
cloths will keep in good condition if frequently washed and then dried 
quickly, and damped again when being required for use, and they will 
keep wholesome until worn out or fit only for making scuffles for cleaning 
the oven. 

A good bloom, and also a gloss, will be obtained by proving a loaf 
in steam, and also by injecting steam into the oven whereby the, moist 
surfaces are kept moist ; also the smoother the crust is moulded the better 
will be the bloom, all other things being equal, and likewise the greener and 
moister, that is, without too much cones, the better condition will the surface 
be in for the purpose of taking bloom. Of course it is harder to mould a 
loaf with a smooth surface with a slack than with a tight dough, and bloom 
is therefore here, as throughout all the other details, resolved into a question 
of skill, and there should be very little excuse for the large amount of bread 
with sickly crust and without bloom at the exhibitions. The washing over 
of loaves even with water, to say nothing of milk, egg, or scalded flour 
wash, is a very poor substitute for the proper method of getting bloom, 
and can certainly be called faking, that is, making a loaf appear what it is 
not. A loaf in good health and properly cared for needs no washing for the 
purpose of a proper bloom. Much bread is baked in too cool an oven. 

The large majority of high-priced flours, in the straining after what is 
called good colour, in order to appeal in the dry state to the buyer's eye, 
have a marked tendency when doughed against taking a healthy crust bloom 
in the baked loaf, most of the bloom-making qualities being removed during 
milling. There are, however, individual flours, well known to the author, that 
are specially made to combine bloom, flavour, and moisture with general 
quality, and which give a better colour in both crust and crumb than the 
unwetted sample would indicate. 



88 THE BOOK OF BREAD 



TEXTURE AND PILE 

'X^EXTURE can be defined as being the disposition or connection of 
interwoven threads or fibres. In a loaf of bread texture seems to 
be usually associated in one's mind with holes, but the presence or absence 
of holes does not constitute the whole difference between good and bad 
texture. A loaf having a hole can be of a better texture than one without, 
and a loaf without holes, as, for instance, a badly made and then over-proved 
tin one, can be coarse and crumbl}-, and therefore of bad texture. At the 
present moment the writer is facing a pair of lace curtains, exceptionally 
well and finely woven and of soft feel, therefore of excellent texture, but at 
some future time they will, unfortunately, have rents or holes made in them 
at the laundry ; they will obviously be still good textured curtains, and still 
better textured than some other cheaper and coarser ones, although possibly 
in good repair, in another room. If a thin slice of bread be cut and held up 
to the window, whereby the light goes through it as through a curtain, the 
texture can be seen perfectly, and far more pronounced than in any other way. 
Any unevenness or streaks, or hard, or close layers, or cores, which are 
blemishes in texture, will obscure the light and show up like the closer 
portions or pattern of the curtain. 

Although the absence of holes does not constitute a good textured loaf, 
nevertheless, a good textured loaf would be all the better when entirely free 
from the larger hollow places or cavities known as holes, and when discuss- 
ing the latter at considerable length under their own heading, many of 
the principles governing the present subject will be found detailed, 
and should be consulted, holes really being the absence or the breaking 
down of texture. When judging at the last Annual Bakers' Exhibition at 
the Agricultural Hall, London, "texture," was allocated a maximum of 
twenty-five marks out of one hundred, the othef three quarters being equally 
divided between flavour, colour, and volume, as against formerly twenty out 
of one hundred. This large proportion of marks clearly indicates the im- 




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TEXTURE AND PILE 89 

portance of texture, and the guide or index that it is to the whole process of 
manufacture, holes being merely taken as a section of it. 

A loaf to be of good texture, must not only be of fine and regular 
mesh, but also of soft, pliable, and springy crumb, that is, not coarse to look 
at, nor hard or unyielding to the thumb when pressed, nor yielding too much, 
or more in some places than others, with'out quickly recovering the indenta- 
tion. These characteristics, the same as pile, as elsewhere described, are 
not so much of such vast importance per se as they are the physical signs of 
the state and history of the loaf A similar case is where the purity of the 
atmosphere of a room is gauged by the amount of carbonic acid gas present, 
not because of any poisonous action of the latter by itself, but because 
(except, as should be noted, in bakeries where it is otherwise produced), 
it is usually present in strict proportion to other deleterious products of 
combustion or exhalations from the lungs. 

The above desirable characteristics are indicative of and to be 
obtained by ( i ) proper system of fermentation with good materials ; 
(2) well made and well cleared dough ; (3) thoroughly aerated dough, well 
changed, but taken with some spring in it ; and (4) good and firm handing 
up, then suitable moulding, then enough proof to allow the closed-up 
interstices to re-expand or recover, but not enough to allow them to get 
opened again too much, or thus producing coarseness. The dough must 
not ramp along at any period, must not be left too long to itself, whereby 
the gluten becomes broken down too much, or the threads or web too 
weakened. It must have gentle labour at frequent intervals, according to 
the speed of fermentation, whereby the gluten is preserved and well stretched 
and folded over until its threads are fine and the vesiculation even, and able 
to hold, without breaking anywhere, the gas that should have time after com- 
pression to evenly distribute itself throughout the whole. The labour in 
well kneading, or in pulling asunder and folding each piece over when 
throwing out, or in handing up once, then again, closes up the meshes, making 
the^m fine and close. If then, however, put into hot oven, before a gentle 
re-expansion is allowed, the loaf will be close in some parts, but burst out 

M 



90 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

by struggling gas, where exposed to heat, in other parts, that is, it will be 
uneven in texture, unexpanded here yet holey there. If, on the other 
hand, it be allowed too much recovery, it will be even all over, not close here, 
nor holey there, but, although regular, will be uniformly coarse. Two 
extremes to be avoided. 

A fine mesh will almost universally, with only a few exceptions, in- 
dicate a long steady process of fermentation with considerable changing of 
the constituents of the flour in the trough, and also a slow and small amount 
of proof after throwing out ; whereas a coarse mesh will, on the other hand, 
almost always indicate a quick and short process in the trough with larger 
quantities of yeast, and also a rapid one, therefore more proof after throwing 
out, which will be particularly noticeable in quickly blown up and little handled 
tin bread. Fineness is fermentation or change and labour ; coarseness is 
aeration rather than change, and often, therefore, lack of labour at the finish, 
or, what amounts to the same thing, a greater proof after labour. Ramming 
one's fist into the dough when in the trough, and letting the gas out, does 
not put in texture, except that, to some extent, it checks the dough ramping 
towards too much change, but the dough should be well spread and folded 
over. A spongy texture usually indicates a desirably lively fermentation 
and good flour, and thereby, within limits, a sweet and moist loaf; a hard 
texture usually indicates unripeness, or else tightness ; a crumbly texture in- 
dicates in either trough or loaf stage over ripeness ; a soft, pliable texture often 
indicates a slack dough, but not entirely so, because a sloppy brown dough 
often makes a hard and close textured loaf. 

Blemishes in texture, namely, variations throughout the loaf in the groupino- 
of the smaller interstices (which although small spaces or holes are distinct 
from the larger cavities styled "holes'" as discussed elsewhere) include, to 
commence with, a hard layer, which can at once be seen and felt between 
the top and bottom of a cottage loaf when the latter is cut. The layer 
meant in this case stretches right across the loaf, is hard and thin like a cord, 
and so tough that, when the head is pulled off from the bottom, the layer, 
which is seen to be discoloured, can be easily detached, skinning off like the 



TEXTURE AND PILE 91 

outside layer of a boot sole that has been partly loosened by wear. This 
tough layer can only be caused by the top and bottom having been stood 
separately on the boards, instead of being topped after moulding, and by 
not being kept moist, and by being stood on cones or dust and thus contract- 
ing a dry skin. When the separated pieces are then topped, the two dry and 
chilled surfaces get pressed together, forming a tough integument that no 
gas can aerate. Sometimes, and more often, instead of this hard thin core, 
there will be in the same place a softer and wider layer, about h inch thick, 
which by its greater closeness can be felt and has effect on colour, but cannot 
be detached from the loaf in the same way as the other when the top is 
removed. This is often due to the same cause, in a modified form, namely, 
by the outsides getting chilled and thereby not expanding when in the loaf 
in spite of being then in the centre of it ; but it often comes even when the 
tops and bottoms were joined, as they should be, immediately after moulding. 
It is then due to too much compression in proportion to the state of the 
dough, either by a big head weighing down the bottom too much or more 
usually by too much weight of the hand — too much pressing down — when 
topping or bashing. 

The effect of undue pressure can be easily tested by cutting the loaf in 
halves and then pressing the . top, and watching ; the compression will be 
seen to come exactly in that spot where this layer and compression always 
is, and not come in any other part of the loaf to nearly the same extent. 
The hard layer, or core, first referred to, will usually be more noticeable, 
that is, thicker and more discoloured when using low grade flours, which 
discolour or oxidise on exposure to the air more quickly than more starchy 
ones ; and it will be much more often present with long slow processes 
than with quick, and the difference has been noticed in two such loaves 
from the same baker. The softer layer, or streak, as referred to in the 
second place, will very often be seen in good bread, as at the exhibitions, 
made with highly refined and delicate flour, and by a quick process with 
plenty of yeast. This layer, or streak, is obviously the result of insufficient 
re-expansion, and although exhibition bread will usually be given time and 



92 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

proof after moulding- for the purpose of this re-expansion to a greater extent 
than at other times, nevertheless, it is usually made from delicate and 
highly starchy flour, usually fermented to its utmost to bring out all there is 
in it, and also usually more tight. These points combined make it more 
difficult for the loaf to recover itself, and to re-serate the portion where the 
pressure most comes, to the same extent as the rest of the loaf from which 
the gas was pressed out less. A highly refined and delicate flour, as usually 
used in such cases, does not grow or expand much of its own accord, and 
a good coloured background in the loaf shows up any imperfections very 
readily. Other streaks will be found in other parts of the loaf, and are 
usually the results of the pieces before moulding getting likewise chilled 
and dry, and then during the course of moulding being turned into the 
inside. A too liberal use of cones and dust during actual moulding will 
have a similar effect. Cones, and dust, and skin can be very frequently 
seen inside a baked loaf Pieces of skin turned in will make a core 
similar to that as described between the head and bottom of cottage. 

The writer once closely watched two men moulding a batch of cottages . 
one moulded and placed the loaves in front of him, the other moulded on 
another table and threw each loaf across, falling flat on its bottom with a 
bang on to the table of the other man. The writer suspecting this rough 
usage would make a concussion and a layer just where the head joins the 
bottom in the same way as severely bashing would, marked each loaf, and saw 
the expected result after baking. Sometimes a suitable oven and suitable 
access of heat to loaf will partly correct this layer of heaviness by helping 
to lift and re-expand it. This effect of oven is particularly noticeable in 
the folds, and the layer of closeness at the sides, in tin loaves. The sides 
will frequently become chilled by having a warm, free dough, which is more 
sensitive in this case, put into a cold tin. The tin is, of course, usually as 
cold on one side as the other, but the layer of heaviness is only on one 
side of loaf, and this is usually on the side that is the less baked, by being 
more closely set to another tin, the other side, when correct, having been 
well expanded by the sufficient heat. 



TEXTURE AND PILE 93 

Sometimes this same layer at the sides will come from the loaf proving 
in the tin a long while and getting cold at sides, but there again only one 
side is often affected for same reason ; on the other hand, a long while in tin 
will usually make the other parts coarse, Sometimes, as in a recent example, 
insufficient baking at the sides does not set the crust, which collapses or 
shrinks at sides, making a close layer. In the same way a loaf that is very 
fully proved, when put into an oven which is too cold for it, will often 
collapse in places, making thereby close spots, because the heat was not 
great enough to lift it. It will drop in oven either by the over proof or the 
constituents of the gluten, as elsewhere discussed, not being able to with- 
stand the strain ; it may also sometimes drop by the oven door being 
opened to put something else in too soon after batch had been set. The 
opposite course of action, namely, putting the loaves into a hot oven when 
underproved is fully discussed under the respective headings of holes and 
also of shape, as this course more often leads to distortion than to 
contraction. 

The above instances of the heaviness at sides being due to insufficient 
heat have come under the writers' personal observation, but when recently 
talking to a Scotchman on this subject, the latter said the layer of heaviness 
was due, on the contrary, to too hot an oven. He was referring to the 
usual plain or batch bread, and he may be perfectly correct in that case, 
because the extra heat by causing extra expansion may jam and compress 
the close packed sides too much against one another, although, as in the 
case of tin bread, the extra expansion ought to result in driving the loaf 
higher. Further reasons, similar to those already discussed above for other 
varieties of bread, were also given, such as too much highly refined flour, 
like Hungarian, too much salt and overwork in the quarter. Texture 
depending on many of the same conditions that favour good pile, it is not 
surprising to find that no district in the world makes on the whole such fine 
textured bread as the West of Scotland. 

A loaf is said to be of good pile when its gluten has been so changed 
and stretched as to enable a thin and bright layer of crumb to be skinned, 



94 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

or pulled off, from its side without breaking short. This flakiness or the 
facility with which layers can be detatched from outside crumby sides is in 
very close relation to texture, volume, quality of flour and correctness of fer- 
mentation, and is not of so much value in itself as it is the index of what 
the loaf is — what it has gone through. In order to get off this layer from 
the side of a crumby loaf, the gluten must have been changed on the one 
hand just enough, and, on the other, not too much. Unless mellowed, the 
gluten, which, of course, is the webbing of the loaf, and all that holds it 
together, will not be in a condition to stretch, will not be pliable ; but, on 
the other hand, if changed by fermentation too much, it will have lost its 
elasticity and break off short. 

To get good pile and texture, not only must the gluten be thus 
properly matured and be in a condition for stretching, but the stretching 
must be done, the fibres must constantly be stretched and folded over 
one another whereby they become finer in themselves, their length in- 
creased, and the mesh that they make be of smaller interstices. This, of 
course, means labour, and pile cannot be obtained without labour. But even 
when the flour is good, and the gluten of it changed, labour will not always 
make pile. Pile is the well-stretched gluten that gives that silky, glossy 
look, and no amount of labour will put in that appearance if the labour be 
applied after the flour is changed too much for it. If, for instance, a dough 
has got too ripe in the trough before much work is put into it, no amount of 
cutting back or handing up or braking, will then give the pile a silky look. 
It is too late. A coarse texture will not give the pile or silkiness like a fine. 
It is for this reason that many complain they cannot get such an appearance 
with an off-hand dough as with sponge and dough. The cutting back and 
handing up twice will not always make up for labour that should have been 
given earlier. If a sponge has gone too far, no amount of labour would make 
pile or silkiness out of that particular portion, but such a sponge is often 
saved, and the pile obtained from a sponge and dough because the lightness 
(a necessary item in pile) is obtained in the sponge, and then the dough is 
made with half the total quantity of flour reserved until that stage, which not 



TEXTURE AND PILE 95 

only levels up possible mistakes in the sponge, but necessitates more labour, 
and labour at a proper period, amalgamating stable gluten with the weakened. 

Pile is more heard of in Scotland and Ireland, because in those parts 
there is more close-packed or crumby or plain bread than here, and it is on 
the close-set bread that pile is, of course, more noticeable, but the texture and 
pile that is seen on the outside crumb must, to a certain extent, run through 
the whole loaf There is another point about pile that might be mentioned. 
We have seldom, just of late, had a good chance to judge the pile of a loaf 
in its perfection so far as such relates to the pulling off or skinning off the 
layer from side of crumb, according to the well-known test in such cases. 
Many of the loaves received have been through the post twice, and this 
skinning off must, to a large extent, depend on moisture. According, of 
course, to the baking, the time for testing pile in this way, should be about 
six or twelve hours after leaving oven. The loaf will be too soft before the 
steam is out of it in order to get the thin layer, and it will be too brittle and 
unpliable when dry on exterior, although moist enough inside. 

We have referred to the generally good pile of Scotland and to over 
ripeness of flour not making it, the same is also true of naturally soft flour 
which does not permit of pile, yet the local wheats of Scotland are softer than 
English. There will not be pile without ripeness but mere ripeness or 
change will not make pile without a good percentage of elastic gluten. In 
the same way that butter when incorporated with flour in one manner will 
make puff paste, and when incorporated in another manner will make short 
paste, so will differences in dough making affect the pile. We recently 
had a most conclusive example of this. In the same bakery with the same 
flour, and in fact with everything carefully noted to be the same, or it would 
not have been a fair test, several doughs were made in two different machines. 
One machine was of a very massive type, and having a full quantity of flour 
added to the water before starting mixing, made with its usual quickness a 
firm and solid dough ; the other machine was less massive and of more 
gentle action and took more than double the time, namely, exactly fifteen 
minutes. The flour in the latter case, instead of all being added before 



96 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

starting, was added gradually almost throughout the whole time of knead- 
ing and less of it was got into the dough, which by its gradual kneading 
and greater slackness recovered very quickly when placed in the trough. 
This produced a plain loaf of most excellent sheen, volume and pile and 
points ahead of the other. Tightness will spoil pile like unripeness, because 
the gluten has not only to be present but must also be stretched, and the 
pieces, although the dough wants to be thoroughly kneaded and firmly 
handled at all stages, must be taken with plenty of spring left in them. 
Inattention to these matters will mean on the one hand raggedness and 
roughness, and on the other hand smoothness and shortness and all the 
other signs of overwork. 

Since writing the main portion of the above we have just received two 
loaves from Scotland, both made by the same man and from practically the 
same flour, one from a half sponge system and the other from a straight 
dough. Although the former is a fair average loaf and nothing to complain 
of, the latter is without exaggeration the worst we have ever seen from 
North of the Tweed ; it has absolutely not a particle of pile, the finger nails 
dig into the crumby sides like a piece of cheese, which is quite impossible 
with the other loaf. It is heavy, dark both inside and out, small, of hard, 
coarse and uneven texture, and eating with a rawness, the whole fault 
being a great insufficiency of fermentation. 



VOLUME 

\ T the exhibitions and bread competitions held in London annually the sec- 
^^^ tion "Volume" has assigned to it a large proportion of marks, the 
divisions of which are already detailed in this chapter, it is therefore 
necessary to see what the term includes. The word Volume is derived from 
the Latin voluhim, meaning rolled, and originally meant merely a roll, as of 
parchment ; it then came to mean that which the roll contained, and then 











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Cu 



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VOLUME 97 

the size of the thing contained. It now would often refer to the size or 
dimensions of an article, but in the case of a loaf of bread, which one 
occasionally may hear described as "too large," it possibly in the mind of 
a bread judge includes other points, especially as the other sections, namely, 
colour, flavour, and texture leave some excluded. In addition to size, 
therefore, it possibly includes proportion, shape, and general outside 
appearance. 

Regarding size, it is hardly quite correct to call a loaf too big. From 
a buyer's standpoint, a larger article of daily consumption, all other things 
equal, is better value for money than a smaller, but if the extra size inter- 
feres with the other points or qualities, it should be the other points 
that should be noted as deficient rather than the volume as excessive. 
In other words, if the materials and manufacture have allowed the other 
points to be reached with perfectitj-n, then the bigger or better volumed loaf 
must be the better, and be entitkd to first place on that account. In this 
connection it would be as well to remind competitors of a little fact they 
seem to so often forget, namely, that 2 lbs. 4 ozs. of dough will make a bigger 
loaf than 2 lbs. without detraction of quality in other points. Large volume 
presupposes an active and ripe fermentation, and a flour with a good 
percentage of gluten of the right character. The gluten not only has a 
natural expansion of its own, but also enables a loaf to be of good volume, 
because of its balloon-like connection with the gases evolved during 
fermentation. 

Labour, as in the case of pile, has also a considerable effect on the 
volume of a loaf by the stretching and folding of the gluten, as seen in some 
sorts of bread, especially on the continent. Laziness and insufficient 
manipulation in conjuction with a good percentage of gluten will not give 
such good results in volume, pile, and lightness as judicious extra manipula- 
tion in conjuction with a smaller percentage of gluten. Moreover, the 
quality of the gluten, as more fully discussed under that heading, has more 
effect on volume than the quantity of gluten, by reason of better holding the 
gas and stretching with more elasticity. 



98 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

Although a naturally soft flour, or a flour with a big percentage of 
starch, will usually tend to decreased volume, owing to the usual variation 
in the proportion of the constituents of the gluten in such cases, it has 
been found that if starch be artificially added to a flour, that the effect on 
volume is not great. Ten per cent, natural variation in the quantity of 
starch in two flours would be excessive, and would have a far greater result 
on volume than if lo or even 20 per cent, be artificially added, because in 
the latter case the constituents of the gluten, namely, gliadin and glutenin, 
would still be in the same ratio to one another. In the same way it has 
been found that when the percentage of gluten has been artificially 
increased by removing some of the starch, that the volume has not been 
correspondingly increased to the same extent as it would have been by a 
flour naturally containing extra gluten. It will be further noticed, however, 
that a flour naturally containing a large or an excessive amount of gluten 
will not increase the volume as compared with a flour with a normal 
amount, in a ratio corresponding to the increase of gluten. 

The above facts are of the greatest importance, and are the whole base 
and reason for the advantages derived from blending wheats and flours. In 
addition to the amount and character of the gluten, there are the further 
points of the degree of fermentation and the amount of proof and gas in the 
loaf when about to be baked. The gluten must be mellowed or peptonised 
by fermentation in order to stretch and expand, yet must not be too much 
changed or it will collapse. Fermentation is usually considered to increase 
volume, and in long steady processes, divided into several stages, as in 
Scotland, this will usually be found to be so ; but when fermentation is ripe, 
there will be a gradual shrinkage from that point, the meshes close up and 
tissues contract, and a sour loaf will, all other things being equal, usually be 
found smaller than if taken sooner. A loaf cannot be of good volume 
without gas, and gas can be absent by the fermentation being excessively 
young or immature as well as by the fermentation having past its normal 
and vigorous stage. Our remarks elsewhere on proving and baking show 
how volume will be effected in the same way as shape, which also is 



DRYNESS 99 

separately discussed. A hot oven will usually lift and increase volume, 
according, however, to the proof. In a cold oven a young loaf would grow 
larger by getting better proof, but an overproved one would drop. Water 
in medium quantity, other things equal, will be better for expansion and 
volume than not enough, .but in excess will tend to closeness. 



DRYNESS 

TT^RYNESS in oread is a subject of very considerable importance, and 
^-"^ is a defect of comparatively recent growth. It might often be defined 
as absence of moisture, but it is not always so, for instance dryness or thirst 
is usually produced by a deficiency of liquid, although some liquids, such 
for instance as sea-water, considerably increase the thirst. In the case of 
bread, dryness is attributable largely to under-fermentation on the one 
hand, and over-fermentation on the other, and also as discussed under the 
heading of baking, by being too long in too slow an oven. In order for a loaf 
to be moist it is evident that a sufficient amount of water must be added, 
and, all things equal, a slack dough is usually found to make moister bread 
than a tight one, but it is not so much the amount of water that is added 
that keeps the loaf moist, as the way in which the moisture is retained. 

One of the chief factors in the retaining of water is the gluten, not only 
according to the percentage of the latter, but also according to the varying 
percentages of the constituents of which it is composed, and which have 
been considered under the separate head of gluten. For the moment it will 
suffice to say that glutenin will hold water better than the gliadin. If 
fermentation be incomplete there will be insufficient soluble matters formed, 
and if the fermentation has proceeded too far, the soluble bodies that were 
formed will have been consumed. It is easily seen therefore that in either 
case the result will be dryness, because the moisture of the loaf depends 
more on the amount of water that is combined with these soluble matters, 



loo THE BOOK OF BREAD 

than on the amount of water that, being unamalgamated, would be more 
easily evaporated or driven off. 

There are really two kinds of dryness as the result of the two different 
causes of under and over-fermentation, and they can be distinguished from 
one another on the one hand by the well-known characteristic of flinty 
crust, and, on the other hand, by a crumbly or sawdust dryness in the crumb, 
as discussed under the heading of crumbliness. Although steadiness and 
slowness of fermentation tends towards moisture, it is not true that heat 
always makes for dryness. One can have a dry loaf with a long, slow 
fermentation, or one can have a moist loaf with quick and hot fermentation. 
The difference is merely the amount of change of the constituents and the 
extent to which they are allowed to be unconsumed, and the rapidity of the 
change can have no direct effect ; but with the quick system where the 
changes are proceeding more rapidly, more precision is required, and any 
variation one side or the other would have more effect. Analogous cases 
can be taken of a fast and of a slow train, or of a man riding a bicycle or 
walking, all will usually arrive at their destination safely and well, but any 
accident or irregularity will be proportionately more severe when travelling 
at the quicker rate. 

We have mentioned above the broad fact that dryness is not only 
affected by the amount of fermentation and change of the gluten, but also by 
the percentage of the latter that is contained in the flour. It has been found 
by experiment that where the moisture contained in a loaf when made from 
a normal flour and tested twenty- four hours after baking was 38 per cent., 
when 10 per cent, of starch was added the moisture at the same period was 
found to be only 34 per cent, and when 20 per cent, of starch was added the 
moisture was only 33 per cent. Not only was the dryness thus measured, 
but the bread could be easily seen, by casually examining it in the usual way, 
to be dry and hard, which is a similar effect to that which is obtained when 
bread is made from flour that naturally contained a larger percentage of 
starch in proportion to gluten, such as is the case with flours produced from 
very starchy wheats, that are usually reserved for biscuit-making. Moreover, 



DRYNESS loi 

exactly the opposite result was seen when some of the starch was washed 
out from the dough, whereby the percentage of gluten left behind was of 
course increased. 

Exactly the same effect has been noticed also, in the ordinary way of 
business, when highly refined cornflour has been added to the batch, the 
cornflour, being the starch and product of maize, having none of the 
characteristics of gluten contained in wheat. And further the finely 
dressed product of maize, which is known commercially as cornflour, the 
same as that from which blanc-manges are made, was found to make a very 
much drier and more bound loaf than the coarser ground and dressed pro- 
duct of maize, known as maize flour. It was also found that where maize 
cones, as usually used in the bakehouse for preventing dough sticking, had 
the same effect of making bread dry, these coarse cones had less effect in 
this respect than fine cornflour. When mixing this cornflour and also 
wheaten starch with ordinary flour, no material difference was noticed in 
the amount of water which the flour absorbed, the dryness therefore was 
the result of a greater amount of the water originally added being evapor- 
ated. Although starch, when thus in its raw state, has this effect of making- 
bread dry, it is not in all cases that decreasing the gluten would increase 
dryness. It is not found so when this starch is scalded, cooked or gelatinized, 
as it is sometimes called. The eff"ect then is exactly the opposite, the dryness 
is decreased, the moisture being permanently increased, because of the starch 
being rendered soluble and taking the water up into its own constitution. 
This addition of scalded flour will be further considered under its own 
heading and also under the heading of yield of bread, but in passing it 
might be remarked that, according to the quantity used, the moisture of 
the bread has been increased to a greater extent than when using normal 
quantities of sugar or malt extract. 

There are also other substances that, although they decrease the 
percentage of gluten, which decrease was seen under some circum- 
stances to make dryness, are used with satisfactory results in different 
districts. One of these is lard which keeps the crust moist and short, 



102 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

but the use of this, particularly in ordinary bread in England, is an 
exception. It is largely used in America, and to a smaller extent 
in some sorts in Scotland, but in respect to the present subject of 
dryness it has practically no effect in the proportion of less than 2 
or 3 lbs. per sack of 280 lbs., having in that quantity less effect than 
malt extract. In this respect it would also be as well to , mention 
that in this country, it is popular to say that American flour is dry 
and makes dry bread, but the bread made in America with large 
quantities of lard, malt extract, and oftentimes other matters, has not 
earned the reputation of being dry. It may be said however that 
American bread is more often baked in smaller loaves than ours, being 
well crusted and more generally eaten when new. 

The addition of lard seems to increase the percentage of glycerine 
which helps to retain water. This glycerine is normally produced in small 
quantities during ordinary fermentation ; it is added in this country to 
cakes and found to keep them moist, and there are some in America that 
add a pound of it to each barrel of flour, ten barrels (196 lbs.) being equal 
to seven sacks (280 lbs.). This glycerine is best dissolved in hot water 
and added with the remainder of the liquor, but many prefer to get 
similar results by adding double the amount of glucose. 

When the water of a loaf dries out, making the bread stale, the 
result is not only seen in the dryness, but also in the hardness of the 
loaf When, however, the above matters are freely added, the loaf is 
very much softer and moister to the feel, and the crumb does not seem to 
fall away into such fine crumbs. This is seen in the case of lard. Although 
as said elsewhere large additions of scalded flour are apt to increase crumbli- 
ness as soon as the water has evaporated, the degree of this evaporation 
according to the length of time of baking, or the heat of the oven, has 
already been said to be greater when baked for a long time in a cool oven, 
than when baked for a short time in a hot one. This will be further 
affected by the spacing of the loaves in the oven, namely by the amount of 
crust, the moisture evaporating subsequently less quickly when there is crust 



DRYNESS 103 

all round than when a loaf is crumby set. On the other hand in the case 
of cottage loaves where the top happens to be very small and the crown of 
the oven very hot, the top will thus be baked quickly, and it would be an 
advantage to it if drawn from the oven when baked, but by not being drawn 
until the whole is ready it naturally gets over-baked which of course is a cause 
of dryness in that particular part, too much water being expelled in the first 
instance although leaving less to be evaporated subsequently. All other 
things being equal, the bigger the volume and the coarser the texture, of 
course the greater will be the natural evaporation. Up to a certain point, 
however, it is most likely to be moist if spongy and pliable, as that is a sign 
of good aeration and quality of gluten. To some small extent the amount 
of the kneading will have effect because, with time for recovery, kneading 
and well mixing makes the dough pliable, and a pliable crumb is not usually 
dry. A pliable crumb often indicates a slack dough. 

The presence in flour of germ, which contains oil and fat, has effect 
in keeping the loaf moist, as can be seen by getting some germ from one's 
miller and adding a small portion of it to the flour. Its soluble and unstable 
character renders its removal by the miller necessary because it deteriorates 
on keeping, but when added in a fresh state it has a welcome effect for a 
change. Although one is always far too ready to blame the flour for 
any undesirable characteristic of the bread, it is very frequently noticed 
that when, from some cause or other foreign flour is very cheap and thus 
used in greater proportion, and although it may not be the fault of the flour, 
it is nevertheless then that we hear more complaints concerning dry bread. 
And recently on the contrary, when harsher flours have been less used, no 
matter what might be the reason, it is equally true that the complaints of 
dryness have been less. Not only the condition and characteristics of the 
wheat, but also the way in which it is milled can have considerable effect, 
when the degree of fermentation is the same in all cases. The fineness, 
referred to above, in the case of the cornflour is also seen in the fineness and 
dryness of wheaten flour. Highest-priced flours when obtaining that price 
more on account of their fineness or their small percentage of the total flour. 



I04 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

rather than on the differences in various qualities of wheats, often tend to 
dryness. This is seen in the case of high-priced Viennas, the highest grades 
of which are often only a 5 per cent, patent, and bread made therefrom 
is usually dry and insipid, which would be particularly noticeable in the so- 
called Vienna bread made in this country, if it were not for the shortening 
or other materials added, and it is still more so when such doughs are made 
with too little water. 

The practice of washing wheats for removing dirt, or damping the bran 
to render subsequent milling easier, is not done with the view of increasing 
moisture in the flour, in fact, on the contrary, where wheats are milled in 
damp condition there is usually a smaller percentage of flour produced, and 
damp flour is always a considerable nuisance in decreasing the capacity of 
the machines, or in clogging the numerous spouts present in modern roller 
mills. In respect of dryness, it will thus often be found that straight run 
flour from a good grist of wheat, well milled, will be better than a smaller 
percentage of a worse grist. Large and small quantities of yeast would 
by themselves have little effect, the moisture depending, except for the 
reason as given above in the case of heat, more on the amount of the 
fermentation and degradation than the speed. 

Staleness in bread is not entirely a question of loss of water, the crumb 
of new bread usually containing from 38 to 48 per cent, of moisture and the 
crust from 16 to 24 per cent, according, of course, to the extent of baking. 
When the loaf becomes stale the inequality of the water between its parts 
decreases, the crust absorbing some which the crumb had. If a loaf with a 
dry crumb is again put into the oven, it would be found that the crust again 
becomes drier and the crumb moister, and although the loaf as a whole 
> would not contain so much moisture as when new, it would by the second 
baking seem very much moister thereby, although it would more likely, 
more so than before, soon again become hard and dry. A loaf during 
baking, according to its size, shape, and other conditions already mentioned, 
will lose from 2 to 4 ozs. on the 2 lbs., and more in exceptional cases ; a 
reasonable amount however being about 2 J ozs. What it loses after leaving 



DRYNESS 105 

the oven will also depend on the condition under which it is kept. It will 
lose if kept under good conditions fully i oz. per day for the first two days, 
it will usually lose more, naturally, on a hot dry day than on a cold and 
moist, and as a matter of personal experience a loaf taken out on the top 
of a cart during the afternoon in the ordinary course of serving customers 
has been found to be 2 ozs. less on arriving home than when starting, even 
although it had previously lost some during the course of cooling. 

White bread, it is safe' to state, contains from 2il to 40 per cent., and 
sometimes more of water; that means about 12 ozs. water in a 2-lb. loaf. 
The majority of this water,, will evaporate under natural conditions, and all 
could be driven out by special treatment. The first few ounces v/ill be lost 
very rapidly. Some time ago we received by post a cottage loaf at 11 a.m., 
which was then probably twenty-four hours old, and which, from previous 
experience, had in that time lost fully one ounce. When put on the scale 
on arrival at 11 a.m., it was exactly full weight, fully keeping down the 
scale beam on its own side. Being left there on the scale untouched until 
1 1 P.M. — twelve hours — the scale beam was seen to have changed position, 
the loaf having lost enough weight for the beam to rise of its own accord 
on its own side, and of course be depressed on the other, and more than 
half an ounce weight was necessary to again balance. Fifty hours 
after arrival, it was i^ ounces short, although except for the first twelve 
hours after arrival it had been kept under best conditions for moisture in 
close contact with other bread and covered by a cloth. In many cases, such 
as when exposed to the draught, and oftentimes sun, on the top of a van, the 
loss would be very much more. The natural moisture in flour will vary 
from 9 to 14 per cent., and taking 12 per cent, as a good mean for flour 
milled in this country, that would be ^■^\ lbs. or nearly 3 J gallons in every 
sack of 280 lbs., and to this, in order to make dough, a further 14 gallons 
usually, but varying from 13 up to 18 gallons, would be added by the baker. 
The term dryness as applied to bread is therefore relative only and not 
absolute, being a mere sensation, because the driest of half quarterns is 
seen to be composed of about one-third of water. 

o 



io6 THE BOOK OF BREAD 



CRUMBLINESS 

/^"^RUMBLINESS in bread, like so many other defects, is said to be 
^-^ produced by a number of different circumstances, but, on close ex- 
amination, it can always be said to be caused by the flour being unable to 
withstand the strain to which it is subjected. The effect of the strain is, of 
course, in proportion to the quality of the flour, and the strain can be given 
in different ways, but crumbliness is more frequently due to over-fermenta- 
tion or overproof than anything else. It is very seldom that heavy or 
underproved bread crumbles, crumbly bread usually being very light. Also, 
the drier the bread the more it will usually crumble, as borne out by the 
fact that a loaf will crumble, when once the steam is out of it, more, and in 
finer crumbs when stale than new. It is oftentimes not fair to test crumbli- 
ness by cutting the loaf when hot, as the drag of the knife will depend 
much on the sharpness of it, and the way in which it is used. A sawing 
action makes a very much cleaner face than any attempt to push the knife 
through it as if cutting a piece of cheese ; in fact, such a loaf is a torn or 
jagged rather than a crumbled one, because, although it is difficult to 
spread slices, there are really no fine crumbs produced. Crumbliness, like 
so many other features in a loaf, depends largely on the gluten, that is, the 
way in which the threads of gluten, that are present throughout the loaf like 
a net, are able to hold together the other portions of the loaf Gluten 
requires a certain amount of fermentation and moisture before it is the 
perfection of elasticity and tenacity ; it then gradually loses its capacity for 
binding the loaf together, and anything that weakens or decreases the per- 
centage of gluten on the one hand, or anything that toughens it on the 
other, must therefore have an effect on crumbliness. 

Labour and salt have a considerable effect in checking the weakening 
and peptonising effect to which gluten is subjected in fermentation. 
These points, together with the lowness of the temperature and the 



CRUMBLINESS 



107 



strength of the flour, are those which enable the long sponge process in 
Scotland to be attended with far less effect on the crumbling of the loaf 
than a similar time when given under other conditions typical of other 
parts. Salt frequently not only steadies the fermentation but has a 
binding influence. It is frequently noticed during flour testing that if 
one has two glutens, one exposed to the air, and the other under water, 
that, when proceeding to test them shortly afterwards, the one that 
has been kept moist stretches most without breaking off short — in other 
words, it ['has become mellowed, and had its properties developed, and 
thus able to stand the strain better than the drier and unmellowed one. 
This same characteristic will sometimes be seen in tight dough which on 
baking cracks and bursts, whereas a slack one, under the same other con- 
ditions, stretches and expands evenly. In the same way a tin loaf, that 
is not overproved, will have a nice, light, pliable crumb, and not be in the 
least crumbly. 

There is therefore no necessity for a tin loaf to be crumbly, and the 
reason that so many are, is because they are usually, in mixed batches, 
moulded first and set in last, and made to subject themselves to the con- 
venience of the remainder of the batch, and not only become more proved 
than the remainder, but frequently too much so. Except for over proof, the 
slacker the dough the less crumbly it is likely to be, because moisture will 
always of itself have a restraining effect. Crumbliness is usually the opposite 
of harshness. With more freeness in the trough than anticipated, an extra 
knock down or turn over before throwing out will frequently prevent the loaf 
from being crumbly, because crumbliness can come from over-fermentation 
in the trough as well as overproof in the moulded loaf stage, either in the case 
of a tin or a cottage loaf. When a loaf is under proved, it is often irregular 
in texture, that is, it may have large holes in some parts at the same time 
as a fine texture in the rest of the loaf; but when a loaf is over proved, it 
will frequently be of regular texture, that is, it will have neither large holes 
nor fine texture, but have a uniform coarseness. It is this even or uniform 
texture and coarseness that results in crumbly bread, crumbliness being 



io8 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

oftentimes the result of too much recovery after moulding, as opposed to 
holes being from insufficient recovery. With loaves of the same evenness 
of mesh in the texture the difference in the crumbliness will often be the 
amount of moisture, a moist loaf crumbling less than a dry one. It is 
here that the oven may have effect, and crumbly loaves, the same as dry 
ones, will very often be produced by baking too long a time in too slow an 
oven. ' 

It is sometimes said that insufficient soaking or baking to the centre 
causes crumbliness, but certainly the opposite is far more usual. Of 
course, however, where the loaf is overloaded with water, and the gluten 
be overtaxed, it is a case of the load or strain being too much to carry, and 
is hardly normal in white bread, although it will frequently happen in 
brown. Loaves that have been made from long process are not only 
weakened in their gluten but, of course, require longer time for baking, and 
there can be cases where insufficient baking does not harden or hold 
together the particles as it should do, and allows them to become coarse. 

It was remarked above that anything that decreased the percentage 
of the gluten would have an effect on crumbliness, and we have in 
this connection frequently noticed that the addition of large quantities 
of scalded flour have caused loaves to be crumbly when stale, although 
not so noticeably when still moist. We have also noticed that the 
addition of lard in ordinary loaves has a tendency to make them crumbly, 
although there are plenty of cases, such, for instance, as in French 
bread as made in Scotland, or the tea bread from the same place, where 
they have been perfectly firm and solid in cutting, but then the dough 
has frequently been considerably laboured and toughened by a brake or 
otherwise. In the case of cakes, with which we are not so immediately 
concerned, crumbliness is usually due to excessive lightness, and reducing 
the chemicals or adding stronger flour has frequently been found to be a 
cure. 



SOURNESS 109 



SOURNESS 

"DREAD cannot be sour without acid, but bread containing acid is not 
"^^^ necessarily sour. It is a question of degree. Before further going 
into the question, one can at once say that as far as the baker is concerned, 
sour bread is practically always the result of too much fermentation, that is, 
too long a process of bread-making, the time being in proportion to the 
speed. 

The acids found in sour bread are lactic, acetic, and butyric. The lactic 
is the acid of sour milk, and exists in sour bread to a greater extent than the 
acetic and butyric, and is thus often said to be the cause of sourness. Sour 
bread, however, not only tastes sour, but smells sour ; and lactic acid, 
although usually accompanied by other odours, is itself perfectly odourless, 
or without smell. The proportion and amount of these acids in sour bread 
will be governed by the variations and extent of different systems of bread- 
making, but the lactic will often amount to 85 to 90 per cent, by weight, where- 
as the acetic will only be about 5 to 10 per cent, and the butyric very much 
less still. The latter, however, by its objectionable character is far more 
noticeable than its weight would indicate, and the actual percentage of acid 
present is not always an absolute verdict as regards the sensation of sourness 
in the bread ; because not only are some acids seen to be more readily de- 
tected by the senses of smell and taste, but also the larger amounts of 
salt employed, and even the coarser or stronger flavour of some flours will 
counteract or hide the presence of the acid in different degrees. Lactic acid 
is, undoubtedly, always present in dough, and it is only when allowed to get 
to excess, or when the sugars and flavour of the flour are exhausted by too 
much fermentation and not replaced by some other flavour, that its acidity 
strikes on the palate, giving what is called sour bread. This principle Is 
further dealt with under the heading of flavour. 

In some bread there will not be more than about four or five parts of 



no THE BOOK OF BREAD 

acid in 10,000, but there must be much more in Scotch bread, where the 
presence of lactic acid is rather preferred than otherwise, being liked for its 
action on the gliadin of the gluten as well as for its flavour ; and it would 
be awkward, in the presence of a powerful Scot, to call his bread sour. At 
one time one used to hear sour bread attributed to disease germs in the 
yeast, which could be seen by the microscope, but on the principle that a 
germ cannot produce its by-products when surrounded by an excess of them, 
the lactic acid germ sometimes is largely added in the preliminary stages 
during the manufacture of yeast, so that it should not produce so much 
acid afterwards. The lactic germ is smaller, yet quicker in its action than 
yeast ; it ferments glucose like yeast, but instead of producing alcohol and 
carbonic acid gas, except in traces (it is stimulated rather than otherwise by 
the latter gas), it makes lactic acid. The sugar of milk is its best food in 
a temperature of 90 to 100 degs. F., and it is checked by alkalies as well as 
strong acids. 

Acetic acid, or vinegar, is produced from alcohol by the action of free 
oxygen. At one time it was thought that this combining of the alcohol 
of the dough with the oxygen of the air, otherwise called the oxidation of 
the alcohol, was the cause of sour bread, by reason of the production of acetic 
acid, which, however, we have seen above is but a small proportion of the 
total of the acid of sour bread. This reaction is employed in making 
vinegar, but the action takes place only by extreme exposure to the air, and 
for a long period, and is altogether too slow to be compared to the formation 
in the bakery of acids by fermentation. Like the lactic, it hastens fermenta- 
tion and peptonises or mellows the gluten. The butyric germ, on the con- 
trary, does not want free oxygen, and hinders fermentation, and although it 
develops at less, it likes best a temperature of 105 degs. F., or about 10 degs. 
more than the acetic germ. It derives its name from its connection with 
rancid butter, in which it largely exists, but it can be obtained from starch 
products and lactic acid. 

The acids produced in bread-making are mostly organic, lactic being 
the chief, by the splitting up of the compound starch and sugar into 



SOURNESS 1 1 1 

different products than those produced by yeast ; it is therefore not difficult 
to understand the important fact that a vigorous yeast fermentation, provided 
it be stopped soon enough, is a most effectual check to the developme,nt of 
acid or sourness. This is abundantly proved to be the case in practice, 
because nowthat short processes with larger quantities of yeast are more used, 
there is certainly less sour and twangy bread than there used to be ; and 
amongst the hundreds of loaves we receive from all parts of the kingdom, 
we have had plenty of sour and nasty ones from long processes, but seldom 
any from a quick and short system. The whole purpose of this book is to 
avoid long words, dry matter, or matter difficult to understand ; and we 
had some hesitation to insert the following formulae, for the fear of their 
looking too chemical or too advanced, but they are really very simple, and 
so clearly summarise much of what has just been said, that they cannot 
otherwise than help towards understanding. 

In healthy bread fermentation by yeast the starch is first changed into 
maltose (and dextrine), and then into glucose, and then the glucose into 
alcohol as follows : — 

CgHiPe = 2C2HgHO + 2CO2 

Glucose into Alcohol and Carbonic acid gas. 
Then the alcohol is changed to acetic acid thus — 



Then — 



C2H5HO + o = H2O + c^up 

Alcohol with Oxygen into Water and Aldehyde. 

C^Up + O = HC2H3O2 



Aldehyde and Oxygen into Acetic acid. 
The lactic is derived thus — 

CeHiaOg = SCgHgOg 

Glucose into Lactic acid. 

The butyric is derived thus — 

2C3H6O3 = C^HgOg + 2CO2 + H^ 

Lactic acid into Butyric acid and Carbonic acid gas and Hydrogen. 

Commercially we cannot exclude these foreign ferments ; we may buy 
the best flour, the purest yeast, have our bakery furnished throughout with 



112 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

glazed tiles, frequently washed down, have all tubs, tables, and troughs 
scrupulously clean and pure by means of the live steam jet or the solution 
of bisulphite of lime, but even then we must make up our minds to have 
these aids to nature always with us. Twenty ruffians in Trafalgar Square 
without a policeman will be more dangerous than twenty thousand in Hyde 
Park under proper control. We cannot purge society of its blacklegs, so we 
make laws and appoint custodians of those laws. Likewise we cannot 
annihilate lactic germs from our bakeries, but we can decide upon rules, and 
place a strong cordon of yeast cells over the unruly. It is a question of roughs 
V. policemen, or yeast v. souring bacteria. The power of one organism 
to overthrow or check another depends on the relative numbers of these 
originally present, the medium in which they grow, and the temperature. 
Both yeast and the souring organisms will up to a certain point become 
more active with an increase of temperature, but if yeast be in the ascen- 
dant, it will still more be so if accelerated anywhere up to 95 degs. F., and 
practice blames theory for saying that (as lactic, acetic, and butyric ferments 
flourish best respectively at 95 degs. and 104 degs. F.) sour bread is thus 
accelerated by the increase of temperature. Some writers claim that this 
theory of increased temperature producing sourness is borne out by practice. 
It is true a warm and free sponge or dough, by reason of its extra speed, 
will more quickly run over the precipice if not stopped, but it is the neglect 
to stop, and not the temperature, that has done the mischief 

With impure yeast (if enough of it and worked freely) and inferior flour, 
with many lactic germs, it is possible to make sweet bread ; but the best 
of yeast and the best of flour is no absolute immunity against sourness. As 
long as the yeast is more vigorous than that of the souring germs, and thus 
sets up a more powerful molecular motion (similar to the conduction of heat) 
on the area of the sugar and nitrogen supply, it has a first claim on these 
stimulants to the detriment of other organisms which are less numerous or 
less stimulated. When the yeast begins to flag, either by reason of the 
harmful accumulation of its by-products, or by the consumption of the sugar 
and nitrogen in the form required, and has so changed this nitrogen to render 



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SOURNESS 113 

it suitable for the lower organisms, these lower organisms no longer have even 
their comparatively unsuitable food wrested from them. But, on the contrary, 
• they have ample supply of less complex molecules of sustenance, and as their 
acid products are not consumed nor then hidden by other flavours, they 
accumulate apace, and their products taint their bed. If fermentation had 
been stopped by baking earlier, all mischief would be saved ; and the period 
at which the flagging of the yeast occurs and the acid products of the lower 
germs accumulate, must depend on all the various conditions of fermentation 
elsewhere discussed. It is not strictly scientific to imply any battle of the 
germs, but the point desired to be emphasized is that in practice sour bread, 
with similar materials, barely ever comes with a lot of yeast, worked 
vigorously for a short time, and is far more general with small quantities of 
yeast, worked sluggishly over a long period. 

The yeast does not flag entirely because it has no food left, as it is 
quite possible, as illustrated personally by experiments, for it to starve even 
in the presence of abundance of sugar. Each organism becomes accus- 
tomed to certain conditions ; as these become unfavourable less proportion 
of their specific products are formed. Yeast without nourishment under- 
goes changes as regards its by-products very similar to that of putrid 
fermentation. When it is under conditions of moisture and warmth 
suitable for growing and feeding on the food which is not present, it feeds 
on its own protoplasm, decreasing it in weight and producing acetic acid. 
Yeast can produce a certain amount of acetic acid, but the amount is largely 
increased when feeding on itself or "softening." Acetic and lactic acids 
are more appreciably formed with free oxygen, but the butyric ferment is 
best without. Butyric and acetic, unlike lactic, have both a characteristic 
smell, and the remark concerning the formation of acid when the yeast is 
weak, will apply more to these than the lactic. By reason of lactic acid 
having no smell, it would be possible for a dough to be sour to the taste 
without being detected by the usual test by the nose, if other acids had not 
been allowed to be produced at the same time. 

Although one has said the mere presence of these disease germs 



114 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

will not necessarily make a loaf sour, there are more of them in low 
grade flours, and bad yeast, and dirty utensils than in better 
materials, and in that case more precautions would have to be taken to 
prevent their development. This is particularly true concerning the 
butyric. The more the yeast was impure the more it would likely to be 
faint, not only because of the impurities but also because their greater 
presence would often indicate a yeast of inferior manufacture in other 
respects, and a greater quantity of yeast would then be required to get the 
same amount of vigorous fermentation. Some people reduce the yeast the 
next day after getting sour bread, or keep back a dough by taking it up cold 
when the sponge has dropped too much, but there is far more sour bread 
made by too little yeast and too low a temperature than by a lot of yeast. 
Extra yeast has never of itself produced sour bread, but has often saved it. 
For instance, with an overwrought sponge the right thing to do would be to 
add more yeast when making dough, and take it warm, and then throwing 
out and getting into oven quicker than usual, and into as hot an oven as 
possible. It would also be advisable, if possible, to make a bigger dough 
than originally intended, whereby the sourness of the sponge would be more 
distributed and less noticed. It is on this principle that a piece of leaven, 
which is sour dough, is made into a batch of sweet, crusty, and crisp bread. 
It must not be forgotten that a sponge or a dough, like a pear or any other 
fruit, often takes a long while to get to maturity, but when once there it 
decays or gets rotten with inordinate speed. 

Irrespective of taste and smell, a sour loaf can usually be detected by 
the eye. It has been shown that when the dough has been over-fermented the 
gluten has been so changed in character as to take very little, if any, bloom, 
or healthy crust colour, even if baked in a hot oven. The crust will be 
grey, without gloss, without brightness, and have no roughness between top 
and bottom, and be generally smooth and dull, and with dark or purple 
edges, particularly where the heat has not much access. The crust will 
be sunken and skinny, and be in putty-like ridges. The crust will splinter 
too much, and the crumb will crumble. The loaf will be shrunk and not 



ROPY BREAD 115 

well expanded by the baking. The crumb will have gone back in colour, 
and will be of close texture, fine in most places, and without small bright 
holes distributed throughout the loaf, but probably a big one here and there. 
The head, in the case of a cottage, will, when pulled, come off in the hand 
with very little resistance, and will be often almost falling off. The shiny 
corners and dark patches further indicate the state of the interior, and the 
whole, even at a distance, is instinctively repulsive. 



ROPY BREAD 

TDOPY bread may be defined as that bread which, when broken asunder, 
shows fine silvery threads. Characteristics that accompany, although 
not necessarily constituting it, are a soft, wet, sticky and clammy crumb, 
and oftentimes, although otherwise of ordinary external appearance, a red 
and immature crust. Another feature usually accompanying is a character- 
istic putrefactive smell, which, however, is not necessarily the work of the 
ropy germ alone, but also of other germs which obtain the opportunity to 
function. When yeast acts on soluble starch and sugar, it is inverted into 
maltose (about 80 per cent.) and dextrin, then into glucose, which is finally, 
with traces of glycerin and succinic acid, changed into about equal weights 
of alcohol and carbonic acid gas. When the ropy or viscous germ acts on 
glucose, the result is a peculiar sugar, known as mannite (50 per cent), and 
a gummy substance similar to dextrin (44 per cent.), and carbonic acid gas 
(6 per cent.). 

Amongst the causes that have been suggested, dirty troughs are usually 
the first named. We know w^here the lining of a trough was taken out and 
fully half a bucketful of the usual evil-smelling slime was removed from be- 
hind, yet the owner had been there many years, and had also worked a long 
process, with brewers' yeast, which is often blamed, yet never had rope. We 
also have exhibited a loaf made entirely of such matter which had no yeast 



ii6 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

in it whatever to check the ropy germ, it was also made slack, and then 
under proved, and then baked in a cool oven, all of which are said occasion- 
ally to be causes, but there was no rope. Some of the last ropy loaves we 
received came from an efficient factory of only a few weeks old, — with 
glazed tiles and movable troughs, etc., etc., — which was said to be spotlessly 
clean. Other men have still had ropy bread after cleansing everything with 
antiseptics, and we have made good bread in a trough that was blamed for 
the disease. 

Uncleanliness may conduce, under favourable circumstances, to the 
breeding of the germs that give rope, but before bread can be ropy, 
the germs must not only be present, and also in large quantities, but also 
must have opportunity to thrive in the dough, by not being outnumbered or 
held in check by the yeast. They must have strength, suitable temperature 
and moisture to develop and make their products after the yeast has ceased 
to work, oftentimes after going into oven. It is a case of germs + medium 
+ opportunity. Sometimes the disease will have sufficiently developed to 
be discernible when drawing batch, but more usually it will not show itself 
until the next day or day after. The flour is sometimes given as the cause, 
and certainly flour from sprouted wheat would give a better medium. We 
know of three batches made all in the same way in every particular, excepting 
that the third and only ropy batch was made with lower quality flour. That 
would perhaps convince some it was the flour, but in a certain large town 
very many people had ropy bread at the same time, but were not, of course, 
all using the same flour, it having come, as usual, from many districts. 

Ropy germs are often found in the wheat husk, and, of course, there is 
more of the husk in cheap flour than in the best flour, and, likewise, more 
still in wholemeal. Ropy germs are present frequently in malt, but we have 
made loaves, and wholemeal ones as well, with an excess of malt extract 
which were clammy and sticky, and kept so for days, but were not ropy. 
Moreover when pieces of dough from the same batch were held over and 
given more proof even the stickiness disappeared, the loaf of the series that 
was baked last being quite free from the excess, the yeast having consumed it. 



ROPY BREAD 117 

In the same way yeast will eat up the gum formed by the viscous 
ferment, if the yeast be stimulated or fresh be added. The published 
experiments of the celebrated chemist Heron show the ropy or viscous 
ferment to be present in practically all yeast. He rarely examined a sample 
without it, therefore one cannot lay the blame, as many do, of the sudden 
appearance of ropy bread to the variety or any particular sample of yeast. 
Bread made without yeast (and also, of course, cakes) is also sometimes 
affected. More aeration and more baking would help to correct the evil, 
although seed cakes are usually most affected and are not so heavy as others. 
The same chemist found the ropy germ even in the shavings that had been 
planed off tubs and utensils. " Invariably found them teeming with rope." 

Some blame the potatoes. The viscous germ is sometimes called a 
potato bacillus, being so named because it was first discovered in a 
potato, and is usually present in the skin and eyes. But we get plenty 
of ropy bread without potatoes. With slack doughs, the loaf, of 
course, takes longer to bake, and the moisture left is more likely to be 
greater, and moisture helps development of germs like viscous ones, 
which withstand heat of oven better than yeast. Although the immature 
ones are killed, many of the stronger ones can live in the crumb after 
baking. They have been known to stand boiling for five hours, and, 
of course, the centre of a loaf does not much exceed boiling. If 
baked in smaller loaves heat not only penetrates easier, but more of the 
loaf is subjected to the crust temperature, which would be approaching 
double that of the crumb, and no germs grow in the crust. 

There are several sorts of ropy germs. Under 70 degs. F. they grow 
very slowly. The bacilhis viscous flourishes best at 86 degs. F. according 
to Schutzenberger, and the so-called bactermm viscous vini best at 60 to 62 
degs. F. When two loaves taken from same batch were placed after baking 
to cool in temperatures of 104 and 40 degs. F. respectively, one was ropy 
and the other not, a warm close atmosphere considerably stimulated the 
development of the ropy germ. Cases have been known with loaves from 
same batch where some were kept in the bakehouse, covered over with 



ii8 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

sacks, and some taken up to the cool shop, being, as far as could be 
ascertained, the same in all other respects: the former were ropy, the 
latter were not. Bread that was made from specially grown yeast in a 
laboratory was found to be ropy. 

When yeast is faint in summer it is frequently so because of 
having "softened," that is, having commenced feeding upon itself or 
having commenced to undergo decomposition, and the water with 
which the softened yeast was washed was found to contain a gummy 
matter and an uncrystallisable syrupy substance. As ropiness sometimes 
does not develop until a day or two after baking, much bread is eaten 
with a full force of germs in it, but they are quite harmless to the con- 
sumer, being similar in that respect to many other germs that are expressly 
cultivated. It is a well-known fact that certain germs are sown so as to 
counteract others. At one time some used to talk of the freedom of yeast 
from bacteria as a criterion of its commercial value; that may be so m 
some cases, but certain yeast manufacturers put acid germs into it in order 
to check subsequent development. 

Lactic acid germs are recommended by authorities on the Con- 
tinent, where the leaven process is used, for checking rope. This may 
have some small bearing on the freedom of Scotch bread from rope, 
although, of course, there are more important factors in that case ; for 
instance, although the Scotch process is long and slow, it is really a very 
powerful and well-conducted fermentation. There is an immense amount 
of yeast grown throughout its long process, and although steady, the 
fermentation is very different to the differently handled, starved and half- 
dead doughs that favour rope ; it is like the slow working hydraulic ram, 
which has great force and cannot be easily checked. The fermentation is 
so complete that everything in the way of gummy matter or a suitable nidus 
is eaten up and dried out. There is, moreover, the great bulk, and further 
the very perfect aeration of the Scotch loaf, and a long process being the 
rule every precaution is accustomed to be taken. It is not a slow fermenta- 
tion in the sense of being a faint or a starved one ; it is progressive all the 



ROPY BREAD 119 

time. The so-called native germ of cheese and butter, the one corresponding 
to the yeast of bread, is the lactic bacillus, and it has been found, and 
is done commercially, that the best way to prevent the effects of mouldy or 
rancid or tallowy flavour giving microbes, is to get rid of as many of the 
latter as possible, but being unable to get rid of all of them, a strong crop 
of lactic germs is grown in a "ferment" just like a baker's. This is then 
added to the bulk, so that the native or desirable germs so outnumber the 
undesirable ones as to arrest their action long enough to allow the cheese to 
ripen with the flavour as desired. This is an uncontroverted fact and is 
on all fours with what is required in the case of yeast in bread in order to 
keep down rope. 

It is said that sunstroke is not due directly to the sun, and it is 
well known that some people can stand a blazing sun better than others, 
and themselves stand it better at some times than at others, according 
to their health, but the hot weather provides the conditions necessary for 
the development of the sunstroke organisms. It is the same with two 
people going into an infectious place, the one catching disease, the other 
not. The germs of many diseases are always in the air, but occasionally 
the conditions are more suitable for their development and powers of 
destruction than at others. When they increase in the air more people 
fall victims, and there is an epidemic, there are then extra precautions 
taken to decrease and prepare against them. It is the same again in the 
botanical world. Grains of wheat can lie on the table and elsewhere 
dormant for long periods. They are not dead, although inactive, but when 
they are placed in the warmth and moisture of the soil they fecundate. 

It is therefore seen that in the study of ropy bread many principles are 
involved. When preparing to give a lecture on the subject we made a 
series of loaves in all the various ways that are said to cause the trouble 
but could not get a case of rope. It was in the autumn and the germs 
were evidently scarce, although cases have been known in the winter. For 
the past ten years or so we have never passed a summer without getting 
cases sent by correspondents whom we have never failed to relieve promptly. 



I20 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

In conclusion, then, there is seen to be really no one cause except the 
triumph of the ropy germ over the yeast or gas. When this serious 
disease asserts itself one must first take all precautions to decrease the 
germs by clean utensils and good materials as much as possible, and more 
particularly increase the vigour and maturity of the fermentation instead 
of checking it. It is necessary to get more gas, more ripeness, more 
lightness, thereby less stickiness and more dryness and more thorough 
baking, and then quick cooling. 



HOLES IN BREAD 

/^^ONCERNING holes in bread there are many conflicting opinions. 
Men engaged daily in the handling of dough differ ; thinking men 
who commit their thoughts to paper are diametrically opposed ; but we think 
the differences of opinion would disappear if the different kinds of holes were 
kept in mind, and the subject more fully discussed. Holes in bread may 
be divided into two classes — those, on the one hand, which are more or less 
distributed in a loaf, being of medium size and numerous, and those, on the 
other hand, which are very large, being only one or at most two in the 
entire loaf. There are many subsidiary causes, which we shall proceed to 
discuss ; but the first class of holes, as above, can usually be traced to 
inadequate fermentation, inadequate proving or inadequate recovery after 
pressure, at one or more of the various stages. Holes will be minimised or 
accelerated according to the suitability of the moulding to correspond with 
the different degrees of ripeness of the doughs. The second class of holes, 
as above, will be caused where there is too much fermentation, thereby too 
much degradation and collapsing of the gluten webbing, or to folding in 
skin or cones, or to pieces of unbroken sponge, or to severe bashing. Sour 
bread practically never contains the first class of holes, but occasionally, in 
the making-up, will possess one of the latter class. 



HOLES IN BREAD 121 

We often find the use of a stronger flour than usual giving holes. We 
frequently hear it remarked by various bakers with whom we come into con- 
tact that they do not use So-and-So's flour because it makes holes. The 
holes are not the fault of the flour — the strongest flour can be used without 
holes ; the fault lies in using that flour for that particular method of making 
bread ; one is using a stronger flour than the style of fermentation requires, 
and to use strong flour when one has learnt to use weaker is pure waste. 
Extra strong flour, when of good quality, and not of a low, coarse nature, is 
expensive to buy, wants more breaking up, and is only required by the old 
school of bakers for special sorts of large, highly fermented, highly silky, and 
fine-textured bread, such as Scotch. If then, you find the presence of a 
certain flour accompanied by holes, you might discontinue it as not necessary, 
or suitable to you ; but the real cause of the holes in this case consists in the 
fermentation not being sufficient to mellow the flour, and extra fermentation, 
all things being equal, would disperse the holes, but, practically, it is easier 
to discard a flour than to alter one's process of fermentation and the time of 
one's work. 

The inadequacy of fermentation could, of course, be corrected by more 
yeast, or more heat. Holes caused by insufficient fermentation usually 
occur more often in off-hand dough than with sponge and dough. Holes 
in off-hand dough often appear when the dough is only to be given — with 
normal quantities of yeast — about four hours to the oven, and has had a cut 
back to clear it at about two hours, which, of course, checks the fermentation 
in that instance. In that case more total time and more between making 
dough and cutting back is needed. In a sponge and dough process the holes, 
when present, are more usually — no definite statement covering contingencies 
can be made — not the result of insufficient fermentation in the earlier stages, 
but of insufficient proving on the boards after heavy kneading, or insufficient 
recovery after heavy moulding in the hands of a clumsy moulder. If fer- 
mentation has been slow and steady, loaves will be a long time recovering 
their spring. 

After heavy and rough moulding, fermentation would be temporarih- 

Q 



122 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

checked or subdued, the loaves would feel dead, and would not be evenly 
inflated if put into the oven before they had recovered from the pressure. 
If unevenly inflated there would, of course, be holes, because the unevenly 
distributed gas expands under the action of the oven heat, and, being unable 
to escape, keeps the dough distended unevenly until baked. If the dough 
is ripe, but sluggish, it should be moulded lightly, or holes will result if put 
direcdy from the moulder into oven. Fine, well-cleared bread of good even 
texture is not obtained without plenty of labour, and the labour must be well 
backed up by plenty of tissue or gluten in the flour, and plenty of salt to 
toughen this tissue ; but where labour has been given, and the dough is ripe, 
there has been plenty of time allowed for the dough to recover, and the 
extra time has often destroyed the flavour of the flour, which then needs 
replacing by salt. We therefore usually find the counterpart, namely, that 
bread of rather coarse, rough texture, merging into distributed holes, retains 
the flavour of the flour, and is sweet. But if this labour, which, under some 
conditions, contributes to pile, be applied at the moulding stage of ripe or 
over-ripe or sluggish dough, and the dough almost immediately baked, we 
lose the good texture characteristic of highly fermented bread, getting the 
holes without the sweetness. As to whether the holes are the result of un- 
mellowed and inelastic tissues, or the result of over-weakened tissue, the 
network breaking down from small interstices into holes like the overweighted 
net of a fisherman, as to which of these states produces the result, can be 
ascertained by the nose. 

At one of the early Agricultural Hall Exhibitions we remember seeing 
a loaf that took third prize, and would easily have taken first except for a 
large hole just in the centre of the bottom of the cottage. This loaf had 
been made from ferment, sponge, and dough with brewers' yeast. It was 
matured to perfection ; it was not green, nevertheless perfectly sweet ; it 
having had a long, steady, fermentation, was not generating gas quickly ; 
was not baked in hot oven, which, under these conditions, would have 
pulled and distorted it considerably ; it was suitably moulded, but, never- 
theless, the hole was there, and could be clearly traced to the excessive 



HOLES IN BREAD 123 

bashing. Two fingers had been pushed right down, and the compression 
was so great — it being traced right to the sole of the loaf — that, even with 
a rapidly recovering dough, some time would have been required for the 
rebound, whereas, in this case, we learnt that the ovensman had taken it 
straight from the hands of the basher. Even with a medium oven the 
dough was bound to fly, or give somewhere, because the heavily compressed 
part would be temporarily numbed or subdued, and the gas pressed out 
of it so as not to expand evenly with the rest of the loaf when thus invited 
by the heat of oven gripping the head. The hotter the oven, and more 
sudden the grip, the larger would be the hole when the dough was unpre- 
pared to respond to it. 

A piece of well-wrought dough allowed to expand at its own pace, say, 
on the boards, and unstimulated by heat of oven, will show no holes on 
being cut ; it does not rise until it is ready to, and whether under- fermented 
or over-fermented, there is no considerable expansion of gas to test or 
strain the inelastic tissue on the one hand, or the rotten tissue on the other. 
On the same lines, holes in a Coburg (this not being exposed to the oven on 
so many surfaces as a cottage, or not being subjected to the uneven pressure 
of bashing, or to the possibly uneven pressure caused by moulding the different 
sized parts of cottage in two hands, or by occasionally placing Coburgs to 
prove in boxes or drawers, and leaving cottages out), are less usual than in 
cottages. By thus thinking of examples for ourselves we learn the causes of 
holes better than by letting others do all the thinking for us, and giving con- 
clusions in a manner that often convey the opposite of that intended. 

In some cases we have found the introduction of kneading machinery 
aggravate holes. This, of course, is not the fault of the engineer. The 
fault is on all fours with the same thing that occurs when dough is not in a 
proper state to be put into the oven direct from the hands of a heavy 
moulder. Tightening up in a machine is the excess of moulding, and when 
thus deadened, and not allowed to recover, it will not respond as pliably as 
it should when being raised by the oven, the same as with too severe 
bashing : it must have time. In one of these cases, instead of extra time, we 



124 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

recommended that the dough should be kneaded to a greater extent by the 
" reverse " motion of the machine. In that case the kneading takes longer, 
but it is more lightly done, and the holes disappeared. 

If the sponge is tight the fermentation would not be so far advanced in 
the same time as when slack, that is to say, if the amount of flour were 
the same in each case, and only the water altered. Pieces of unbroken 
sponge would be undistributed gluten. A piece of gluten thus separated 
from the flour expands under the influence of heat from the size of a walnut 
to that of an apple, lifting the dough unevenly into a hole. When a skin 
is carelessly turned in there will, of course, be smooth, dull holes, as two 
skins will not readily adhere to one another, and the least pressure of gas 
must part the two into a hole. We well remember an Irish loaf sent us, 
made from well-wrought dough, but much rolled up, and the huge hole 
therein was entirely the result of two skins in the interior not adhering. 

We once received two cottage loaves made in same way and from 
the same ingredients ; one cut well, with a good face throughout, and 
the other had an exceptionally large hole in the bottom, and was also 
holey in the top. There was no sponge, therefore the hole was not 
caused by unbroken sponge ; and as the flour was the same in each case, 
it was not caused by strong or weak flour. It was well made and 
well cleared, as it was made in a machine ; and the crust was beautifully 
smooth, well finished, being moulded quite green, without any cones what- 
ever ; and the whole loaf from the exterior had the appearance of being 
turned out by a thoroughly good workman. Both loaves might be said to 
have been made under best conditions, and none of the usually mentioned 
faults of holes were present. It might seem strange that one loaf was so 
much worse in that respect than the other, but, carefully looking at the 
matter, the fault was evidently due to the moulder ; although the moulder 
might be looked upon by his fellow workmen as a good one, he was, how- 
ever, not a good one in the respect that he had moulded the loaf in a 
manner unsuitable to that particular dough. He had moulded too heavily, 
and therefore tightened up too much a dough that was already tight. His 



HOLES IN BREAD 125 

moulding would not have been too heavy, and would not have had such 
disastrous effects, if the dough had been slacker, had been free either by 
reason of more yeast or more heat, or if the loaf, when moulded, had been 
allowed to stand longer, or had been set in a cooler oven. But in the 
particular circumstances of that man's trade the extra time was not convenient, 
nor was a cooler oven, all things being correct, to be recommended ; therefore 
it was the moulder's fault in moulding dough in such a manner that it could 
not recover itself under the conditions with which he had to work. The 
fault was not that he was a bad moulder in the ordinary sense of the term, 
but that he did not suit himself to the conditions surrounding him. The 
man that moulded the loaf that was without the hole had adapted himself 
to those conditions. In other words, one man knew he had a tight dough, 
and that there was not much time for it to recover after moulding, and that 
it had to go into a hot oven, and he therefore moulded it lightly and made 
a big head for it, whereby the tightness of the dough and the conditions 
that were to follow were largely compensated. His lighter moulding and 
the larger head he made did not make such a pretty loaf to look at outside ; 
it did not stand up so well, but what it lost in exterior appearances it more 
than gained by having a better and more even interior. Had the dough been 
made slacker, or had there been plenty of time after moulding, or had there 
been a cold oven, then the man that moulded lightly and with a larger top 
would not so easily have made a better loaf. 

Many loaves are perfected or marred by the handling they receive 
after the dough leaves the trough, and, although the mouldeF might often 
blame the proving, or oven, it is he that should adapt himself to the oven, 
rather than expect the oven to be adapted to him. Although there are 
thus to be seen many subsidiary causes for holes in bread, the great 
majority are, undoubtedly, caused by too much hurrying at the finishing 
stages, that is, too little proof after the loaf has been moulded into its 
final shape. Proving on the boards, or at any previous stage, has no 
desirable effect if the proof is again knocked out by the moulding, or 
docking, and not allowed to recover ; but the better dividing of the time 



126 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

for proof need not necessarily mean more total time, or thus delay the 
batch. When the holes are caused by dry skin, or by excess of cones, 
the latter can usually be seen, especially with a glass, sticking to the 
surface of the hole. It sometimes happens in short methods that dough 
has not an even consistency throughout, it having been hurriedly made, and 
not having sufficient time for the water, and even some of the ingredients, 
to be evenly distributed throughout the whole. 

Sometimes lumps of yeast or salt will cause a hole ; therefore the 
liquor in which these have been dissolved, and also for other reasons, 
should always be strained. The holes that are made by excess of cones 
or skin on the surface, or by abruptly finishing closings, are usually of an 
acute and smooth kind ; whereas the holes from immaturity of fermentation 
are usually of a dragging kind, that is, there are fibres stretching from 
them. These dragging holes are very often seen, and are of oblong shape, 
in a tin loaf that has been made from a very lively dough, and placed in a 
tin too small for it, whereby it is not proved long enough, and, when put into 
the oven, the gas rushes suddenly from the bottom to the top. Where 
the dough is not well cleared there will be gas bladders that ought to 
have been squeezed out, and which will expand into holes when coming 
under the influence of the oven. In this case firmer moulding would 
benefit, but the firmer the moulding the longer must be the time for 
recovery. 

There are some cases, however, in which over proof in the case 
of tin loaves, especially in brown breads, will make what in this case, 
however, should almost be called cavities, being so distinctly different 
from the majority of so-called holes. The cavity referred to is that which 
happens when the loaf has been proved and risen to a greater extent 
than the flour would properly stand. The crumb then, before it becomes 
set by the heat of the oven, somewhat falls again, but the crust has by 
that time become set, and does not fall with it, the two therefore parting 
and leaving a cavity. Excessive water in the brown bread often helps 
to this result. Tin bread, however, as a rule, contains less holes than 



BLISTERS AND BLADDERS 127 

other sorts, because not only is it often slacker and more pliable, but 
also, in other cases, is usually moulded and placed into the tins first, and 
yet set after the other loaves, thereby getting greater proof Sometimes 
the top crust of the loaf has been blown up from the remainder like a 
balloon, simply because there is a skin all round the exterior, and the 
bash hole was incomplete or sometimes stopped up by a prepared wash, 
whereby the gas could not escape and had to lift the whole crust. In this 
connection it might be remarked that, although immaturity is often the 
cause of holes, it is possible for a loaf to be excessively young and have 
no holes, simply because it has very little gas. Big heads on cottages 
sometimes decrease holes, but, on the other hand, if not set under con- 
ditions whereby the loaf keeps its shape, but, on the contrary, falls over 
largely, the falling and pulling over will make holes of its own type, and 
excessive top heat will often add to these. In the case of headless bottoms, 
however, there are not often large holes, the size depending on the speed 
at which the top leaves, because when the head is off the force is relaxed. 
If the closings of cottages are put upwards instead of on the sole, when 
the latter is very hot, a hole will often be saved. In the Scotch system 
cases of holes by insufficiently broken sponges and use of hard flours in 
the dough are more general, especially when sponges are unripe. It is thus 
seen that each defective loaf is a law unto itself, there being very few things 
that could be called, in all cases, absolute causes of holes, the effect always 
being in proportion to many other conditions. 



BLISTERS AND BLADDERS 

nPHESE imperfections are caused chiefly by the dough being under-ripe 

or under-proved. Uneven moulding, or a blow or knock, will often 

be the direct cause of the top layer leaving the next to it, and therefore 

making a blister, but these instances can be largely minimised by more 



128 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

proof. Various causes have been given for the presence of these imper- 
fections, but when analysed they all amount to the same thing, namely, 
immaturity, at any rate more maturity would get rid of them. They are 
said to be caused by very cold sponge or dough, but it is obvious that such 
a sponge would be more ripe if warmer. They are sometimes ascribed to 
strong flour, but such flour would be more mellow if the fermentation was 
more ripe. The same applies when they are said to be caused by unde- 
graded gluten. When the dough is particularly lively and wiry these blisters 
sometimes appear, and would be cured by the dough being again knocked 
down and given another half hour before throwing out. Extra slackness in 
the dough and more proof will usually stop these, but cases have come under 
notice where the correspondent has said he got the blisters with a slack 
dough and well -proved loaf; on further inquiry it was found that these 
blisters were in the loaves that were set just round the furnace, and not 
in those that were set elsewhere. This may be ascribed to the excess of 
heat, but it was merely that, of course, the loaf should have had more proof 
when going into a hotter place ; it was merely insufficient proof for the extra 
heat rather than the direct result of the heat itself. In the same way heat 
can be toned down by a blanket of steam, and the effect of undesirable 
moulding be minimised by better conditions of recovery therefrom. 




SECTION III 



CHANGES IN FLOUR AND BREAD 
DURING STORAGE, FERMENTA- 
TION, BAKING, AND DIGESTION 



" — A drop of Ink, 
Falling like dew upon a thought, 
May make thousands think." 

Byron. 



CHANGES IN FLOUR DURING 
STORAGE 

TT is a popular opinion that age in flour improves its quality. This up to 
a certain point is true, but in the same respect that age will have 
more effect and a different effect on persons according to their constitution 
and stability, so will age have a varying effect on flour. 

Flour improves in most respects by being kept for a period of about 
two months, but as time advances there will be a deteriorating action 
according to the quality, condition, and character of the flour, and also 
according to the conditions of its storage. The improvements will be in 
the respect of the flour working drier, but the deterioration will be chiefly 
in the flavour, which will, as a rule, evaporate somewhat in the same degree 
as the water and often change in other respects. 

The best conditions under which flour should be kept are in a store 
of from 70 to 80 degs. with, if possible, opportunity for the evaporating 
moisture to get quite away. In this respect the space given by some 

R 129 



130 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

people for the purpose of allowing a cat to get round the sacks to keep 
away the mice, is useful for allowing moisture to evaporate. Evaporation 
of the moisture will be in proportion to the heat of the store ; and there is 
found usually to be a considerable decrease of moisture in hot places in a 
short time, and also a considerable amount under usual bakehouse con- 
ditions in three or six months. Curiously, more water seems to be 
lost than can be proved to have evaporated, that is, there seems to be 
a certain proportion lost that cannot be accounted for by the ordinary 
methods of testing moisture in flour ; and it seems this difference is accounted 
for by a certain portion combining with the gluten. This combining of 
the water with the gluten of the flour with age, is borne out by the fact 
that more gluten can be extracted from old flour than from the same flour 
when new, the percentage being increased by less of the gliadin becoming 
soluble in old flour during extraction by washing. 

It is sometimes found that flour milled from American wheats in this 
country contains less gluten than the American flour from the same wheat, 
the difference being accounted for by the difference in age and dampness, 
which difference becomes adjusted with keeping and drying. In stone 
mills it was the common practice to let flour run into " a pastry," namely, 
the large room in which the flour was stored in bulk before being put into 
sacks, whereas now it is practically always run direct into the sack. It 
was contended that this was an improvement to the flour, and it was some- 
times contended that even storing the meal after it was ground, but before 
it was refined to finished flour, allowing even some weeks to intervene, was 
also an improvement. The germ of wheat contains relatively large amounts 
of nucleic acid, and some 3 per cent, of the total acid is contained in freshly 
ground commercial flour, but it rapidly lessens on the flour becoming older. 
As flour was formerly of a much softer and damper character than 
now, owing to the nature of the wheat ground, more precaution had to be 
taken, because soft flours improve most with slight age, but when badly 
stored, deteriorate first. If flour is stored in a cool place, which might be 
defined as being from 45 to 55 degs. F., evaporation is very slight, and 



CHANGES IN FLOUR DURING STORAGE 131 

although evaporation is great when in warm places, say, from 80 to 
90 degs., it is found that the whole of the evaporated moisture, and often- 
times a little more, will be reabsorbed when the flour is made into dough. 
In the case of soft and moist flours in which the changes are always most, 
deterioration will often set in after two months, especially if not kept in a 
dry place, but in cases where one flour would deteriorate, another would 
improve by standing a further time, and the time in all instances must depend 
largely on the quality and condition of the flour itself 

In the matter of colour the flour will be found during the first few 
weeks to bleach, but, if damp and kept in a damp cold place, it will not be 
very long before it commences to darken or undergo other changes. Stronger 
flour will continue to bleach for a longer period, say, up to about three 
months, and will run less risk of deterioration, but at the same time all flour 
will lose in flavour what it may gain in colour and dryness, and can be kept 
until it is not only of bad flavour but undesirable in other respects. 

We have just turned up a note that we remember making some years 
ago when reading the scientific papers that are published in France under 
the name of " Comptes Rendues," which is to the effect that alkaloids are 
formed in flour when kept more than a year ; two to three-year-old flour 
killed sparrows fed upon it in a few hours, with all symptoms of poisoning 
— formation of these alkaloids attributed to gradual conversion of gluten 
under influence of a ferment existing in the original grain. 

Flour that becomes overheated is much deteriorated for bread-making, 
for instance, if it should be heated in a hot water oven at merely a 
temperature of 212 degs. F., as is the case when flours are tested for 
moisture percentage, whereby all the moisture is driven off, it will then be 
found useless for bread-making, refusing, like sand, to amalgamate. If 
heated, say, to 160 degs., the effect will not be so great, but still would be 
affected by reason of some of the ferments being killed or weakened ; if 
heated to 1 20 degs. there will be practically no injurious effect. 

It is within the author's personal experience, that the difference that 
takes place from allowing wheats to lie together from Saturday to Monday 



I 22 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



can be recorded by figures. It has been found repeatedly, that where per- 
centages of flour produced from wheat were taken, that the percentage on 
the Monday was greater than on the Saturday, there being no difference 
except that the wheats had been lying together on the Sunday, namely, for 
more time than at any other part of the week. This, perhaps, had better be 
dealt with when referring to blending. There is a popular idea that the life 
of wheat is practically inexhaustible by age, being held by some that the 
mummy wheat is still capable of growing. But it is well known that 
much wheat taken from mummies has been put there by modern hands, 
and it is somewhat interesting in this connection to remark that maize was 
recently taken from a mummy, yet in the days of the ancient Egyptians 
this cereal was not tocally grown. Wheat, by keeping, will continue to 
improve for a longer period than flour, and will not deteriorate so quickly 
by keeping too long, but, of course, here, as in the case of flour, the changes 
depend on the condition of the wheat itself and on its storage. 



CHANGES DURING FERMENTATION 

AND BAKING 

npHE ordinary changes that take place during alcoholic fermentation 
-^ consist of the yeast acting on the flour, or other foods, producing the 
final products of alcohol and carbonic acid gas in about equal weights, 
and also traces of succinic acid and glycerin. Yeast by itself is not strong 
enough to start fermentation with perfectly good sound starch of flour, yet 
it must have some of this starch as food in order to produce the sugars, 
maltose and .glucose, which are the intermediate stages in the process of 
changes between starch and gas. Yeast starts on the natural sugar already 
present in the flour, and softens the albuminoids or proteids, changing the 
latter into peptones. These, in conjunction with the digesting agents in 
the yeast, acquire power to break down the weaker or fissured starch 



CHANGES DURING FERMENTATION 133 

cells. However carefully the flour may be ground there will always be 
some broken cells which, by being broken, allow ready access to the yeast, 
and the larger the cells the more quickly they are broken. The starch is 
changed, according to heat employed, into about four parts of maltose, which 
is a sugar directly fermentable by yeast, and one part of dextrine, which is 
a gummy and sticky moisture-retaining substance, quite unavailable to 
the yeast unless further changed. The maltose undergoes further change 
into glucose, a lower type of sugar, and then into gas. 

The changes would be no different when the dough fretted ; they would 
merely be quicker, more of the constituents would be broken down because 
of the heat generated, and the normal gentle softening of the gluten, as 
required, would be greater. If the yeast fretted in a ferment, it would 
probably get exhausted and not reproduce itself in a normal manner, and, 
although the fretting would of itself make no different products, there would, 
in the case of the yeast being exhausted, be the opportunity for other 
organisms that are always present to commence their work and changes. 

An important lesson which, according to his note book, the author 
conducted for a pupil on a Bank Holiday some years ago, and which 
will teach much of value in connection with the daily routine of com- 
mercial batches, can be obtained by making a dough and cutting off from 
it portions at intervals, of, say, an hour, and then moulding and baking 
in the usual way. The first point noticed will be the great difference 
in the feel of the dough at its various stages ; on the one hand when under- 
ripe, it will be resisting and tough, and on the other, it will be yielding, 
squeezable, and short. When baked there will be easily seen a much wider 
difference between, the various loaves made from the pieces cut off the main 
bulk of dough at the different periods. At first the crust is foxy, then with 
good bloom, then pale. Crumb gets whiter, brighter, more bloomy, then 
grey, dull, and dark. Loaf is sweet but raw, then tasteless, then sour, then 
putrid. First dry, then moist, dry again, then clammy, being difficult to 
bake. The details vary in detail according to other details. 

If a small portion of each piece of the dough cut off at the 



134 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

various periods is washed for the purpose of ascertaining the quantity 
of gluten therein, it will be found that at the first hour more gluten 
can be extracted than if tested immediately on making the dough, but 
as time proceeds the amount will gradually become less, and from 
over-ripe dough it is impossible to extract any whatever. What might 
be present is so changed in character that it is not adhesive, not sticking 
together in the customary tough and elastic lump, but passing away with 
the starch and water, having been changed by the fermentation from its 
proteid form into more soluble peptones. Inasmuch as yeast is largely 
made up of nitrogen, and must have therefore nitrogen during growth, and 
is unable to feed on the proteids until it has changed them to peptones, it 
probably has resource to the latter for its healthy nourishment. 

The chief differences between the bread that is raised by the gas formed 
by yeast, and bread that is raised by the same gas being pumped into it 
artificially, or supplied by the action of chemicals, are due to those changes 
of the gluten and the starch. It is the yeast that digests them in much the 
same manner as in the human body. It is difficult, therefore, to see how 
certain breads that are raised by artificially added gas can be more 
digestible, as is claimed, or foods so digestible as the fermented loaves, 
but they, of course, contain no acid. The differences in volume, moisture, 
colour, flavour, and texture are considered under their respective headings. 

The changes during the baking are also very great, inasmuch as the 
baking converts an uneatable mass into a wholesome food. The heat stops 
one series of changes, namely, those of fermentation, and then, further, at a 
temperature of 148 to 153 degs. F. causes the starch cells to burst; they are 
then amenable to the digestive action of the natural ferments in the flour 
or any similar substance, such as diastase of malt. As the heat increases to a 
temperature of 1 80 degs. these albuminoids and ferments, such as diastase, are 
rendered inactive by being thickened or coagulated in exactly the same way 
as the white of an egg becomes set by boiling. The heat renders the loaf 
light by expanding the gases therein and driving off" much of the moisture 
and other volatile substances, such as alcohol. As this latter substance boils 



CHANGES DURING DIGESTION OF BREAD 135 

at a temperature of about 198 degs. F., there is usually in fresh bread only 
about I per cent., and the amount driven off is not of such considerable 
account as sometimes supposed. Many attempts that have been made to 
collect this alcohol for commercial uses have been doomed to failure. The 
heat, according- to its intensity, dextrinises or caramelises the crust, and when 
the loaf is well baked an average analysis of bread, as usually found to-day, 
can, without going into decimals, be fairly well set out as follows : — 

Proteids or nitrogenous matters 

Sugar (maltose, glucose, etc.) 

Fatty substances (barely) 

Cellulose or woody fibre (barely) 

Ash or mineral matter 

Carbohydrates (starch, dextrin, etc.) 

Water ..... 



Although there are variations, the latter are not great with bread made of 
good average flour. 



7 per 


cent. 


2 




I 




I 




I 




48 




40 




100 per 


cent. 



CHANGES DURING DIGESTION OF 

BREAD 

npHIS is the epoch when many various special and patent breads or other 
special substances are offered to the baker for his adoption, and also 
when the public, especially a certain portion, are much interested in 
the digestibility of various breads. An intelligent grasp therefore of the 
subject by the baker will often serve to make or keep a good customer, and 
often enlist the interest and support of the local doctor who is a traveller to 
many of the best families. It will therefore be interesting and also com- 



136 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

mercially useful to explain to some extent our human digestive apparatus, 
which many persons wrongfully — especially bakers, who are largely 
custodians of the public stomach — neglect to study. 

Our digestive apparatus consists of a so-called alimentary canal, with 
various organs accessory to it. It is a muscular tube of no less than 30 
feet in length, or five times as long as a tall man, extending from the 
mouth, and, of course, ending at the anus and rectum. To six different 
parts of it are given different names, viz. mouth, windpipe (pharynx), gullet 
(oesophagus), stomach, small and large intestines. The accessory organs 
are the teeth, which masticate ; the glands, composed of cells, which secrete 
the various digestive ferments ; the liver and sweet-bread (pancreas), which 
also respectively pour out their bile and so-called pancreatic juice. When the 
bread or food is being properly masticated, it, of course, becomes mixed with 
the saliva, which is caused, by the contact of the food, to flow from the three 
pairs of glands in which it is secreted. All of these pairs of glands have 
different characteristics, but it will suffice to say here that the saliva flowing 
from them consists, when mixed, of over 99 per cent, of water, and of an 
important digestive ferment called ptyalin. This ptyalin, like the ferment 
diastase, converts the starch of the bread into probably two varieties of 
maltose and three of dextrin. It is obvious that the easier the bread can 
be masticated, and thus brought into contact with the saliva, the better will 
it be digested. This well shows the ignorance of some people when they 
say a heavy bread "satisfies." An indigestible substance may feel 
heavy and filling, such as a lump of clay does to the camel rider when 
without food in the desert ; but, if indigestible, it cannot possibly be 
nutritious, or any good as food. This ends one important stage. 

When masticated, our bread or food is forced by the tongue back to 
the palate, thence, by the united action of the tongue and windpipe muscles, 
finds its way to the gullet, thence to the stomach. The stomach consists 
of a pouch divided into two parts, large and small, and possesses three 
coats. Into the well-known depressions formed by the mucous mem- 
brane (the inner lining, composed of a web with numerous fibres), and 




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h- 
o 
o 

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CHANGES DURING DIGESTION OF BREAD 137 



called the "pits of the stomach," a host of glands empty their secre- 
tions. Near the lower end these glands secrete mucus, but elsewhere they 
secrete the important colourless fluid, with a sour taste, known as the gastric 
juice. This gastric juice, although being composed of more than 99 per 
cent, of water, contains phosphates, chlorides, some free acid, and another 
important ferment known as pepsine. This pepsine is the chief juice of the 




HOW NOT TO DO IT ! 

Stomach. Although dissolving the tissues that hold meats together and 
setting free fat, it has, by reason of the acid contained in the gastric juice, no 
effect whatever on any starchy substances, and even stops the action already 
set up by the ptyalin of the saliva. The bread, on entering the stomach, 
goes first into the small pouch, thence into the large, and thence slowly 
journeys round the stomach, coming again to the place of starting, until it is 
rendered able to pass into the small intestine. The pepsine, as contained in 



138 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

gastric juice, although not acting on the starch, dissolves the gluten and 
albumen, converting them from proteids (insoluble substances) into peptones 
(soluble substances), and produces material to be absorbed by the above- 
mentioned glands. 

At the conclusion of these various changes — during which, through- 
out the whole day, no less than 14 pints of gastric juice are secreted, 
the starch at last passes to the small intestine in almost the same state of 
digestion as it entered the stomach. The small intestine is about 15 to 20 
feet long and i^ inches in diameter, and is divided into three parts, with the 
names of which we need not trouble. Throughout the small and large 
intestines are so-called tubules, or small pipes ; these, together with the 
glands, secrete so-called intestinal juice. This juice, together with the bile 
from the liver and the pancreatic juice, completes the digestion of the starch 
of the bread, concerning which the gastric juice was incompetent. After 
wending its way through this small zigzag intestine, the bulk of the food 
should be now practically digested, the remainder passing into the large 
intestine (which almost completely encircles the smaller one), and there 
having the remaining nutriment extracted as much as possible before excre- 
tion as waste. 

By reason, therefore, of the digestibility of bread by the juices of the 
mouth, its indigestibility in the stomach, and on account of its requiring 
through all stages more time to digest than meat, we can easily understand 
how its thorough mastication is of the utmost importance. Its particles 
thereby become sufficiently finely divided, so as to come in contact with 
the digestive juices, instead of being swallowed in a lump, whereby its 
slower dissolution afterwards gives the sensation of heaviness. New bread 
is chemically almost as easily digested as stale, and it is only on account 
of its greater tendency with insufficient mastication to bind up thus into a 
ball, instead of breaking into finer particles, as it does when drier, that causes 
it to be called indigestible. In the same way wholemeal bread may 
be correctly said to possess more nutriment than finer white, but it is not 
more nutritious to the consumer. In the first place, wholemeal bread is 



CHANGES DURING DIGESTION OF BREAD 139 

usually heavier and closer, and, in the second place, the greater coarseness of 
its particles irritates the intestinal tract, as can be easily understood from 
the above description, whereby it not only passes from the body before 
being completely deprived of its nutritive properties, but also carries with it 
at the same time other foods less perfectly assimilated. This has been 
conclusively proved by actual experiments. Wholemeal or brown bread 
is therefore a useful medicine for the overfed or the constipated, and more 
sedentary brain worker, and is not the panacea for all the troubles of the 
working man or rickety children. Nature usually selects its foods wisely, 
and it is an undoubted fact that more wholemeal bread is consumed by the 
professional classes than by those labouring physically. 

The popular idea, however, is that wholemeal bread has many properties 
which it has not, and if bakers were to give more attention to it as 
discussed by us in Sections IV. and VI., the sale would undoubtedly increase. 
Not only is it good for piles and constipation, but some medical men, and 
dentists, and authorities contend that it arrests decay of teeth. It is con- 
tended that women often have caries of the teeth, because, when enceinte, 
the foetus or infant needs phosphoric acid, as contained in wholemeal, for 
forming bone ; and, in corroboration of this, it is found that phosphoric acid 
is absent from the urine for most of the pregnancy time. 

The brown meals are practically white flour plus the husk or brown 
covering of the grain, which is the bran, but one does not give bran to the 
lower animals to nourish them ; one would not expect so much work out 
of a horse, by feeding on bran mash continually instead of corn, yet the 
digestive or diastasic ferment in such is stronger than in human animals, 
and some recent experiments put the pig in the forefront in such matters, 
followed in order by the rat, rabbit, ox, sheep, and cat. 

The digestion of various foods depends and varies according to the 
consumer and his work, and the amount of food taken ; and the same 
food is not, even by the same person, always digested to the same 
extent or so comfortably taken. As a rule, however, according to the 
state of health or exercise of the consumer, the finer the particles of the 



I40 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

same substance, the easier the digestion, but akhough patent or high grade 
flour is usually finer than lower grades, the difference is not usually sufficient 
to be noticeable from the standpoint of digestibility. Where, however, the 
difference in fineness and coarseness in the dressing is so great as to admit 
offal in the one case, there is, of course, a difference. The meal made from 
the whole grain, has been found less digestible than when the outer of the 
several skins was removed ; and when only some of the bran was removed 
the flour was less digestible than when entirely removed, also the whole 
wheat when ground up finely, although of same constituents, was more 
digestible than when left coarser. 

The husk of the wheat certainly contains some valuable salts, and there 
are some inventions on the market for extracting these and presenting them 
in a digestible condition ; those of the germ, although on the exterior of the 
grain at one end, are easily digested. Rye flour is less digestible than 
wheaten flour, and barley and oats still less so. Bread is, on the whole, 
rendered more digestible by toasting, but the protein matter in it becomes 
less so, in the same way that gluten when dried is horny and hard. Alcohol 
retards the action of the saliva on starch, and tea much more so, and wines 
have a similar effect. In the latter case the result is due rather to the acids 
of the wine than the alcohol. On the other hand water, especially when 
warm, much helps the action. The above will help one to understand to 
some extent (i) the changes during bread-making, (2) malting, (3) scalding, 
and (4) fermentation, which will be found discussed elsewhere. 




SECTION IV 

THE FINISHING OF THE DOUGH 

" He who knows his incapacity, knows something." 

Marguerite de Valois. 



THE SHAPE AND FINISH OF LOAVES 

A LT HOUGH bread is made primarily to eat,' the shape of the loaves 
is of considerable commercial importance. A good or symmetrical 
shape shows proper judgment during manufacture, and although there may 
be some eccentric customers who like an eccentric shape, one usually finds 
in practice that the distorted and ugly loaves are those that are left on 
hand. The small master baker picks out the best shaped ones for his 
window ; the vanman of the larger bakery grumbles at everybody, and is 
indignant if the bread does not suit his eye, and wonders into where the 
lop-sided ones should be put ; and the latter, although usually shorter in 
weight, are the ones that are cut up where bread is sold over the counter. 
The shape affects not only the appearance but also the niceness of the slice. 
It affects the value in the same way as does the shape or cut of a garment. 
The main use of an overcoat is to keep in the warmth of the body, but 
according to the finish of it, the same quality of cloth can be obtained at two 
different prices ; or, on the other hand, the better finished one would sell 
much better at the same price. A nicely shaped loaf on the table also 
panders to the eye and invites acquaintance, or if cut up beforehand the 
thrifty housewife usually notices that a badly shaped loaf has more cavities 
for butter, is more difficult to cut, and also, particularly in the case of a 
pulled over tin loaf, makes more awkward slices, frequently leading to waste 

141 



142 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

At any rate the author gets a very considerable amount of correspondence 
from bakers thus troubled. 

When crusty cottages are distorted and of ugly shape, it is because the 
heat of the oven has baked them too suddenly when they were not in a 
state to respond to it evenly. The same amount of heat in oven will not 
always have the same effect on loaves, the same as the same amount of heat 
in many other circumstances of daily life will not have the same effect. 
One of the many instances is the heat of a lamp cracking the lamp-glass, 
because, after being lighted half an hour, the glass will be much hotter than 
in the first few minutes, yet it is in the first few minutes that the break 
usually occurs. The glass is not in a condition to expand evenly, the heat 
catching and expanding the exterior too much out of proportion to the interior. 

The two things that account for ugly bread are, in further explanation 
of the above-mentioned reason, firstly, too little proof after moulding. The gas 
having too little time to evenly distribute itself and evenly aerate the whole 
loaf (having been bottled up or confined and squeezed into smaller compass 
by the moulding in some parts of the loaf more than in others) must, when 
expansion commences, burst itself out somewhere, and suddenly, and thus 
throw the loaf out of shape. If, on the other hand, time were allowed, the 
loaf would have recovered from the pressure that stunned it, and, with the 
gas evenly distributed, would rise all over alike, and not in some places more 
than others. And, secondly, the other cause is too little steam in the oven 
to temper the heat that first plays on the loaf, or, what would be the same 
thing, too hot an oven. When there are quartern loaves, these, being bigger 
and higher, would, of course, catch the heat and suffer most. If loaves were 
closely set, they, by being protected more from heat of oven, would be pulled 
over less. If set crusty they must have fairly even distances round them at 
all points, otherwise the heat would attack them more on one side than the 
other, and pull unevenly. More proof after moulding, more steam, or else 
a cooler oven is usually the cure. Moulding less firmly would allow quicker 
proof, but would not be best for all-round results. Machine-made doughs 
require plenty of time to prove, and an oven with an iron sole is, of course, 



THE SHAPE AND FINISH OF LOAVES 143 

more rash than one of brick. Drawplates ought to help shape, because the 
loaves can be so much more easily set and evenly distanced, and are of great 
help in many ways. 

Shape, however, depends more on the condition of the dough than 
on anything else, that is, the degree of proof in it when coming in contact 
with the heat of the oven. Putting on the drawplate does not take so long 
as setting with the peel, it is therefore more than likely that in the case of 
the drawplate the loaves have had less proof, and are worse entirely on that 
account. Ail things . iicfiiAequa].^ the loaves on a drawplate are more inclined 
to run flat than to be nof/ ed over. As, however, all the loaves go in together 
the oven can be filled wich steam when the plate is out, and the loaves going 
into it be thus protected from the rash heat. Loaves are often of better shape 
one day than another ; one can therefore correct oneself and prove the truth of 
the above by closely watching the varying conditions, because the same series 
of causes will always have the same effect. All straight-off doughs are not, of 
course, the same. It may be taken as a certainty that if the dough is ripe before 
throwing out (and a ripe sponge will not altogether compensate for unripeness 
afterwards), and given proper proof after moulding, it will be of good shape 
if baked in an oven with moderate heat and regular spaces. Further, how- 
ever, if the loaf proves slowly, provided it does so sufficiently, after moulding, 
it will be less ugly and keep better the shape into which it was moulded 
than if it proved quickly. Of course, it must not be forgotten that, if 
proving slowly, more time must be given in order to allow this sufficiency, 
as it is the insufficiency that is the chief cause of bad shape. 

To go more into details, one might say, get dough ripe (it must not 
squeak when squeezed), scale, hand up, cover up with cloths, giving 
proof, hand up again, cover up and prove again, then mould and top 
and bash and put into boxes for thirty, forty, and even sixty minutes 
if the dough should be very tight, then carry boxes or drawers to 
oven mouth and set gently, just straightening loaves and not bashing 
unless it be gently with one finger. As regards shape alone, it would 
be better to have dough tight ; it would then prove slowly, as referred to 



144 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

above, although having the same amount of yeast hfe behind it as before. 
If giving it two hours from throwing out until setting, it could, when throw- 
ing out of trough, be put back into machine for a few turns, and tightened 
up there rather than made too tight at first. If tight, it must not be hurried 
after throwing out, but must recover at each stage, or it will be pinched and 
unproven, and as bad as before. Tightness is not to be recommended as a 
rule, simply because the loaf then requires more time, w^hich it does not 
usually get. 

Sometimes a dough, by following a long cold and lifeless sponge, is 
exceedingly sluggish and proves so slowly that it is set into oven practically 
without proof, and the loaves can then be pulled even in a much cooler oven 
than otherwise, particularly if set at unequal distances, as one side of the loaf 
will grow much more than the other. Sometimes, also, a dough that follows 
a large and free sponge will be rushed into the oven and the loaves will lose 
their heads. If the sponge was smaller and less free, and the loaves under 
proved after moulding and put into hot oven, the heads may not always come 
off, as the loaf when set crusty all round in a hot oven sometimes becomes 
immediately fixed in shape and pinched by the heat ; but if the same loaf be 
set more crusty one side than the other, only the one side becomes fixed in 
shape. The interior of loaf, which is not cooked as soon as the exterior, 
gets heated and wants to swell, pushing itself out at the part where the 
exterior is weakest by being less baked, whereas if the whole of exterior 
was already well crusted the interior would have to remain pinched. The 
above are actual instances, and although at first apparently conflicting, are 
not so, as the conditions are not quite the same, and the whole is perfectly 
intelligible after a little close observation, and is additional corroboration as 
to the difficulty in dealing with some of the apparent paradoxes in con- 
nection with bread in merely a few words. 

When heads are inclined to come off, more proof is the best cure, but 
they can be helped by being pressed flat by hand on the boards before 
placing on the bottoms ; and the latter or the whole when topped should 
not be pressed heavily or banged down, as is often done when just setting. 



THE SHAPE AND FINISH OF LOAVES 145 

which will make the throw worse. Although big heads protect the bottoms 
somewhat from holes, they are not to be recommended, because they sink 
into bottom too much, spoiling shape when cut, and by their tendency to 
topple over during proof the latter is often stopped by placing into oven too 
soon. Some ovens will throw or pull on one side more than others, but 
that is through unequal heating, and they should then be heated more in 
the first place and allowed to "lie down" longer, that is, more time should 
elapse between the heating, in the case of internally fired ovens, and 
the setting of the bread. A rash or flash heat will, all other things 
equal, pull and twist the bread more than a solid heat. Although a rash 
and fierce heat, and not lessened in its effect by a cloak of steam over 
the bread, will in the one case, as explained, distort the loaf, and in 
another case nip or pinch the loaf so that the part between top 
and bottom of cottage will be flat instead of rising gradually to a convex 
surface, a slow and cool oven will also allow a loaf to fall and be flat at this 
part between top and bottom, if the loaf be on the contrary over-proved and 
be beginning to collapse before setting. The loaf will " squat " in the oven, 
the same as it would if the constituents of its gluten were in the wrong 
proportions, as described under the heading of gluten. 

Also, although unripeness and under-proof will most usually result in 
distortion and bad shape, it will occasionally allow the head to fall into the 
loaf too much, producing what is known as a collar ; and this has been noticed 
when an off-hand dough has been cut back too soon after making, and thus 
checked and not again sufficiently recovered. It is evident that the gas, which 
in one case pushes the head off, will in the other case, when absent, allow head 
to sink. A fair amount of gas will tend to distortion when too much strong 
flour, or flour insufficiently mellowed by fermentation, is present ; but in the 
extreme, when gas is practically absent there will be nothing present to 
cause distortion, even although the flour is still less changed. Strong 
unmellowed flour, by giving more resistance than weak, will more usually 
result in bad shape, but if there is no gas, there can be no more dis- 
tortion than in the case of a piece of meat cooking, there being nothing 



146 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

to resist. This case is, however, very extreme, and refers more to an 
actual instance of great immaturity in the dough rather than to a loaf 
taken straight out of a moulder's hands, as, although moulding squeezes 
out much gas, there is usually sufficient power of fermentation to allow 
sufficient gas for the usual mischief in such cases. The pressing down 
hard that makes top push too much into bottom, showing, when cut in 
halves through centre, too much top and a too concave- shaped bottom, is 
often done when tops and bottoms are placed separately on boards after 
moulding, and getting a skin or too much cones, do not so readily stick when 
topped, and thereby get an extra push from the moulder. 

A very frequent qause of bad shape in tin bread is the usual bad 
shape of tin. The tins are often too narrow at the bottom, and not 
sufficiently large to properly contain a full weight loaf when properly 
made from a slack dough and well proved — the consequence is they 
do not get properly proved, or else lop over the sides, and the tops 
of loaves pull over or burst out and make a slice of all angles. Plain 
or crumby bricks sometimes run into one another, one pulling a piece 
out of the other when parted after baking ; this is found to be the case 
with an unripe dough, namely, one having a tendency to run on the boards. 
One does not see so large a proportion of this defect in the crumby or batch 
bread of Scotland and Ireland, which is usually riper than in the South of 
England, although on those sides that are larded, the pulling out and 
accompanying roughness would not be so much expected. 

The class of loaves that are always the most regular in shape are 
Coburgs, or Brunswicks, or cake loaves, as practically the same sort is 
called in different districts. These are moulded in one piece without any 
topping or folding, being the same shape as pieces are when merely handed 
up previous to moulding into various kinds, and attain to good proof after 
moulding before setting into oven. These are not only more easily made 
of good shape but also of good texture, and also two can be moulded, one in 
each hand, at a time, and in less time than often one of another kind ; they 
also lend themselves to being more easily moulded by machinery. They 



THE SHAPE AND FINISH OF LOAVES 147 

are on the whole quite as inviting as any other kind, and it is surprising- 
that more of them are not made instead of the kinds more difficult to get 
right ; but if it was so, a good deal of the authors' consulting practice would 

be gone. 

The above remarks concerning shape refer more particularly to cottage 
bread — the national loaf of England — because when writing the main portion 
of them during an earlier stage in the preparation of this book we had before 
us a cottage loaf and a letter from a correspondent needing information on 
this subject. In the case of tin or pan bread, a good shape should be 
easier to obtain, but the shape of the loaf is governed by the capacity of the 
tin in proportion to the amount of dough put into it, as well as by the shape 
of the tin itself. We are often asked what size of tin we recommend, and 
that is a difficult question, because individual fancies vary so much ; but it is 
safe to say that the very great majority of tins are not large enough to 
properly hold a full weight tin loaf to be of such a quality and character as 
it should, and if one wants to maintain one's characteristic shape, the best 
thing to do is to increase the dimensions in equal proportions. 

Tin bread, both for quality and profit, should not be made from a dough 
fit for cottages, and then converted into so-called tin bread by merely being 
baked in a tin. It wants to be slack, and free, and well proved in the tin 
before going into oven, and then baked quickly in extra heat. In the great 
majority of tins a slack dough could not prove properly, because it would run 
over the sides, leading to a lot of trouble, and when the doughs are tighter 
and less proved, the loaves are often quite as much out of the tin as in it, 
and often pulled over on one side, and of bad shape, making a bad-shaped 
slice. This is of importance, as tin bread is primarily intended for light and 
good-shaped slices, and when slack, free, and well proved, makes toast that 
is not so prone to burn or get hard, but toasts quickly. There is, of course, 
much difference of opinion, because we have seen in the prize case at the 
exhibitions two loaves, side by side, one large, loose, free, well proved, and 
well watered, and the other small, close, slightly proved, and tight, and with 
the top almost breaking off, which would certainly come off when cutting a 



148 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

slice. We have also received, on the same day, two half-quarterns, one with a 
sectional area of 31 square inches, and the other with only 19. One of the 
best loaves we have ever seen was 7 to 7 J inches long at top, | inch less at 
bottom, 5 wide at top, 4^ at bottom, with a girth of 20 J inches round the centre, 
and 26 inches lengthways. The loaf that was awarded the championship some 
few years ago, and acknowledged to be of even unusual exhibition excel- 
lence, was in a tin of this length and breadth and 3^ inches deep. 

The tins should certainly never be less than 4^ inches wide at bottom, 
but we often get them only 3L Last year we got a bakers' sundriesman to 
make some ungalvanised or black tins, measuring 5 inches deep, 6| inches 
long at top, 6 inches at bottom, 5^ inches broad at top, 5 inches at bottom. 
He said he should never be able to sell them, thought they were not wanted, 
too large, too unusual, etc.; but we recommended several people to buy 
them, and in all cases we have asked results, which have been found to be 
surprising to those who tried. Some have said they never before have had 
such good tin bread, and could not understand why they did not think of that 
little wrinkle before. It is as easy again to make good-shaped and well- 
baked bread in them. A loaf baked in one of these will be found amongst 
the Ulustrations, and although a little coarse from being proved a little too 
long in it, the excellence of the slice — like a quartern — will be seen. This 
perhaps may be a little larger than necessary, when weighed in light, and 
when best flour is not used, so as to carry extra water, but an extra large 
tin will always protect, never spoil, the shape of a loaf, whereas a small one 
does daily. 

The difference made by such tins can be tested by baking the usual 
twopenny loaf in the usual half-quartern tin. The ungalvanised tins are 
also more porous and bake better and quicker, and when new, are like old 
in this respect. Their colour even by being dull instead of bright, by 
absorbing heat instead of reflecting it, helps the baking and makes a nicer 
crust, and this will hold good with brown breads. The object of having 
them tapered is to allow of more easily packing away, but they should not 
be kept out of use where steam or damp can affect, because of more easily 



THE SHAPE AND FINISH OF LOAVES 149 

rusting. The tapering is also necessary, because loaves when cooling 
usually shrink more at the top than at the bottom, and thus, except for this 
allowance, would look ugly when wider at bottom. In passing, it might be 
mentioned that the ordinary tins, .when new, should have a thick coating of 
grease applied with a brush, and then baked. empty for an hour in a cool 
oven after batch is drawn. The thick grease should then be removed with 
a cloth, and tins regreased as usual. 

The greater amount of yeast now used, the quicker processes, the better 
flour, the more water, the greater expansion, and the greater necessity for full 
weight, all render the tin so often used undesirable in these days except for 
twopennies or closer meal breads. Where one wants to make sure of plenty 
of space being left in oven so as to get a good crust, and also to avoid the 
frequent layer of heaviness in the crumb close to the crust, it is well to have 
tins of oval shape or with a greater tapering. It is a poor substitute 
to shift the tins and give them extra baking, or to turn loaf down on its 
side before drawing, as is sometimes done. When loaf rises in the oven it 
presses against side of tin, helping to make a compressed layer there unless 
kept expanded by plenty of heat. A good tin loaf should not be made 
from overnight dough, but should be quick and warm ; and, moreover, a 
batch of tins, where a good trade is done, can conveniently be the first 
batch in the morning, being got into oven, if absolutely necessary, in two 
hours from start, and thus filling up a gap or a wait that will sometimes be 
otherwise awkward where all off-hand doughs are adopted and started in 
the morning. 

The practice of having a few tins in each batch and using them m.erely 
as upsets for the other loaves, and neglecting them generally, will not increase 
a trade for the kind of bread that can be made the most profitable. The tin 
bread in some of the large towns of the provinces, especially in some of the 
northern counties, is far better than that of London, and more of it is sold 
there, although London excels in the better finishing of the cottage and 
loaves from tighter doughs. Where the slacker doughs are employed, the 
pieces are often scaled straight into the tins, and after proving there, some- 



150 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

times an hour, they are removed and moulded again. This sometimes leads 
to streaks, owing to the outsides getting cold and sometimes also greasy, 
and these outsides showing, when, in the course of moulding, turned inside. 

An hour in the tin is not too long in some cases, whereas ten 
minutes is long enough in others, depending on the speed of fermenta- 
tion and the heat of oven to follow, and also, of course, on the heat 
of the tin itself, which, in a quick trade, may often be filled almost 
as soon as the hot loaf of a previous batch is removed. Loaf should 
be moulded to fit tin, filling out the ends, and then proved until rising 
fairly evenly and flat, and the outer skin showing tendency to crack, but 
not actual cracks or falling. It will then, if from pliable dough, have 
small diamond cracks here and there when cool, and none of the bursting 
up at sides and ends, but even shape all over. It should not be left after it 
has got to the top, as then flavour is going and crumb is getting coarse, and 
should not be then put into cool oven, whereby it would get overproved and 
crumbly. Flour should not be too strong or weak, not a big percentage 
of gluten or of coarse character, but mellow, that is, quality rather than 
strength ; and the best grades of flour, such as Hungarian or best British 
patents, are particularly suitable for good tin bread, and return their value 
here better than in many other sorts. Split tins, that is, tins that are 
moulded in two pieces, often have a hole where they join in centre, and 
although fairly common in some districts, have no real all-round advantages. 
It is particularly essential that a boxed sandwich loaf should exactly fit the 
tin. It should be sufficiently compressed to make a close and tougher or 
firmer slice, but not large enough or proved enough to burst up lid and 
make uneven corners that have to be cut off and wasted. In this case the 
oven should be cooler, sounder, and less flash. 

As regards cutting back a dough in the trough and handing up on the 
boards prior to final moulding, it may be said that dough cannot have too 
much labour, as far as appearance is concerned, provided sufficient time be 
given for recovery, and generally gets too little. With machinery, which 
will be fully discussed in a separate chapter, much of the manipulation after 



THE SHAPE AND FINISH OF LOAVES 151 

the first making can be dispensed with, because the dough is better made 
in the first place, and, also, with machine loaf dividers, the pieces emerge 
almost half moulded. Not only does the cutting back and handing up 
depend on conditions governed by machinery, etc., but also the speed of 
fermentation, and time available and kind of bread required, because every 
time the dough is cut or handled, not only is it checked by the letting out of 
heat, but also temporarily numbed by the labour. A quick dough then will 
be improved in fineness of texture and general appearance, but a slow dough 
will often be made slower, and then not get sufficient proof in the loaf stage, 
being thereby small and, perhaps, holey. With a long dough, one that has 
been in the trough all night, a cut back an hour before throwing out is 
almost necessary so that the dry and cold and, perhaps, skinny outsides 
may be turned in and have more chance of recovering and getting 
equalised, therefore showing less in the loaf; but in many cases it would 
be better, with a limited time, to give more of the time after the throwing 
out. 

Bread is more frequently spoiled by too little time after throwing out 
than by too little in the trough, and the periods should be better divided. A 
very usual thing is to give one cut back in trough and one handing up on 
boards, but the loaf would stand up better, be easier to mould into final shape, 
and by that alone be improved in texture, if the piece were handed up twice, 
with proof in between and kept well covered, before being moulded. We 
have written a good deal on this at various times, and the practice is 
becoming far more general and popular, and is a development of the off-hand 
quick process. The second handing up does not take long, and has more effect 
on shape, and clearing, and silkiness of the loaf than a cut back In trough, and 
the moulding need not then be so severe as in some cases, allowing loaf to 
recover and prove more quickly. Well folding over and punching each 
small piece as it is cut up for throwing out of trough has also considerable 
benefit. The extra hand up and time will be particularly useful if the 
pieces are inclined to be runny, although extra time in the trough would 
usually be better in that case, as fully discussed elsewhere. On account 



152 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

of a cut. back having the effect of checking, it should not be giveii until the 
dough .has risen at least half more than its original size. 

The extra labour, or passing dough through a brake or pair of rollers,' 
or otherwise squeezing out the bladders or open places in the dough when 
on the boards just before moulding, makes much of the difference, with 
equal materials and fermentation, between an ordinary commercial loaf and 
a prize one. The light and porous bread of some countries and districts 
that is made from comparatively soft flour, is due very largely to the 
increased amount of labour at weH regulated and frequent intervals. Such 
labour has the effect of putting strength into the flour by making the most 
of the gluten that it contains. The mere presence of eggs, butter, and 
sugar in goods does not always make them light ; the creaming or beating 
up in the one case, and the making of layers in the other, as in puff paste, 
makes most of the difference, and manipulation applies in a similar manner 
to the constituents of flour when making bread. 

The moulding should be fairly firm, with an unbroken skin, and particu- 
larly even, that is, without gripping or squeezing in some parts, and 
handling too loosely in others ; and this matter, together with the amount of 
proof afterwards and the heat of oven, has considerable bearing on holes, as 
discussed under that heading. 1 1 is a useful check on oneself to occasionally 
count the number of turns taken during moulding, and it will, although not 
always, be usually found that the best moulded loaf, and the one that 
recovers itself quickest, is the one that has been got into shape in the fewest 
turns. Getting a loaf, however, into shape is not always — in fact, very often 
not — the same as moulding properly. Efficient moulding consists of 
gradually turning the piece round by the motion of the hand, whereby the 
upper portion of the palm or thumb joint presses outwards, and the lower 
portion of the hand, or smaller fingers, gradually tucks in, whereby the 
whole gets completely turned with a tension on the outer surface, a gradual 
stretching, and with an even pressure throughout, and not, as is often the 
case, with heavy pressure in some parts, or a grinding in a merely vertical 
direction on the outer part, while the other and" inner parts are' merely 



m^B 



THE SHAPE AND FINISH OF LOAVES 153 

loosely pressed. Uneven moulding — that is, moulding some parts more 
than others — is a frequent cause of bad shape and holes, which is intensified 
or decreased according to the subsequent proof and baking. A way of 
teaching oneself is to put a pea in the middle of the flattened piece when 
commencing, and see how many turns are taken before it is uncovered 
again and falls out. If one does it in fifteen turns there is not much the 
matter ; a machine-made or machine-divided dough can usually be moulded 
more easily. 

The part that was cut by knife when scaling should be turned down 
when handing up, or laying up as some call it ; and in moulding cottages 
the closings of the larger pieces are best put at bottom, because if put in 
centre of loaf by turning upwards there is more likely to be roughness, and 
a hole in the centre from hard tail, or cones, or otherwise, although if put 
at bottom an extra hot oven sole will often make itself felt. In the case 
of home-made or household loaves the closing would usually be put upwards 
to come in the centre. Some prefer to put them upwards in all cases. 

As to whether or no a loaf should be notched, or have its surface cut 
after moulding, before baking, depends on circumstances. In very many 
cases it is not only a great waste of labour, but also A disfigurement, and 
is done, without regard to condition, merely because one has been in the 
habit of doing it. In most cases far too many notches are given, with the 
result of taking much time, and also done very carelessly, and they then 
certainly do not give any improvement in appearance or any extra crust, which 
are the two most usual features urged in their favour. These notches are 
often nothing more than ugly scratches, and at other times they open out 
exposing white lumps of flour and other evidences of a badly made or scrapy 
dough. To some extent, however, they have the effect of covering up and 
minimising other faults, for instance, although two wrongs never properlj' 
make a right, a top that is covered in notches does not so much expose to 
view what otherwise would be a very grainy, coarse, rough, uneven crust, 
owing to bad moulding and smothering in cones or else dry flour. In the 
same way the abundance of notches largely hides the pretty effect of a well 



154 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

moulded, even, symmetrical, smooth, and nicely bloomed crust, and such a 
crust, in otherwise its natural simplicity, is spoiled by notching, and the skill 
of the moulder discounted. 

The other fault that notching sometimes helps to cover up, is lack 
of proof and consequent holes, because it lets out some of the gas and 
provides an escape for it in the oven whereby the crust does not 
burst or the loaf does not blow so much. In the same way a bash 
hole allows gas to escape, instead of the crust being blown up, as it would 
readily be seen to be if the bash hole, as in some cases, were to get stopped. 
Also the notching helps to preserve the shape in such cases by keeping 
the loaf from being pushed over or pulled on one side so much. Obviously, 
however, the right course would be to prevent these blemishes by allowing 
the gas to evenly distribute itself and the loaf to recover from the mould- 
ing, by giving more proof in a moist atmosphere, such as steam, and 
preserving the porosity of the surface, preventing the formation of 
dry skin, by keeping covered. If a loaf be notched at all, so as to 
allow expansion of the interior after the main portion of the crust is 
set or fixed by the heat, the notches should be notches and not scratches, 
should be deep, and only in about four or six evenly distanced places, being 
uniformly applied (instead of being the ill-considered gashes of a madman 
seeking vengeance), and even then it is a question whether the loaf stands 
up so well or looks so nice as one that has been unnotched, when properly 
and well manufactured. 

In justice to inventive genius, we must say there may be notching and 
bashing machines that are good, but at present all we have seen and all 
the loaves manipulated by them have been unsatisfactory. The so-called 
notches have been merely marks, even the surface of the loaf has not 
been cut, there has been no opening out, no escape of gas and no extra 
crust, and the pressure exerted, evidently^ with the idea of making the 
blades cut, has merely flattened and compressed the loaf. It is claimed 
for these machines that they save time and labour ; if that is so, hand 
notching evidently is admitted to absorb this time and labour, and 



THE SHAPE AND FINISH OF LOAVES 155 

then the important question, as indicated above, comes in, namely, why 
notch at all ? While speaking of this surface cutting, it would be as well to 
remember the very great difference in appearance that there is when cutting 
Coburgs, namely, when cutting each one singly, as should be done, and 
with a sharp knife squarely across the centre, and, on the other hand, when 
dragging a knife from end to end and then across a whole board or whole 
row of them at one operation, thus cutting them unevenly and often dragging 
the skin, and generally spoiling the entire object of cutting. See illustrations. 

Recognising the effect of imprisoned gas, some men put a small fork 
in two or three places into the crust of their tin loaves ; many of these have 
been seen at the exhibitions, and it has been said, by those in a position to 
know, that this piercing has been considered as distinctive ear-marking, and, 
in order to save any room for the unjust assertions sometimes ignorantly 
made concerning judges knowing whose loaves they are judging, these have 
accordingly been thrown aside. In the same way, for special loaves, it has 
been found advantageous to put a skewer through the centre ; and being 
inserted when clean, through the bash hole, it cannot be so readily detected. 
It must be further remembered that the effect of the notch on the cottage or 
the cut on the Coburg depends greatly on the amount of gas and the ripeness 
of the dough. If unripe or green, the notches or cuts have a tendency to 
run or flow together again, depending on the tightness of the dough and 
deepness of cut, but if fully or over ripe they will open out consider- 
ably more. A good instance of this principle is often seen when 
making hot cross buns, the size of rent made by the cross depending a great 
deal more on the state of the bun than on the size of the cross. Likewise, 
some loaves, by being made from tight and ripe dough, will retain the name 
that has been imprinted on top by a docker much more plainly, the name 
being much more legible than when made from a less ripe or slacker dough, 
which would help the impression to close up again. 

In the same way the folds of a loaf will not join up or stick together 
so easily, but often open out, leaving a crevice especially seen at the end 
of Scotch plain loaves, if the dough has been very ripe, losing its stickiness 



156 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

runniness, and moisture, or if otherwise dried by tightness or too much 
dusting or cones. And also, when over ripe, such Scotch loaves are some- 
times found to crack about half way up. In the same way, when thrusting 
hand or arm into a dough when in the trough, the rent, dent, or impression 
made will be greater or more easily made when the dough is ripe or ready 
than when unripe. In the latter case, the arm will be resisted and the 
dough will be more springy and squeaky, and if then taken, and not after- 
wards compensated, the loaf would be small, foxy, or red, rough, ragged, 
dark, with a crust, tough, leathery, flinty, instead of being short and easily 
pulverised or splintered. If over-ripe, the crumb would be crumbly and 
short, and the head, in the case of a cottage, would not be tightly stuck to 
the bottom, but would easily pull off, and, in extreme cases, fall off with 
very little touching, and not be accompanied by that prickliness and local 
roughness or integuments holding the two together. There would be a 
dulness, as opposed to the glossy brightness of the more healthy one, and 
also other characteristics that come within the subject of sourness. 



THE CRUST 

npHE crust of a loaf of bread affords considerable guidance, in the hands 
of an experienced person, as to the health and character of the loaf, its 
constituents, and method of manufacture, and as to the amount of skill 
employed. In addition to the colour and bloom of the crust which we have 
already considered under their respective heads, there are many other 
physical signs such for instance as crevices, bursts, or large deep cracks, and 
also small surface or diamond-shaped cracks. These large cracks show 
inelasticity of dough. They may be due to soft flour, that breaks short, or 
strong flour that is overworked. Although flour and fermentation are thus 
causes under some conditions, it is not always that the cause has the same 
effect, the latter being governed by the final stage, namely, the amount of 



THE CRUST 157 

proof after the loaf is moulded in proportion to the heat of oven. This 
refers particularly to the bursts at the side and the ends of tin loaves, the crust 
of which, when the loaf is under-proved and put into a hot oven, pulls up from 
the rest of the loaf leaving a crevice in which one could bury one's fingers, 
instead of the loaf being evenly square without any rugged places or edges. 

Although the pulling away and this breaking off short will, all things 
being equal, be greater if the percentage of starch be great, or the gluten be 
exhausted, and although this gluten would be more exhausted the more it is 
fermented, nevertheless, extra change of the gluten does not necessarily 
always mean a bigger crack, because the pull is always strictly in proportion 
in its effect to the amount of resistance. When then the loaf is given more 
time after moulding, that is more proof, the crack is less, because the loaf 
is less stunned and more pliable, therefore better able to respond to the pull, 
making the strain less. It is not so much the amount of the degradation 
of the flour as the period at which the degradation is allowed to take place. 
This fact of one circumstance compensating another, is much the same as 
where phrenology finds that a man may have the organ of language large, and 
yet not be able to speak in public so fluently as a man with the language 
organ less cultivated, merely from the fact that he may lack the organ of self- 
confidence, whereby nervousness would overrule the other characteristic. 

Passing from these large cracks, crevices or bursts, let us consider 
simply the thin surface cracks which are very little more than lines 
crossing one another, forming little pieces that will flake or break off in 
diamond-shaped squares. These are a sign of quality and take place usually 
when the loaf is cooling on the shelf, and give that characteristic crackling 
noise that one likes to hear when loaves are just removed from the oven. 
They will very frequently be found across the top of tin loaves that have 
been made as they should be, from a free and slack dough, well proved and 
quickly baked, and they will be usually absent from a crust that is tough 
and leathery from immature dough, or a crust rendered thick and hard by 
a cold slow oven. Such a crackly, pliable, thin crust indicates altogether a 
superior loaf, on the whole, than one whose crust is hard and unyielding. 



158 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

such as is often well expressed by the term "corky," the latter making the 
bread seem to get stale in very much less time than the other. 

To some extent one can tell some of the characteristics of a loaf, 
with one's eyes shut, by feeling the crust. If it feels smooth, and the 
fingers sometimes seem more sensitive when unaided by the eyes, it is a 
sign on the one hand of skilfully moulding it clean and green without any 
accumulation of dust and cones, and on the other hand, of ripeness in 
the fermentation or tightness in the dough. The drier and less sticky the 
dough is, the easier it is to mould smoothly, and ripeness in the fermentation 
or tightness in the dough will help dough to handle drier. The presence, 
however, of a skin that is formed merely by the surface of the dough being 
allowed to become dry, or dryness caused by an excess of dust or cones, or 
the loaf being merely wound round instead of having its surface well 
stretched in the course of moulding, will give a coarse and grainy crust, 
characteristic of amateur, or bad, work. Where the crust is crisp, and 
short and well aerated, it indicates a comfortable fermentation and a well 
aerated dough. Where the fermentation is slow and dead, the surface of 
the loaves when coming into contact with the heat will give a crust of a 
close, tough and leathery character instead of crisp. Where the crust is 
flinty and sharp at its edges, or too prickly between the top and bottom in 
the case of a cottage, it will indicate flour with excess of one of the con- 
stituents of gluten, namely glutenin, or unripe fermentation. One finds 
this characteristic in Scotch bread far less. Very much the same reason, 
apart from the question of time in oven, can be ascribed to a thick crust 
which is not often present unless fermentation is incomplete or checked, a 
riper loaf, providing the baking is the same, usually having a thinner crust. 

The crispness and toughness will also depend on the amount of moisture 
in the crust, it being advisable, for the sake of crispness, for the crust to be 
well dried before leaving the oven, and this is particularly so in the case of 
Vienna bread. The crust will frequently, in fact almost always, be tougher 
when stale than new, simply on account of the crust becoming more moist 
on exposure to the air. When the bread is drawn from the oven there is, 



RUNNY AND STICKY DOUGH 159 

of course, a higher percentage of moisture in the crumb than in the crust, 
and the moisture in the crust will rise from about lo per cent, just after 
baking to double the amount in the course of a day or two, and will get tough 
on that account, the same as it would if the gluten had been undegraded 
by insufficient fermentation, or the dough bound by an excess of salt, or the 
dough been allowed to take on a skin. 

The crust may also be an indication of quality according to the 
amount of gloss and shine upon it. A bright gloss is a sign of quality 
in the flour which has not been destroyed by too much fermentation, 
and should be distinguished from a dull smoothness, which usually 
shows itself in the corners of the loaf or on the badly baked portions. 
A dark, smooth shine is a sign of too much change, the latter being 
usually greater as the patches of shine are darker, or discoloured round 
the edges, this being particularly noticeable in the case of sour bread 
and usually where the dough has been fermented by a long, slow, process, 
and then not well crusted in the oven. This slimy shine should also, of 
course, be distinguished from the gloss caused by steam. There are fre- 
quently seen " crinkles " or roughness round the bash on the top of a cottage 
loaf. These are due to a skin having been formed on the top of the loaf 
by standing and allowing to become dry, and are produced by the skin 
being displaced and drawn together during the process of bashing. Inas- 
much as a slack and lively dough is not often allowed to stand long, these 
crinkles may often be taken as indicating a tight and slow loaf 



RUNNY AND STICKY DOUGH 

nPHE runniness of dough is nine times out of ten, with the flour now at 

command, the result of insufficient fermentation. It is seldom, in 

these days, that the amount of water in the flour, as received from the 

miller, or the amount of instability and stickiness in it, is in such an excess 



i6o THE BOOK OF BREAD 

as not to be dried up or well amalgamated by proper fermentation. Warm 
water and plenty of yeast, well harnessed, should almost always be able to 
prevent this tendency to runniness, as far as it usually exists, and this fault 
is, therefore, due usually to the management of the dough, rather than to 
the amount of water naturally in the flour, or put into it by the baker. 
The baker, however, sometimes errs by putting in too little water, rather 
than too much. The opposite of runniness is binding, yet many people, 
when they have a bound loaf, blame the flour just as much as they would if 
they had a runny dough. If one blames a flour with a tendency to runni- 
ness, and puts that tendency to runniness down to the excess of moisture or 
instability in the flour, one should, perforce, praise instead of blame a flour 
that binds. A dough with an excess of water when unsupported by a 
sufficiency of gas sometimes spreads ; a dough that is bound stands up like 
a ball, and is one that wants more water to give it more freedom. A dough 
that binds is, nine times out of ten, made from a flour whose constituents 
are very sound, whose constituents will, therefore, take plenty of water, 
and when they do not receive the proper amount, the particles and cells in 
the flour do not swell, as water would make them do, and thereby occupy 
a smaller space than they should, and thereby give a loaf that is known 
as bound. 

Inasmuch as binding can be overcome by more freedom being given to 
it by more water, and as water costs nothing, binding, especially if runniness 
is correctly ascribed to poorness in flour, should be put down as a sign of 
quality, and as quality of which sufficient advantage has not been taken. 
This is borne out by considering for one moment the characteristics of 
high-class patent flour, especially Vienna. Inasmuch as Vienna commands 
a higher price on the market than anything else, it must be regarded as of 
high quality, yet unskilful handlers of it complain of it because it binds. 
When using it for Vienna bread it does not bind, because good makers of 
this class of bread, whether they know the reason or not, usually make their 
doughs slack, and, irrespective of the yield or profit, know they cannot so 
easily get a good quality Vienna loaf when the dough is tight. It is for 








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RUNNY AND STICKY DOUGH i6i 

this reason that many do not Hke Vienna flour, irrespective of price, in 
ordinary household bread, because such doughs are, nine times out of ten, 
made too tightly in proportion to their subsequent treatment, and it is because 
the flour does not get what it requires that they complain of it. Not only 
do they spoil the quality, but do not get out of it the profit that it should 
yield. Competition is quite as keen, prices are quite as much cut in 
Manchester and district, as anywhere else, yet a very large proportion of 
this high-priced and Vienna flour is used in that district. It is simply because 
they make the doughs slack, thereby getting the quality out of it, and paying 
for its extra initial cost by giving it the proper amount of cheap water that it 
requires. 

By looking at the opposite side of a question one can often obtain useful 
information and guidance, but in most problems of bread-making one can 
always adduce evidence of a most conflicting character. Take for instance 
the assertion that runny dough is due to soft flour. Vienna is not a strong 
flour yet it usually on the contrary binds. An English country patent is 
softer still and will often bind up into a ball. The highest grades of most 
of our large port mills are less strong, contain less gluten and more starch 
than the lower grades from same mill, yet they bind more. The flour 
from California, such as Cascadia, would be called a very weak and soft 
starchy flour, but it also binds instead of running. The same with many 
winter wheat patents and biscuit flours. Gluten is considered typical of 
strength, but Argentine wheats have more gluten than the Californian 
referred to yet are more inclined, other things equal, to be more runny 
and sticky in the dough. Under the heading of gluten the effect of per- 
centages of the latter on the strength of the flour is fully considered. In 
some cases a flour with a very large percentage of gluten has been soft 
and sticky, and the cause has been traced to a deficiency in the glutenin. 
The longer a flour is fermented the softer it gets. No gluten can be ex- 
tracted from a sour dough, yet a sour dough will not run, in fact on the 
contrary it shrinks and binds and there is not enough stickiness about it to 
close up the folds of the loaf or, in the case of a cottage, even to keep the 



l62 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



head firmly stuck to the bottom. There is no gluten left and nothing will 
stick. Rye flour, however, never has any of the same quality gluten as 
wheat, and, by not holding gas, makes flat and runny dough. 

After all the above has been said one has to come back to the fact 
that the same flour will often be considered runny by one man and not by 
another, and moreover will also be found to be less runny one day than the 
next. If a dough has run together on the boards, the pieces sticking to one 
another, is then scaled again as it often has to be, it is a well-known fact 
that it will have less tendency to stick the second time ; it would stand longer 
before beginning to run. If a tendency to run or stick has been noticed it 
would be best to hand up, or roughly mould, the pieces twice instead of the 
usual once before the final moulding. The next day the dough should be 
given another half hour in the trough before throwing out. Although time 
or more fermentation in the trough will be found to decrease the trouble, the 
pieces will, of course, run together more the longer they are left on boards, 
unless checked by labour ; therefore, when once out of trough, quick handling 
and a small batch is best. Gas naturally rises, and therefore helps to hold 
the loaf up ; water is weight that is always trying to find its own level. The 
stronger the tissue of the flour the more the gas will be held in, but it is no 
use having strong tissue unless the gas is there to distend it; and the 
more that tissue is weighted by soluble matters and water, the more 
the fermentation and gas has to overcome. Extra salt will be found to 
advantageously toughen the tissue and help to bind, but as salt hinders 
fermentation, and thereby production of gas, more yeast or time must be 
given to compensate. As with a tendency for runniness a quick evolution 
of gas at the finish is desirable, the necessary amount of fermentation would 
be better conducted quickly than slowly, especially is it also necessary to 
get consumed any of the excess of soluble matter. 

Under the heading of malt extract or dryness will be found details of 
an experiment with an excess of malt extract, which would give stickiness 
and increase the soluble matter helping runniness, wherein it was found that 
the malt extract became gradually less in loaves that were taken from 



TIGHTNESS OF DOUGH 163 

the main piece of dough at extended intervals. The tissue of newly 
ground flour or flour from damaged or sprouted wheat is less tough and less 
stable, and in the latter case alum and lime water, which are considered 
under separate heads, and also common soda, used to be added as having 
more effect than salt. Such flours are best worked by a freer and shorter 
process than usual. New potatoes, like new flour, are more sticky than 
old ones. Another point bearing on the necessity of sufficient ripeness, 
in order to avoid runny dough, is the flatness of artificially aerated bread, 
in which there have been no fermentative changes, and which is, com- 
paratively, very seldom seen made in a cottage shape. The very slack tin 
doughs of some parts would be found to be excessively laden with water, 
except for the very quick and vigorous fermentation ; they would be heavy in- 
stead of light. When the pieces stick together on the boards it is usually some 
trouble to part them ; they will pull out before coming asunder unless one 
takes hold close to the join : it is therefore fairly evident in such cases that 
the flour still has plenty of strength ; when it breaks off short and rotten, it 
is, of course, an indication to the contrary. In correspondence at various 
times with those who were seeking relief from runny dough, we have 
frequently, in corroboration of unripeness being the cause, found that when 
the weather became warmer the trouble ceased of its own accord, and also 
that a sudden change of weather to coldness, or a dough which had got cold, 
or a dough taken when round and not fallen, was the sole cause of anything 
different from usual. 



TIGHTNESS OF DOUGH 

T N a general way tightness would be defined as the state of being tight, 
■^ and tight would mean close, compact, that is, not loose or open, 
but in bread-making these meanings of the word resolve themselves 
into merely the state or consistency of the sponge or dough as effected 
by the amount of water added. Tightness, like many other details 



1 64 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

in the process of bread-making, has respectively advantages and disadvan- 
tages, according to the conditions of work and the resuks required. For 
instance, the dough at the moulding stage when required to make special 
loaves, such as for exhibition purposes, should, in the case of such sorts as 
crusty cottage, be usually tighter than it is ; whereas for ordinary commercial 
purposes, under usual conditions, the dough should usually be slacker than 
it is, particularly in the case of tin bread. It is practically impossible to get 
perfection in either quality or profit in all the various sorts of bread, under 
all the various conditions of manufacture, with the same degree of tightness ; 
yet the great majority of bakers place far too little importance on this point, 
and if anything near uniformity was possible, the subject could be dismissed 
in far fewer words than it will be necessary to employ. 

In the first place, it should be remarked that in no preliminary stage in 
the process of bread manufacture should there be tightness, if the object of 
that preliminary stage is to increase, as it should ordinarily be, the vitality 
or power of fermentation. A tight sponge or a tight long-process dough is 
impeded in its activity and development in the same way as a mass of tight 
clothes impedes and oppresses the activity and development of the human 
body. The tightness or lack of water within the sponge or dough will hold it 
down just as effectively as if it were encased outside, the amount of the resist- 
ance being, of course, effective in proportion to the amount of power present 
or exerted. Thus a tight sponge or dough means more yeast, unless other- 
wise aided, for doing the same amount of work. If, then, a sponge is set 
for the purpose of increasing yeast it should be slack ; but if, after deciding 
to thus increase yeast, one is so inconsistent as to want to keep back the 
sponge, so that a long night's rest, or other interval in the manufacture can 
be obtained, then it should be tight. Nevertheless, it would obviously be 
more consistent and economical to restrain the fermentation, and the amount 
of the change in the constituents of the flour, by decreasing the amount of fer- 
mentative power and the size of the sponge rather than strangling the larger. 
In the same way a dough that is tight when on the boards is not econo- 
mical, because it will not only contain less water, but will require longer time 



TIGHTNESS OF DOUGH 165 

to arrive at perfection after moulding, especially unless it was supplied with 
more yeast at the start or more heat, or else had more yeast grown in it, 
and the changes slowly developed at the cost of flavour. It is this slowness 
of proof, and therefore the necessary time required in order to avoid pinched 
or badly shaped bread, that is a great objection to tightness in ordinary 
commercial practice, where there is not the patience to give the proper time, or 
where it is not convenient to have much dough in the form of loaves, occupying 
much space, lying about awaiting baking. When, however, the amount of 
water and the amount of profit, and the amount of time and care for perfection, 
is not of such prime importance, as it would not be in the case of good 
priced or exhibition bread, then undoubtedly the eye can be better satisfied 
by a tight dough in all cases where the loaf is to be baked on the oven bottom, 
and unsupported b)' any tin or contact with other loaves. There is nothing 
to beat in appearance a crusty cottage loaf that has been made as tightly as 
possible, tight enough to be braked like a biscuit dough, tight enough to 
need chafing rather than moulding, and tight enough to stand, and needing to 
stand an hour after final shaping before being proved sufficiently to go into 
the oven. The shape, provided, of course, all the previous process was in 
accordance, would be perfectly symmetrical, standing up like an evenly 
carved pyramid with a smooth and regular surface ; the texture would be 
of even and fine mesh and with no sign of the very frequent holes in 
cottages, and the colour would consequently and thereby be improved. 
Although dryness, as discussed elsewhere, is not solely dependent on the 
amount of water added, this defect is more likely to be present with tight 
dough than slack. 

A loaf from a tight dough will, however, usually cut closer, and in 
most cases, by being less free, will be of smaller volume, and consequently 
yield up by evaporation its water less quickly. Although tightness is thus 
seen to have some advantages in crusty cottage bread, it should not be 
recommended for tin bread, which should be freer, lighter, more spongy and 
softer in texture, of larger volume, and, as the tin renders better shape and 
texture possible in conjunction with more water, the latter should have 



1 66 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

more consideration. Within reason, and with the quaHfications as given in 
this article, a special cottage with suitable manipulation can hardly be too 
tight, and with the same qualifications a tin cannot be too slack (this does not 
mean to countenance the excessively slack brown doughs that are slopped 
on the scale pan) ; a tight tin is as much opposed to what it should be, as 
is a very slack cottage. The two cannot be made to perfection from the 
same dough, and even for ordinary daily results should always be made 
from doughs of different degrees of tightness, as well as receiving different 
manipulation. 

The quantity of water that would make a sack of flour (280 lbs.) into a 
tight dough would vary according to the quality and character of the flour, 
and also according to the way in which it was incorporated during the knead- 
ing or making of the dough. With ordinary mixtures, however, 1 lb. of 
water to 2 lbs. of flour, namely 14 gallons or 140 lbs. water to the sack of 
flour, would make what should be called a moderately tight dough. The 
writer has received many loaves within the limits of 13 and 18 gallons to 
the sack, and in cases both below and above this. The very tight or 13- 
gallon ones have usually been from the South of Ireland, the very slack or 
i8-gallon ones have nearly always been from Manchester district, the 16- 
gallon ones have been on many occasions from Scotland and not baked in 
pans. The 14-gallon ones, both for cottage and tins, have been very usual 
from small provincial towns or villages where all sorts, by reason of small 
trades or wanting some of each shape for early delivery, have been made 
from same dough. Although small batches can be, and are usually, made 
slacker than large ones, some special exhibition loaves have been made, 
being most accurately measured, at less than 1 3 gallons to sack. A range 
of even 13 to 18 gallons, a difference of 50 lbs. water to 280 lbs., is very wide, 
and in all cases this means without the addition of unusual matters. With 
additional matters, instances of wider range could be mentioned, but belong 
rather to the subject of yield. 

Referring to points of detail, it may be said that up to a certain point of 
tightness the dough lends itself better to handling and moulding with an 



TIGHTNESS OF DOUGH 167 

even surface so as to give a smooth crust, that is, all things equal, it is easier 
for an unskilful moulder to get a good finish with a tight dough than with a 
slack. When, however, the dough is very tight the moulding is rendered more 
difficult for proceeding in the same manner and completing properly in the 
same time. If a medium stiff dough be handed up hard, then moulded very 
firmly or ground up in the hands, it will give very much the same appearance, 
as regards proof, as if a tighter dough had been handed and moulded more 
loosely and thereby allowed to loosen itself sooner afterwards. The tight- 
ness or slackness of a dough will thus be sometimes inaccurately estimated 
by feeling the hardness and unyielding character of the crumb of the loaf ; 
and also a corky or hard unyielding crust may indicate tightness on the one 
hand, and be difficult to distinguish from a similar crust caused by a less tight 
dough that was by moulding, or time, allowed to afterwards loosen or prove 
less. Although tightness helps shape on the one hand, it will not help it 
on the other if given no more time for proof, therefore being less proved, 
after moulding and before baking. The same remark will apply to holes in 
connection with tight doughs. Although tight dough properly handled 
would make more even shape and less holes, it must, if under-proved, 
crack and burst when baking, not being able to stretch like a slacker one. 

In the same way, other things being equal, the folds of a loaf, when cut, 
will show less and amalgamate better with a slack dough than a tight. Also 
the folds or any crevice will show more on the crust or on the outside with 
a tight dough. Sometimes a tin loaf will show evidence of having been 
in tin a good while, but if the dough be tight, there will be crevices that 
have not been filled up as would be the case with a slack dough. Other 
signs of a tight dough, with always due consideration to ripeness in trough 
and proof after moulding, will often be a thicker and less pliable crust, not 
splintering when pressed with finger, and in the case of a cottage, the notches 
will be angular and remain as they were cut, and any letters that might be 
impressed by a docker will remain distinct as if docked on cold butter. Some 
flours during fermentation will "give" or get slack more than others, and 
need or will stand more tightening up afterwards ; but others, on the other 



1 68 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

hand, are very stable and give hardly at all, and if made tight in the first 
instance will bind and not be satisfactory, such, for instance, as Vienna, even 
with extra power for driving them up. As flour, on the whole, is more stable 
and drier than formerly, the dough does not need, when made, to be so tight 
to enable it to stand a long while, and in practically all cases it is best not 
to be tight when making ; but, if required to be tight for special purposes 
when on the boards, the extra flour for that purpose could with better results, 
although perhaps a little more trouble, be worked in while cutting back 
thoroughly half-an-hour or so before throwing out of trough, or by well 
dusting and tightening up when passing through a brake, which is always 
an improvement for fine bread when suitably manipulated. This tightening 
up or adding fresh flour will be found particularly serviceable in the case of 
overnight, off-hand doughs, rather than adding all the flour when first 
making; also with exhibition bread. 



TOUGHNESS 

A XYTHIXG is said to be tough when yielding to force without 
breaking or when flexible without being brittle. This state is often 
noticed in the crust of bread, and to a less extent in the crumb. The chief 
causes are insufficient fermentation or mellowing of a strong flour and too 
much moisture in the crust. Too much gluten, or gluten insufficiently 
changed, amounts to the same thing in this respect, therefore extra yeast 
and warmer water or more time will soon create shortness, the same as the 
addition of any shortening such as lard. A skin on the surface of loaf 
before baking, but more particularly insufficient baking, is a frequent cause. 
Vienna loaves that are drawn from oven when the surface is moist with 
steam will be tougher than if allowed to remain a little longer after the 
oven is opened and to get drj'. The crust will usually be tougher when 
stale, especially when kept by the housewife in a closed earthenware bread 
pan, because some of the moisture of the crumb is absorbed by it, and the 





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PROVING 169 

moist atmosphere of the pan prevents it getting as dry as it otherwise 
would, which can be proved by removing loaf and standing in a draught. 
Bread baked in iron ovens or on iron soles is not always necessarily tougher 
than that of brick ovens if it be thoroughly ripe when set and thoroughly 
baked ; although, of course, the brick sole will absorb the moisture better and 
bake more gradually, usually giving a more porous crust. The smaller 
quantities as baked by housewives in iron ovens are not tough, even when 
no shortening added, as they are dried out by slow baking in a dry heat. 



PROVING 

npHE word proof has a large variety of meanings according to the subject 
to which it is applied and is also sometimes used somewhat loosely 
when applied to breadmaking. We should define it as being the amount 
of expansion or recovery allowed to loaves of dough in their final stages, 
that is after shaping and before being stopped in expansion by heat of 
oven, irrespective of the amount of fermentation previously allowed in the 
trough or the time given on the boards. Under or over fermentation in 
the trough will not counteract over or under proof in the loaf, and it is quite 
possible and very often the case that a loaf is over fermented yet under 
proved. Proof is such an important and distinct part in the process of a 
loaf's manufacture that it is customary to speak of it by a different term than 
the fermentation in the trough, but of course proof is, strictly speaking, the 
final stage of fermentation, the latter commencing from the time the yeast 
is sown and finishing when killed during baking. 

The speed with which a loaf gets the necessary proof, although defined 
as something separate from the earlier stages of fermentation, depends on the 
latter largely. Some loaves require much more time than others to prove oi- 
recover after moulding in order to be baked so as not to be distorted by heat 
of oven, while others would not stand half the time without, on the contrary. 



I70 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

suffering injury. A dough that is working sluggishly will prove sluggishly, 
and must have time after moulding no matter how much it may have had in the 
trough, and as a rule it is the one that has had most time in trough that also, 
for purposes of shape, wants most time after moulding. 

A cottage loaf that has been made from a steady sponge and dough 
or a long straight dough, and has been made tight, can often do with an 
hour to prove in boxes or drawers to its advantage and would be of bad_ 
shape or holey with less. A tin loaf, on the other hand, that has been 
made from a very quick and free dough with a lot of yeast and a lot of 
water, would when placed in a small tin be all running over the sides in 
that time, or have proved itself to death, getting very coarse and crumbly, 
although there are plenty of tin loaves that under other conditions could 
stand as long without harm. When they have stood in the tin a long 
time the sides are usually shiny, and if under proved the bottom crust 
will often be drawn up in the centre like an arch, and the ends burst out. 
Tin loaves are usually proved more than cottages and are by their tin less 
exposed to heat in oven than crusty cottages, but the latter are in the great 
majority of cases moulded up and rushed into the oven much too hurriedly 
and under proved, and this accounts largely for the difference in these two 
sorts, and other sorts of loaves, as regards shape and holes which are fully 
discussed under their separate headings. A loaf must prove more when 
going into a hot oven than a cold, and when well proved will bake quicker 
than when under proved and closer. A good plan for convenience of prov- 
ing is to have a number of boards made that will hold five loaves one way 
and three the other, a total of fifteen. These are handy for getting rid of 
the loaves and can be supported one on top of the other, near the 
oven by means of small angle irons. A jet of steam, or a pot on a gas ring, 
underneath will keep them warm and moist on the surface, as is necessary 
for quick proving and bloom, especially when made from a long slow 
process. In larger bakeries or with drawplate ovens movable racks are 
best and boards of a length to fit across top of drawplate. The majority 
of loaves as usually made should have fully half an hour to prove on these 



BAKING 171 

boards (or in the drawers which they become when put together and 
covered) so as to recover from the moulding, topping and bashing. They 
should not have the proof knocked out of them again by rough handling, 
and heavy bashing and docking when setting, although the amount of 
such handling they will stand without injury will depend on the freeness 
of the dough and the heat of oven. When the loaves are topped and 
left on the tables the opportunity can be taken to straighten and bash 
them after they have stood a little while, say at half time. Unless the 
dough is moving very quickly it is not enough to get merely a few courses 
ahead before commencing to set into oven as is often done. A tin loaf, 
unless tight, should not be set into oven until it is flattening on top and 
showing signs of commencing to crack, and a cottage should be plainly 
seen to have increased in size and filled out all over, as it would not be if 
taken straight from the moulder's hands as is done in some cases. 



BAKING 

'T^HE baking of a loaf is a most important stage in its manufacture, be- 
cause thereby it can be much improved or marred in quality according 
to the suitability of the oven in relation to the state of the dough. No 
absolute time or temperature can be given as the correct one, for a loaf of 
bread while in the oven, because both must be exactly in harmony with the 
batch to be baked. Strictly speaking, however, the goods to be baked ought 
to be in that condition whereby they should bake in the shortest time at the 
greatest possible heat without burning. That is, the goods should be in a 
condition to stand a hot oven, rather than the oven be kept cool for fear of it 
not suiting the goods that were not in condition to be baked to perfection, 
owing to the neglect of giving sufficient proof before baking, whereby a 
loaf would be usually distorted if put into a hot oven. 

A great quantity of bread is too slackly baked, that is, it is boiled, not 



172 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

baked, remaining for too long a time in too cool an oven. The dough that is 
proving slowly, owing to a long slow process of fermentation, such as would be 
made from patent yeast, is always found to require longer in the oven than a 
loaf that has been made from a quick and free fermentation, and therefore 
proving quickly. The greater time in oven, and the cooler temperature is 
necessitated by the small bulk of the under-proved loaf, whereby more time is 
required for the heat to penetrate, and also as in an under-proved loaf the gas 
takes longer to disseminate in all its parts, which gas, being unevenly dis- 
tributed, would, when in' the oven, be bound to blow into holes or otherwise 
distort the loaf. 

It is this fact, that a quickly fermented loaf will bake more quickly than 
a slowly fermented one, that commends the quick process to popular use, 
because, all things being equal, the quicker the loaf is baked the better it 
will be in all respects. A hot oven will stop the fermentation in the loaf 
quicker than a cool one, giving a better flavour, not only because of quick 
baking but by reason of its driving off the stale g;ases formed during 
fermentation, and also by baking quickly will keep in the flavour, and mois- 
ture, in very much the same way that a piece of meat when cooked in a 
rash heat will be nicer eating by having its juices retained rather than 
gradually simmered out. Inasmuch as a hot oven stops fermentation sooner 
than a cool one, a loaf must necessarily be more proved before it goes in. 
If the loaf is sufficiently proved as to be suitable for a hot oven, it will 
become over-proved if it is then put into a cool one, and if it is proved only 
sufficiently as would be necessary for a cool oven if put into a hot one, 
though, perhaps, improved in flavour, it will be very ugly. Different grades 
of flour will stand respectively ovens of different degrees, but this is 
better dealt with under the heading of bloom ; also a loaf with a greater 
proportion of water will, all other things being equal, require longer baking. 

Another great point affecting the time and heat necessary for perfect 
baking is the kind of bread, and how it is set or spaced in the oven. It 
is obvious that two cottage loaves from the same batch of dough one set 
against another, thereby having a crumby face, and the other set so that 



BAKING 173 

the heat gets at it on all sides, that the latter must bake more quickly than 
the former, and in the same way rolls off the same dough would bake 
in half the time required by a 2-lb. loaf Much of the difference in flavour 
in the roll and half-quartern loaf from the same dough must, of course, 
be due to its quicker and better baking, since that all other points 
are equal. In the same way it is a matter of common experience that 
if a batch be unexpectedly large, the first part of it is often crammed 
into the oven, and the second part is oftentimes put in the same oven after 
the first one has come out, and although it will have been fermenting longer, 
and also even when the oven has not been re-fired, the second batch will 
often be sweeter and of healthier appearance than the first, merely by reason 
of having had so much more space in the oven. 

The ingredients also have a bearing on the time of baking, because sugar 
attracts the heat, whereas fat or lard repels it, and the flavour of the latter is 
always objectionable when a loaf is under baked. The more the outside is 
exposed to the heat, of course, the greater is the amount of crust, and the 
water from that portion of it is, of course, driven off, making the loaf lighter ; 
but if the crust loses water, the latter does not evaporate so quickly afterwards 
from the interior of the loaf, and as a matter of fact there is a more dry bread 
produced by slack baking, or bread that has been in the oven a long time at 
a slow heat, than bread that has been well crusted and baked for a short time 
in a good heat. The volume of the loaf will be affected by the oven accord- 
ing to the state of the dough ; if the loaf be full of gas, the volume will, of 
course, be increased because the gas will expand by the heat, and insufficient 
heat is often seen to produce a closeness of texture, as in the case of tin 
loaves that are set too closely so that the heat cannot get between them, 
whereby there is a close layer down each side of the loaf which is thicker 
and darker on the side that has had least access to the heat. 

The kind of oven and the amount of steam therein must also have 
considerable effect on the time and temperature for the proper baking of a 
loaf; if the oven is built in a solid and substantial manner it, of course, holds 
its heat very much better than one not so built, besides this some ovens are 



174 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

externally heated, whereby they do not lose heat while the batch is being 
baked ; and the greater the amount of steam that would be injected from 
outside sources the hotter should the oven be heated, because the steam 
while keeping the crust moist and giving bloom, at the same time protects 
the loaf from heat. A solid heat will penetrate the loaf further, making a 
thicker crust than a flash heat, and the latter has more tendency to distort 
the loaf and give it good bloom. 

If the loaf be properly baked the crumb should spring back easily 
when pressed by the finger, and not be doughy or leave any impression ; 
in fact, with a thoroughly baked cottage loaf it has been sometimes demon- 
strated that one could sit upon it and it will rise and open out again like a 
concertina. A good heat for loaf bread, according to its size and condition, 
would be from 450 to 550 degs. F. when commencing to set, but these 
temperatures must be given with a somewhat wide range, because different 
ovens showing the same heat by the pyrometer or thermometer will bake 
very differently, sometimes owing to the incorrectness of the instrument, 
sometimes according to the position in which it is put into the oven and 
other individual points. 

The heat inside a loaf will not, of course, be anything much above the 
boiling point of water, say, about 3 degs., only in the centre, and gradually 
increasing towards the surface, being just under the crust at a temperature 
of about 3 20 degs. The time would vary for half-quartern loaves according 
to actual instances from thirty minutes up to about two hours. It is no 
uncommon experience for the author to receive a tin loaf thoroughly baked 
in thirty-five minutes, and forty or forty-five minutes is quite sufficient for a 
cottage loaf that had been subjected to an average temperature of 450 degs. 
for the whole time in which it was baking. Plain or crumby bread will 
require longer, and in many parts of Scotland and Ireland two hours and 
even longer is the time given for half-quartern loaves, nevertheless, the 
author has seen many loaves of the plain or set bread referred to from 
such places, which have been thoroughly baked in one and three-quarter 
hours, and even less. 



BAKING 175 

A good heat during baking will usually be found to bleach the crumb, 
and although the crumb of Scotch bread with its slow baking is bleached 
more than bread from most other places, this bleaching is due to other 
causes. In the south of England one usually sees every crevice round the 
oven door tightly stopped during baking, so that no steam should escape, 
and it would be considered very wrong to open the door until drawing 
time ; it is therefore somewhat interesting to remark that, in Scotland, the 
oven door is frequently left open for a full half hour after a batch has been, 
set, and in cases even longer. 

There has been much said concerning the sterilisation of bread, but 
as the majority of the germs that do any harm are killed in far less time, 
and at a lower heat than that to which as shown above they would be 
subjected in a loaf of bread, and as no cases of infection have ever been 
traced to the loaf, it is difficult to say why a loaf should be made the cause 
of attack as far as it concerns the baker, because even although there were 
said to be ten different kinds of germs found in the middle of a loaf, these 
germs are far more likely to get in from the air in increasing quantities 
after the loaf has left the baker, the same as all other foods are 
bound to be contaminated by the air ; and if the bread was absolutely 
sterilised in the oven, the slices of bread and butter on the table would in 
common with all other foods be found to have again attracted an increased 
quantity of the 70,000 germs that are said to settle on every square foot per 
hour in any crowded room. 

Regarding brown bread the popular practice is to give a cooler oven, 
or place the loaves in the coolest part, and longer time for baking. There 
is no reason, however, that this should be necessary, except that people 
for this class of bread usually add an excess of water. The adding of the 
water in this excess has no advantage since it must be driven off unless 
the loaf is to be clammy in the centre, and, on the other hand, has the 
disadvantage of making a thick and tough crust, which is quite unnecessary. 
Although it may be desirable to put more water when making the dough, so 
that the bran may be thoroughly saturated, the brown dough when being 



176 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

scaled should not be slopped on the scale-pan like porridge, but be very- 
little slacker than an ordinary proper tin dough, which, however, should 
be, of course, slacker than a cottage. The quick baking of brown bread is 
as desirable as fermenting it quickly, and, if anything, should be more quickly, 
baked than white rather than the reverse ; and it is frequently found that 
those put nearest the furnace are the best, and brown loaves do not burn 
so quickly as white. Inasmuch as brown loaves have necessarily less gluten 
than white, it is particularly desirable that the gas therein, and all the 
expansive properties, should be expanded to their utmost as quickly as 
possible, and, also, as there are more impurities and more soluble albumin- 
oids, it is particularly necessary in the interests of flavour that the baking 
should not only be quick but thorough. 



STEAM 

OTEAjVI is an invisible elastic gas evolved from water during boiling, 
*^^ and becomes visible only when condensing by coming in contact with 
colder surfaces. The steam required for glazing and blooming bread must 
be wet steam and not dry ; and steam that is under a high pressure, thereby 
becoming superheated, is dry, and not wet. This is the reason that hot 
steam does not burn so much as cooler steam. The steam issuing 
from a kettle, which, at the ordinary atmospheric pressure, is at a 
temperature of 212 degs. F., will burn or scald the hand very much 
more than steam issuing from a high-pressure boiler which might be 
three or four times as hot as the kettle steam. The reason is extremely 
interesting. 

The steam from a kettle is of the same temperature as the boiling 
water. Yet, as boiling water requires a very long application of heat 
before it is all turned into steam, and as, by the fundamental law of 







Section of Coburg Loaf. 

(ACTUAL SIZE.) 



STEAM 177 

chemistry, nothing is destroyed, it is obvious this heat, going into the 
boihng water, is still somewhere, and can be re-obtained. It is in the 
stqam ; it is temporarily employed, or apparently consumed by the 
difference in the state of matter, water being a liquid, and the steam a 
gas. The steam, therefore, although showing the same temperature 
by the thermometer as the water, contains a very much larger quantity 
of heat, and this is proved by the fact that one can quickly raise a bucket 
of cold water to the boiling point by injecting steam into it. When thus 
made to boil, the water will weigh a very little more, or the bucket be 
a very little fuller, than before, but if one were to add three or four 
buckets of boiling water to the original water, it would not boil then. 
The amount of heat in steam that is thus latent, or thus temporarily 
lost, is 966 degs., when at ordinary atmospheric pressure. But when at 
higher pressure, this amount of latent heat curiously decreases, even to 
the extent of 150 to 200 degs. It is seen, then, that steam issuing 
from a high-pressure boiler has to get from sorpewhere the amount 
of latent heat that is necessary for it when in the open air, and when 
absorbing this heat, although it does so very quickly, it is obvious it 
is not in such a ready position to burn and to scald as the wetter 
steam. 

Steam, then, that is required for injecting into an oven must not 
be allowed to become superheated by reason of the pressure in the 
boiler becoming great. It must be low-pressure steam, wet steam, and 
steam with a high latent heat. The difference in the scalding of wet steam 
and dry steam, may also be understood by remembering that a man can get 
into the oven to repair it — that is, into a dry heat — when at a temperature of, 
say, 212 degs. F., but he could not get into a bath of water — that is, into a 
wet heat — at this temperature, which is the boiling point. Also the steam 
escaping from compression in the boiler immediately, but momentarily of 
course, expands, and anything that expands absorbs rather than evolves 
heat in so doing. When water is boiling under increased pressure, and 
steam is at a higher temperature than 212 degs. F., the latent heat of 



178 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



the latter proportionately decreases, according to the following table, which 
also supplies information concerning steam-pipe ovens. 





Thermometric Heat. 






Latent Heat. 
(Degrees Fah.) 






Total Heat. 
(Degrees Fah.) 


Pressure. 








(Deg. F.) 


(Deg. C.) 






1,092 


32 





1,124 





966 


212 


100 


1,178 


14.7 lbs. 


836 


392 


200 


1,228 


228.0 ,, 


769 


482 


250 


1,251 


550-0 „ 


766 


500 


260 


1,266 


617.0 „ 



This latent heat is of considerable importance to users of steam, because, 
on its account, a pound of steam contains about five and a half times as 
much heat as a pound of the boiling water from which it is coming, although 
both steam and water will be of the same temperature. In other words, 
when a pot of water is on a burner, which is giving off the same heat all 
the time, it will take over five times longer to convert that quantity of water 
into steam than it did to raise the same from freezing to boiling point, that 
is, through 180 degs., and the extra heat in the steam will always be given 
out again when the steam recondenses into water. Steam going into the 
oven at 30 lbs. pressure, namely, at twice the pressure of the air on an open 
pot or kettle, that is, at two atmospheres, would have a temperature of 250 
degs. F. ; this would therefore cool down an oven that was at a baking heat 
of 450, requiring the oven to be hotter, in first place, if steam was to be 
injected, but if the steam was to be obtained from a pot put into the oven, 
one can easily see that a great deal more heat would be taken from the 
oven to convert that water into steam than is usually contemplated. The 
pot would have the advantage of producing wet steam, whereas at about 
100 degs. above the usual boiling point the steam would be quite dry and 
not suitable for glazing. 

When having a steam boiler it is therefore essential that the pressure 



STEAM 179 

be as low as possible, that is, only just sufficient to get enough steam into 
the oven. The smaller the boiler the greater, of course, must be the 
pressure to get enough, because if, for instance, 10 feet of steam were 
required the boiler must contain that 10 feet, but if the boiler is only 
5 feet, the steam must obviously be compressed to half its natural 
size, and so on. As a general rule, it would be best to keep the pressure 
in one's boiler from 25 to 30 lbs., or less, if possible. In order 
to prevent it getting above this, one can have fitted to the boiler a 
blow-off, or reducing, valve, whereby an excess would automatically be 
released. 

Regarding the amount of steam necessary to retain in the oven, 
a little calculation would be interesting. A sack batch of, say, 200 
loaves would give off about 2 ozs. water per loaf, or 400 ozs. An ounce 
of water equals 28.35 grams, and therefore 28.35 ^.c. (cubic centimetres). 
A cubic inch (16.38 c.c.) of water expands into a cubic foot, or 1728 cubic 
inches of steam ; and the cubic space of the oven to be filled would be the 
height multiplied by the length and then the breadth and minus the space 
occupied by the bread. 

As regards glazing or blooming the crust, it is essential for the 
steam to be present when the loaves are first set, whereby it condenses 
on their cold surfaces, because no amount of steam will glaze a loaf when 
once its surface is dry. On this account, one sees in France and Vienna 
long narrow baskets lined with a cloth, on which the loaves are turned up- 
side down when proving, whereby they are kept much moister than otherwise. 
The thorough saturation of the air of the oven — and the hotter the oven, the 
more it will absorb without becoming visible — will tend to lessen evaporation 
from the bread ; but it is possible, for some purposes, to have an excess of 
steam, as too much not only keeps the loaf down, preventing it expanding 
as it should, but also caramelises the top of loaf too much, preventing the 
crack and finish desired, especially for small bread. The cuts on the loaf 
do not open if caught too much by the steam. Too much will also leave 
the crust tough, unless the loaves be moved about and turned over, which is 



i8o THE BOOK OF BREAD 

a common practice, so as to thoroughly dry the crust before being drawn. 
If, on the other hand, there is too little, the crust dries too much, all other 
things being equal, is duller, less bloomy and less appetising, harder and 
less crisp, is more "corky" and less pliable, and also more likely to be 
nipped or burnt by a fierce or rash oven. 

A boiler is a most handy thing, and a good investment in the 
bakery in more than one respect, but, where crust gloss is essential 
and one has no boiler, loaves can be washed or sprinkled and placed 
on a baking plate and covered over, say, with quartern tins, or can be 
placed in box tins and then uncovered before being drawn and put back 
to finish. Some put iron upsets filled with wet ashes just round the furnace 
or hottest parts of oven, and arrange the dampers so that the steam is 
drawn by draught over the loaves. Coils of perforated pipes have often 
been inserted in the hottest part of oven, or even a straight pipe running 
down both sides. The objections are that the pipes become choked in the 
same way as a kettle or boiler gets furred by the deposits from the water, 
and also too much water is often allowed to run in, and therefore, not 
evaporating into steam, drips in the oven or on to the goods. A nice gloss, 
altogether better than washing with water or anything else, can also be 
obtained by proving in steam before setting. 

Referring to the pressure on the loaves of steam in the oven, we 
remember seeing a very novel, so-called, vacuum oven, from which the air, 
and also the steam as it came from the bread, was extracted ; the decrease in 
pressure was so great that the loaves rose without having been fermented or 
injected with gas, and were cooked at a lower temperature, water boiling in 
a vacuum at about 70 degs. F. The flavour of the bread for a change was 
delicious. This is described in the chapter on ovens. 



YIELD OF BREAD PER SACK OF FLOUR 18 1 



YIELD OF BREAD PER SACK OF 

FLOUR 

■TpHIS is an exceedingly contentious point. If the question were put to 
ten well-informed, intelligent and observant bakers who were actively- 
working in, or superintending their manufacturing daily, they would give 
almost as many different answers. We have been writing on and discussing 
and closely arguing the matter for nearly twenty years, and yet it would 
be dangerous and misleading to give a definite statement in a few words. 
The fact is, no answer to suit all circumstances can be given. The same 
flour does not always produce the same amount even in the same bakery, 
or even on the same day, or, still further, even in the same batch or ovenful 
of bread, and it certainly does not always produce the same in different 
bakeries. It is a case governed by differences in the system of fermentation, 
differences in the amount of water added and the slackness of dough and 
manipulation, differences in the quality of the flour, differences in ingredients 
added, differences in the heat of the oven and the time of baking, and also 
even in the particular position of the various loaves in the same oven. 

We once stated in the British Baker that a certain Scotch firm had said, 
and showed us their books confirming, that they produced when using 9 lbs. 
of salt per sack, an average yield, extending over six months, of 100 quarterns 
per 280 lbs. of flour, and this led to a large amount of conflicting cor- 
respondence. We have also before us a circular on a system of bread- 
making, "by which no to 112 loaves of 4 lbs. each can be obtained from 
country-milled flours, larger yield from strong flours." The author of that 
circular further says that country milled flour by ordinary methods will turn 
out 98 4-lb. loaves. We have also an article before us that tabulates "the 
result of twelve trial bakings that were made in 1897 by friends who are 
skilled in the art of bread-making," and the variations are from 87^ up to 
1 10 quarterns per sack (always 280 lbs., unless otherwise stated). Although 



1 82 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

they are statements in print, and technical journals, and presumably should 
be fairl)- accurate before getting there, we ourselves cannot swallow them 
without qualification. We are in constant touch, both by visits, and also 
more frequently by correspondence, with almost all the well-known large 
factories of Great Britain and Ireland, and even abroad, and the factories 
will never admit (and this is confirmed by one of the greatest authorities in 
Scodand, with whom we are often in touch, and who has had special 
facilities concerning this point) more than 96 quarterns per sack for the 
square crumby bread. This yield means, after due allowance for evapora- 
tion, about 15 gallons, or 150 lbs. water added to the 280 lbs. flour. 
Although some flours, and some loaves from the same flour, retain more 
weight than others, the great factor in yield per sack of flour must be the 
amount of water put into it and retained. 

Dealing first with the above Scotch case, it should be noted that 
some firms will make the square crumby, the French and the pan all off 
the same dough, that is, the pieces are all scaled off at the same weight, 
and then, when the batch is being moulded, the foreman would direct how 
many loaves of the various shapes he required ; the yield for each shape 
would, where such a proceeding prevailed, be the same, that is, commer- 
cially, there would be the same number of loaves sold as 2 lbs. or 4 lbs 
The French dough, however, would often be tightened up, that is more 
flour would be put into it after it was first made, therefore yield less ; 
and, on the other hand, it would be in the oven less time, and therefore 
lose less in weight ; it would have most circumference of crust, but less 
thickness of crust top and bottom. Other firms would scale the French 
at 4 lbs. in the dough, while they would scale the squares at 4 lbs. 
6 ozs., or 4 lbs. 5 ozs., and would thereby say they got more out of the 
French, say they had 10 1, or something like that. Many firms would make 
separate and slack doughs for pans ; they would get as much as 17 gallons, 
or 170 lbs., of water into them, and then also usually scale into the oven at 
less weight and draw them quickly, whereby losing less during baking. 
Some loaves lose only 2 ozs. on the 2 lbs. : others lose 4 ozs. on 2 lbs., and 



YIELD OF BREAD PER SACK OF FLOUR 183 

if a man was going to bake well, he would weigh in halfrquarterns at 2 lbs. 
3 ozs. each, but he would weigh a quartern at probably 4 lbs. 5 ozs., or less 
than double, and would thus save if baking all quarterns. We very seldom 
get a cottage loaf — do sometimes — from Scotland, it being chiefly an 
English and Welsh variety. By reason of shape, such have to be tighter, 
that is, have more flour and less water, therefore less loaves to the sack than 
pan or tin bread. 

Here also the amount varies very much. If a man puts shops under 
management, the usual rule of the trade in London is to expect the manager 
to produce and account for 92 quarterns, all kinds included, for every 
sack of flour supplied him. In Bristol the association has recently adopted 
93 as a fair amount for official purposes. The amount of water used on 
an average in practice daily to a sack of flour as met with in our experience 
varies from 13 to 18 gallons, that is (130 + 280 = ) 410 lbs., and (180 + 280 = ) 
460 lbs., of dough. There will be about 10 lbs. of this lost during fer- 
mentation, but then there will be yeast, salt, cones, and flour for dusting, and, 
perhaps, other ingredients that will replace most, if not all, of that. This 
weight of dough weighed into pieces of 4 lbs. 6 ozs. for the 4-lb. baked loaf, 
will produce about 91 and 104 quarterns respectively. 

In addition to the various causes of variations in the yield which we 
have already mentioned above, there are others, such as the effect of sifting, 
getting all out of the sack that there is in it, also such as a mouse-hole in the 
sack that lets out a certain amount of flour eVery time the package is moved, 
also evaporation of water, not only from the bread, but from the flour when 
stored over the oven, and other circumstances. One often hears of big yields 
when a man is counting his loaves, which he weighed in the dough at, say, 
2 lbs. I oz., and not reckoning baked bread ; but only last week two men in 
different parts of the country, each referring to a particular grade of flour, a 
different brand in each case, declared that a test gave them only 80 
quarterns per usual sack. As a guide, then, to a man estimating profits for 
full-weight bread, he should reckon on the average in a mixed trade not 
more than 96 for the three Scotch sorts referred to, or not more than 94 



1 84 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

for the English cottage, and, in many cases, depending on all the circum- 
stances above mentioned, he will get less. 

Out of a vast amount of correspondence personally received on this 
point, one letter from the Midlands mentions an ascertained yield of 25 stone, 
or 100 quarterns per sack, by adding 3 lbs. of scalded material, as already 
discussed in these columns, without which the correspondent could get only 
94. That is, when he omitted the 3 lbs. of scalded material, he got 6 quarterns 
(or 1 2 half-quarterns weighed at 2 lbs. 3 ozs.) less in consequence. Chemistry 
tells us definitely that matter is indestructible, but in these days it ap- 
parently, if the above could be proved, can be created. Another corre- 
spondent, making a test, found 94 quarterns cottage. Another English 
firm, doing a large good-class family trade, found their average, for all 
sorts over a period, to be 95 quarterns out of the bakery for every sack 
of flour sent in ; the loaves were always scaled by machine at 2 lbs. 2 o^s., 
baked in modern steam ovens, with regular crust, and found good weight 
when cool. Another similar good-class firm found 94 to be the average 
for all sorts produced, highest-class flour being always used, and cottages 
weighed in at 2 lbs. 3 J ozs. A Belfast correspondent says he finds 96 a 
good average, with 98 as a maximum, and that an authority he consulted 
said 94 would be fair average to count, while Glasgow would, he said, get 
a little more because of lighter doughs and stronger flours. A Dublin 
correspondent, who is undoubtedly careful, calculating, and intelligent, says 
with his tight doughs he cannot average more than 89, and tries for 90 

We have also received some carefully prepared figures concerning an 
accurately made test, where a sack of flour, to which was added a fraction 
over 3 1 lbs. (thirty-one pounds) of other materials, consisting of salt, yeast, 
corn-meal, lard, malt extract, and sugar, produced just over 137 quarterns 
(one hundred and thirty-seven) per sack, nearly 25^ gallons of water being 
added. This extraordinary yield will be jokingly styled by our readers as 
"American," but the document setting it forth was prepared in detail and 
signed and sworn to before a commissioner of oaths by three prominent men 
as having been seen by them, and carefully watched throughout every stage 



YIELD OF BREAD PER SACK OF FLOUR 185 

of the process as therein described. Every precaution was taken to prevent 
mistake, and irrespective of our knowing, and having accepted engage- 
ments from the persons interested in the invention that was being tested, 
it must be admitted that anyone is far more careful in signing and 
taking an oath on a matter than in giving a mere and casual expression 
pf opinion, yet this tremendous figure of 137 quarterns per sack of 280 lbs. 
came under our notice in the same week as two others of 80 quarterns. 
It certainly seems impossible to reconcile them. 

By a considerable amount of acquaintance with other American methods 
we have found a fairly high yield to be 2 So lbs. bread to the barrel of 196 lbs. 
flour, and exceptionally 300 lbs., which would be respectively 100 and 107 
quarterns per sack of 280 lbs. As in all places where there is much home 
baking, the bread there is more usually baked in tins than in the British Isles, 
taken as a whole. At this moment we have before us an advertisement 
concerning a London made flour that is said to produce 100 quarterns 
per sack against 95 obtained by the usual mixture ; also a report of an 
expert on a Minnesota (American Spring) patent certifying 102 to 108 
quarterns; also figures concerning a Vienna flour showing 108 to 112 
quarterns. In France much of the bread contains more water than ours, 
having a quart or 2| lbs. of water to 3^ lbs. of flour; yet the great 
majority of bread in England, of which the cottage loaf is a leading type, 
has its dough made from onl)?- half its weight of water, namely, 14 gallons, 
or 140 lbs., per 280 lbs. flour. Where cottage bread is the rule, the tins 
are usually, especially in small trades, made from the same dough, and 
therefore contain the same medium quantity of water ; but in the more 
northern parts of England, such as Hull and Manchester district, there 
is a greater preponderance, and, in cases, almost exclusive use of tin bread ; 
the doughs then are very slack, 16 gallons per sack being very common, 
and 18 occasionally. The other extreme, namely, of 13 gallons to the sack, 
has usually been from the South of Ireland, the doughs of North Ireland 
being slacker, and those of Scotland for similar bread being slacker still. 

There are still other points of importance. There can be no big 



1 86 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

yield without the water being added, but it is equally important that 
fermentation, manipulation, and quality of ingredients should be in accord- 
ance. The way in which some of the water is lost or evaporated has 
already been discussed under the heads of dryness and baking. Gluten, 
some of the characteristics of which have also been explained, has un- 
doubtedly an influence on yield. Mere quantity of gluten is not a safe basis 
on which to calculate, because there are wide differences in the character 
of flours and glutens, and also, as in the case of volume, much depends on 
manipulation. A Hungarian patent flour with a smaller percentage of 
gluten than an American low grade, will usually give the more bread. 
Also, some flours with an excess of gluten are worse retainers of water 
than a more evenly balanced one of the same class. As a rule, how- 
ever, a larger proportion of the right sort of gluten will enable a bigger 
volume to be obtained, and the bigger the loaf the more water it will 
carry without showing it. A flour with a larger proportion of gluten 
is also usually more stable, and can thus be made up slacker without 
" giving " or falling off so much in trough or on the boards. Where the 
gluten is composed of too much gliadin, it will, like starch, take the 
water, but afterwards "give," whereas, if containing the right proportion 
of glutenin, it may take less, but retain it. The importance of the correct 
percentage of these constituents which decide the qualitj"^ of the gluten 
has already been discussed, but it may be mentioned here that a certain 
patented process that aims at adjusting these two, claims to gain i lb. 
of flour in every gallon of liquor used. 

It has been found that decreasing the gluten by adding starch 
artificially has decreased the yield, and also that increasing the proportion 
of gluten by washing out some of the starch has increased the yield. 
Some few years ago the author obtained from some starch manufacturers 
a quantity of gluten, which to them is a by-product, and usually sold, 
as said by them at the time, for use in cattle food, but, doubtless, also 
ground up into so-called gluten flour ; but the results of adding this to 
white flour had very little effect on yield. 



YIELD OF BREAD PER SACK OF FLOUR 187 

The effect of manipulation is easily seen by the fact that one can always 
get a larger yield, in proportion, with a small test than with- the usual com- 
mercial batch. This circumstance often accounts for discrepancies and 
erroneous conclusions. As a rule, with the same amount of labour, a loaf 
blown up quickly by a short, quick, and vigorous process, provided it be 
ripe, will hold more water and handle more easily with the extra amount 
than a long slow one. A ripe dough will carry more than an unripe one. 
The gas in the one case, and the labour and ripeness in the other, tends to 
volume, with the effect as explained above. The abundance of gas to some 
extent in a quick process supplies what is not obtained in a long steady 
process, unless the latter has been well divided into stages and extra 
skilfully manipulated, so that its gluten is developed to the utmost of its 
elasticity, and well stretched and folded. The latter is the case in Scotland, 
and big yields out of comparatively soft flour are in a similar way obtained 
in France. There is a very great deal in this manipulation of the gluten 
and the way in which the flour is worked into the water, and often accounts 
for apparent discrepancies in yield between long and short process. 

We have closely watched results from different machines. Both in fancy 
and in ordinary bread we have found less flour required to make a dough, 
therefore a better yield, when added by instalments and worked in by gradual 
kneading, instead of all at once at the start, and by grinding more. By adding 
gradually where the machine gives a good stretching action, the flour is 
enabled to take all the water it will. It may be argued, with reason, that once 
the right amount of flour is discovered, that it could be weighed and added in 
first place, but, except in large and exceptionally well-managed bakeries, this 
is not the rule, and the consequence is that generally more flour is added 
than necessary, and the machine will force it in. We know where the same 
flour sent to two depots, one having machinery and the other not, gives 
more yield in the latter case, but it is no fault of the machine. Also, in the 
same bakery two different machines were each given a week's close test 
under the same conditions throughout, the one that took twice as long as 
the other to make the dough, enabled the latter to recover and be readv for 



1 88 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

scaling sooner, and made the better yield per sack. As there are interests 
involved, we cannot here state the case any more plainly. Sifting machines, 
by enabling the sacks to be more completely emptied without risks, and by 
loosening the flour and breaking any lumps, are a benefit to yield. There 
should be less dry lumps, and less flour not thoroughly saturated, when using 
machinery. 

While dough is fermenting there is evaporation of moisture and also 
evolution of gas, therefore decrease in weight. The gas is made out of 
sugar, and the loss of dry matter in medium processes amounts to about the 
same as the percentage of natural sugar In flour, namely, rather over 2 per 
cent., or, approximately, 6 lbs. per sack, in addition to moisture evaporation. 
This is what we wrote in the British Baker ten years ago, but we see 
Professor Snyder of the Minnesota Agricultural College says he found the 
loss of dry matter to be if per cent., or about 4 lbs. flour per sack in a short 
process of four hours from start to oven, and 8 per cent, or 20 lbs., in a pro- 
cess of twelve hours, that is, five times the loss in treble the time ; also loss of 
nitrogen was nearly four times as much, namely, two against 'j.'] per cent., 
especially in small tests. The 20 lbs. per sack is rather a startling amount, 
and sets one thinking with renewed energy about quick processes. The 
author recently made two batches of two sacks each, all quantities, of course, 
carefully weighed. One was by long sponge, and the other by quick off-hand 
dough. At throwing-out time the dough that had been preceded by a sponge 
was much the slacker, and had to have other flour added in order to make it 
of the same workable consistency as the off-hand dough. The fine bulky 
and light tin loaves of some districts that are made from such extra slack 
and quick doughs with large quantities of yeast, would not, without altering 
the whole character of the bread, be aerated sufficiendy quickly at the finish 
to stand up or hold in suspension so much water if they were made from a 
slow process with less yeast. Such loaves are lighter and more spongy 
than the good volumed loaves of Scodand, yet are made from softer flours. 

Regarding the adding of materials such as malt extract and potatoes, 
their chief effect must be their influence, according to conditions, on the 



YIELD OF BREAD PER SACK OF FLOUR 189 

vitality of the fermentation, as just seen in the case of quantity of yeast. 
They do not contain much solid material, and increase the weight of the 
dough chiefly by their water, which could be otherwise added. Carbonate 
of lime used to be added, because it increased the yield by checking diastasis 
or change of the constituents of the flour that were already somewhat 
unstable ; and in damp seasons malt extract and the changed starch of the 
scalded potato must increase instead of check this diastasis : the two actions 
are therefore contradictory, except as showing, as instanced above, that 
yield depends, like volume and other things, on the regulation of the changes 
in the flour by process and by manipulation, by just the right amount of 
change, neither more nor less, and the presence of a copious amount of gas 
when the loaf is just about to be baked. 

It is thus obvious that the increasing or decreasing of the changes 
can be advantageous or disadvantageous, according to individual circum- 
stances, and that no absolute rule should be stated. The addition of 
scalded flour or other scalded materials comes within the same category. 
This is already dealt with under its own heading in Section I., and 
also under colour and other points that it affects. The water is certainly 
better entangled when adding scalded flour or starch than when adding 
extra starch in a raw state ; it enters into the composition of the more soluble 
matter and therefore is less easily evaporated : if therefore retained it must 
increase the weight and yield, although the weight, with a large amount of 
scalded matter, will often be found when handling the loaf by reason of its 
usually decreased volume. Having elsewhere given instances of our own 
concerning amounts with varying effects, we will here mention some trials by 
Mr Vass, who found that adding 20 lbs. of scalded rice, in place of flour, to 
a sack of strong American patents produced a total yield of 108 quarterns, 
and adding 12^ lbs. to a sack of English patents produced 100 quarterns. 
Moisture, which may amount to nearly half a gallon per sack, that is, 
evaporated from flour kept in a moderately warm place, such, for instance, in 
a store over an oven, will be reabsorbed if added when making the bread. 
Also, on the other hand, when wheat is washed or damped, which would 



I90 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

usually be done only in the case of hard wheats for the purpose of cleaning 
and more easily removing the outsides, the yield would not be appreciably 
decreased. Weather during milling affects the yield of flour from wheat 
Some countries weigh their flour light so as to allow for moisture absorption 
during transit. 

There is just one other point, namely, that, even if yield was the sole 
criterion of value of flour, which it is not, the extra number of quarterns 
obtained should not be reckoned at their price when sold. In a certain 
prize essay on the relative merits of home milled and foreign flours, we see 
it stated that the difference in value between a flour producing 96 quarterns 
and one producing 93 is is. 6d. when the price is 6d. per quartern. 
That is bad arithmetic, which is unfortunate in an otherwise excellent essay. 
If 3 quarterns extra made the sack of flour worth extra at the rate of 
6d. each, the sack that produced 96 would be worth 48s.. but the price 
of it is given at 28s. 6d. The calculation is really one of proportion, namely, 
if 93 are worth 28s. 6d., how much are 96 worth. 

As 93 : 96 : : 28s. 6d. 

96 X 57 , 

~ = 29s. sd. 

93 X 2 

This is seen to be less than two-thirds of the increase claimed. It is some- 
times argued that the extra 3 costs nothing extra for labour and selling, etc., 
but this does not alter the fact that they should be considered only in strict 
proportion to the others, because if they were not wanted, if they did not 
supply some customer who would otherwise be supplied from the same 
source, they would, of course, be unsold, and therefore worth nothing. The 
point is that the making of them does not necessarily sell them. If not 
accepting the principle of proportion, which cannot, however, fail to be wrong, 
one has only to multiply the result to see the full force. Three quarterns 
per sack would be, on 100 sacks, 300 quarterns, and surely these would cost 
something. Extra trade with the same fixed expenses decreases cost of 
the whole, but extra production without the trade does not. The above 



YIELD OF BREAD PER SACK OF FLOUR 191 

fact is so very often overlooked, or would be explained in less space. 
An advertisement before us, although announcing flours that we have 
favourably reported upon, claims loo quarterns for a certain sack of flour 
against 95 as supplied by other people, which also claims to reduce the 
cost of sack to extent of 2s. id. for 5 quarterns at sd. If, however, the 
amount of flour in 100 costs 25s., that in 95 will cost about 5 per cent, less 
of 25s., namely, is. 3d. 




SECTION V 

MACHINERY, APPLIANCES, 
OVENS, FIRING, DRAUGHT, 
AND VENTILATION 

" Our doubts are traitors, 
And make us lose the good we oft might win 
By fearing to attempt.'' 



MACHINERY 

A T one time it was very frequently stated, and very popularly believed, 
that machinery in the bakehouse did not pay with a trade of less than 
forty sacks (280 lbs.) of flour per week. We have always entirely disagreed 
with this, and can point to many such installations which have abundantly 
satisfied the possessors beyond their expectations, and fully recouped 
the outlay. Some will admit the advantages with a trade of twenty- 
five sacks, but we will go further than this and state, according to 
personal experience, that machinery, when suitably selected, can be 
made to pay in any business, properly organised and adjusted, that at 
present returns a normal commercial profit on capital and labour. We 
have before us a quotation from The Baker's Helper of Chicago, America, 
which says that machinery pays for a trade of 12 to 14 barrels weekly 
(8^ to 10 sacks of 280 lbs.), and that "in a shop using from 20 to 25 
barrels of flour per week it will save the labour and hire of one man." 

The selection of the machinery, and the organisation and adjustment of 
192 




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MACHINERY 193 

manufacturing and trading conditions to it, are really more important than 
the size of trade, because one man, with a trade of the same size, and even 
the same price, will be successful where another fails. There are instances 
where machinery does not pay because it has been selected of an altogether 
too elaborate, and expensive, and unsuitable character in proportion to the 
existing and prospective size and character of the business. There are 
other instances where people discard machinery, because they attempt to 
continue exactly in the old rut, forgetting that a machine is a machine, and 
that one of its chief advantages, namely, uniformity, must not be supposed 
to adapt itself to varying conditions, but that, when once a machine has been 
selected as nearly as possible in accordance with requirements, other con- 
ditions must be altered to fit. 

Close observation will show that the bakery trade is now advancing 
very rapidly ; the revolution will undoubtedly be greater than in the 
sister trade of milling, and in that revolution, which this year is 
receiving great impetus, the part played by machinery is destined to 
be very considerable. Quite a few years witnessed the great change at 
enormous outlay from stone to roller milling; prejudice there, as in most 
changes, ruled for a long time. The unbelievers lagged behind, but had 
to spend their money just the same later when some of their trade had 
gone to their more progressive competitors, and they then found it more 
difficult to get back their own trade than, had they been first, it would have 
been to get that of others. It will be the same in the bakery trade, and the 
first man in a district to judiciously bring himself up to date in all his methods 
will pay for his plant by increased trade while others are in contemplation. 

Machinery in the bakehouse is now to some extent looked upon by 
many as merely a great convenience or a luxury, but it is very rapidly 
becoming a necessity, and while now machinery is the exception, it must 
very shortly be the rule, and no one can afford to ignore the undoubted 
tendency of the times. Legislation, conditions of labour, public sentiment, 
quicker methods of fermentation, desire for improved quality, competition, 
improvements in construction, and a greater selection in kinds and prices of 



194 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

machinery, all tend to the increasing adoption of the latter. While, however, 
the large variety of machines on the market enables one to say that all 
classes of users can be satisfied, the variety, immediately one travels or 
looks into the question, is such as to cause bewilderment, which is often 
increased by the natural propensity of every manufacturer to believe his 
own production to be just the very one required. Intending buyers, who 
very often buy their experience dearly, would therefore usually be well 
repaid by consulting some independent authority, who they knew to have 
not only a practical knowledge of the bread-making business, but also a 
full acquaintance with the good and bad points and suitability to their 
case, or otherwise, of the various appliances in question. 

The larger and more complete plants, such as already adopted 
by most large firms, are greater savers of labour and waste, and usually 
more durable than the smaller and less expensive, but the latter have 
recently been brought to greater perfection than formerly. In many cases, 
therefore, a sum of less than ^"loo has been expended with the good result 
of saving the men the exhausting work of dough-making, making them more 
contented with their situation, reserving their energies, both physical and 
mental, for other important stages of the manufacture, improving the quality, 
and increasing the trade with no further expense. 

W'hen considering motive power, the steam engine, although employed 
in some large bread factories, may be dismissed as too expensive for the 
ordinary bakery, the choice being between gas and oil engines and electric 
motors. A gas engine is a heat engine in which the working fluid is atmos- 
pheric air, and the fuel an inflammable gas or vapour. The fuel is introduced 
directly into the cylinder and burnt there, instead of in a separate furnace as 
in the case of a steam engine. One of the best known types is that invented 
by Dr Otto, which has been invented less than thirty years, and is now made 
by many firms at different prices, an Otto engine not always being the same 
in details of construction. There are three distinct types of gas engines, 
but we need consider only one. In this the cycle of operations consists of 
charging the cylinder with gas and air mixture at atmospheric pressure, then 



MACHINERY 195 

compressing into combustion space, then explosion of the mixture, then 
expansion after explosion, and finally expulsion of the used charge. There 
is usually one impulse given to the piston in every two revolutions. Piston 
on forward stroke draws in the gas and air mixture, on backward stroke 
compresses it ; the latter is then fired by the coming in contact with the red 
hot or ignition tube at end of cylinder, sending piston forward. The governor 
regulates by shutting off gas, and thus causing explosions to be missed when 
the load is light and engine running too fast. The gas engine converts a 
far larger proportion of heat given it into work than any steam engine. 
The light oil engines of motor cars are practically gas engines. A unit of 
heat supplied to a gas engine in the form of coal gas is more costly than that 
supplied by coal, therefore a gas engine using ordinary gas is at a disadvan- 
tage for large powers, of, say, over 20 H.P. (horse-power), and thus one 
finds some flour mills, and such larger factories, make their own gas on the 
well-known Dowson principle. This making of power, or heating, or 
producer gas will presently be referred to for heating ovens. 

When proceeding to start the engine the card of instructions usually 
supplied should be carefully read. First, see that belts are on the loose 
pulleys, then light ignition tube, and then oil the bearings, etc. See that 
cooling water for the cylinder jacket is all right, the tank being full and the 
flow not impeded. Sometimes the exhaust pipe wants emptying, because 
of condensation of gases producing water in it. In about ten minutes from 
lighting, the ignition tube will be red hot, then put exhaust lever to right, 
lift governor temporarily, and turn on main supply of gas, give fly-wheel a 
few turns until an explosion occurs, push exhaust lever back, and engine 
should then be running properly. In stopping, the reverse would be neces- 
sary. It is necessary to see that the burner burns with a blue and not a 
luminous flame ; if the latter, it has lighted back, and should be turned out 
and relighted. Great damage would be done to piston if not well oiled. 
The water jacket round cylinder should always keep the latter sufficiently 
cool so as to just bear the hand on it, and the water tank should be as high as 
possible, with as few angles as possible in the connecting pipes. Sometimes 



196 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

these pipes get choked by accumulations of rubbish in tank and cause a 
stoppage. The valves must occasionally be examined to see they freely 
open and shut without any clogging by dirt, etc. The explosion with 
average work should not be at every stroke, and if so, the gas, which needs 
a different proportion to air, according to quality, probably wants regulating, 
or, perhaps, the exhaust valve is leaking and wants cleaning or resetting. 

In some districts the usual gas cannot be obtained, and the amount 
required for the engine is too small to warrant erecting a Dowson or other 
plant for making it on the premises. There are some good oil engines to 
supply the gap. These, although dating from the first practicable one 
made in 1 870, and about six years before the Otto already referred to, have not 
been so quickly or easily perfected to overcome all difficulties as the gas 
engines, especially in the larger powers. Considerable advances have, 
however, been made recently in connection with motor vehicles, which 
chiefly monopolise their use in this country, but in America and other 
countries where gas is scarcer and dearer, there are many light oil engines 
for fixed or stationary use. Oil engines are really explosive gas engines of 
the ordinary Otto type, with special arrangements to enable them to 
vaporise the oil to be used, the oil engine, when the petroleum with which 
it is fed is converted to vapour, being practically the same as a gas engine. 
This is proved by the fact that many engines can very cheaply be converted 
from one to the other by merely adding or removing the vaporiser and a few 
sundries, which is a great convenience in districts and countries where 
villages quickly become towns. There are at least three distinct types, 
namely, (i) where the oil is subjected to a spraying operation — like a scent 
spray — before vaporisation, as is done in the Priestman type, which is the 
most general ; (2) where the oil is injected into cylinder and vaporised there ; 
and (3) where the oil is vaporised outside the cylinder and introduced in a 
state of vapour. They might also be divided by the method of ignition, or 
lighting the oil, which is adopted, namely, whether by electrical spark, 
incandescent tube, or other methods. The supply of oil wants regulating 
for the purpose of even working and explosion in the same way as gas. 



MACHINERY 197 

The vaporiser must not be too cold or too hot, as in the one case it will 
not provide sufficient vapour or gas, and, in the other, not in the right 
condition. The amount of air admitted should not be much at the start, 
but should be increased later. The exhaust, when the engine is doing an 
average amount of work, should be almost invisible and contain no soot, 
which would finally clog the parts. The ignition tube requires cleaning 
occasionally, and the valves and other things require similar attention, as 
already mentioned concerning" the gas engine. 

Electric motors are the most convenient form of power, but, depending 
on the size and amount of use, they are usually, at present, more expensive 
to run than gas engines. They, of course, occupy very little space, a 6 H.P. 
(horse-power) motor going into a box of about 7 or 8 cubic feet, or less than 
3 feet at its longest side, and not requiring floor space or a separate glass 
partitioned house, and, in fact, it can go into the space otherwise occupied by 
the water tank necessary for cooling the gas engine cylinder. There is, of 
course, no exhaust to silence, no turning of fly-wheel, no waiting for ignition 
tube to heat, no back firing, less noise, no smell, and, when attached to each 
machine, no shafting or belting. This attaching to separate machines is 
particularly handy for knocking up during the day a small mixture of cakes 
or sponge goods, instead of more laboriously and less perfectly turning the 
usual hand machine, or instead of running all the time the heavier engine 
and shafting that was designed for the bread or night work. Where trade, 
as in many cases, has increased through adding machinery, and as the 
advantages of some machines were found, others w^re added, and thereby 
sufficient of them running at same time to overtax the engine, these motors 
are also very handy. The success of them depends, of course, on the power 
and character of the current supplied from the main, and although successful 
in some cases, they are not always so where the current is alternating, and 
investigation is required. We know very many instances where entire 
satisfaction is given, and their number will certainly increase. 

The cost of engines varies according to the makers, but the prices of 
gas, oil, and electric, as supplied by a certain well-known firm, compare as 



198 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

follows. The gas engines, including water tank, spanners, etc., can be 
obtained in almost any size, a 2f brake H.P. costing ^32, a 12 H.P. costing 
^106, with fairly proportionate intermediate prices in intermediate sizes. 
The oil engines of |, 3, and 12 H.P. cost respectively ^32, .1^70, and ^160. 
The electric motors, including starting resistance, of 2, 3, and 10 H.P. cost 
respectively £4^0, £^6, and £111. Taking for purpose of comparison an 
engine of 4 H.P., it will be found that the gas, oil, and electric cost respectively 
about £/\^^, £?>o, and £6^. There is then the question of running. The 
smaller gas engines consume 20 to 25 cubic feet of gas per brake horse-power 
per hour, and the larger, about 1 6 to 17 cubic feet, the proportions of gas being, 
according to quality, about one part gas to every ten or twelve parts of air. 
The cost can be reckoned out from these figures, according to the varying 
price of gas in various districts, and an actual instance before us is of a 3 H.P. 
engine (brake or effective horse-power is always meant) making three to four 
sacks of dough and sundries daily, at a cost of 3s. 8d. per week. Other 
light machines have been run by a 4 H.P. engine throughout the week, at 
an average of about 2d. per hour of working. It has been stated, in a prize 
essay, by a Glasgow writer that in his factory 4800 dozen loaves (100 
men at 48 dozen each) per day can be made at a cost, for steam power, of 
little over 5s. per day, the driven plant for his particular squad costing ^487 
and taking 25 H.P. Regarding oil, the consumption in small engines is 
about I lb. per brake horse-power per hour. A small engine has been run with 
oil at 6d. per gallon for lid. per horse-power for three hours, or Jd. per horse- 
power per hour. Electric motors are supplied in some towns with current 
at 2d. per unit, and in others at 3d. and more ; at the former price the cost 
is about i|d. per hour for a 6 H.P. motor, but this can be ascertained easily 
by each individual for himself An instance is before us of a 6 H.P. motor 
making five sacks of dough with one unit at 3d., where the main current was 
alternating. 

Machine kneaders will do better in six or eight minutes or less, if 
required, that which will take two men fully twice or three times as long. In 
larger bakeries with two kneaders, one man can do in less than half the 



MACHINERY 



199 



time more than double the amount of six men. In smaller bakeries, where 
the plant requires as much cleaning and keeping in order for one batch as 
for ten, and where a minimum number of hands must be kept for other 
purposes, there is in point of wages, no immediate saving. The work, how- 
ever, can be done in less time, and with less fatigue, and it would be an 
exceptional business if the increased mental vigour for thinking of improve- 
ments, and the saving of time could not be shortly afterwards turned to 
profitable account, even if it did no more than save a jobber on a Friday 
night or at other busy season. Those engineers who want business have 
illustrated their machines in the advertising pages of this book, and also 
place them on view at the annual exhibitions ; it will, therefore, not be 
necessary to describe any particular machine, nor is it expedient in connec- 
tion with the various types to give an opinion in print. 

Points to examine are the efficiency as judged by the finished dough ; the 
durability as judged by the general construction, and particularly the bearings 
of the shafts or blades, the wear and tear and liability to leakage being, of 
course, greater where two revolve on one axis, especially in opposite direc- 
tions, or where the bearings are narrow. Accessibility for cleaning, filling 
and emptying, space, capacity, compactness, power taken, coverings to 
prevent waste, etc., are all points needing consideration, according to 
individual circumstances. The action on the dough should certainly be 
stretching rather than cutting, but the best machine is not necessarily the 
one, as some seem to argue, that most closely represents the action of 
hand kneading. The best motor car is not the one that imitates the action 
of a horse's legs, and a circle cannot be drawn better by hand than by a 
compass. The test is to look at the dough when finished, and, if that is 
satisfactory, it matters not whether it is made by one, two, or three blades, 
or, in some cases, by no blades at all. Most machines have blades ; some 
do good work for small trades with one, when curved, but more generally two 
are used. Those with rods and those with worms and plungers like a man's 
arms, usually make the dough lighter and less compressed than many of 
those with blades. 




2 00 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

A longer time and less pressure during kneading is not always a 
loss, because the dough a.fterwards recovers more quickly. The more the 
compression, the more yeast or heat must be given to the dough for it to 
recover itself quickly, and the absence of this started the popular opinion 
about machinery " killing " the dough. There are some machines of a 
circular character that are fixed in the ceiling, thus occupying no floor space 
whatever, and being completely closed, are of large capacity for the size, and, 
with extra yeast to make dough become ready quickly ; they are emptied 
direct on to a table, thus entirely dispensing with any of the usual space 
occupying troughs ; this is an advantage quite impossible in hand bakeries. 
Some machines have a special arrangement for fanning in air during 
kneading. 

Although a small dough can be well made by hand, it is so much 
easier, during a hard night's work, to stand and see the dough being 
made in machine that, with the increased concentration of trades and more 
work, many of the hand doughs are less well made, containing more scraps, 
and bladders, and liability to holes in bread than machine doughs. We 
remember, however, a baker getting more holes than before, but that was 
due to the fact that he made no allowance for the extra kneading given, 
either by extra yeast, or heat, or extra time, whereby there was insufficient 
recovery. A dough kneader does not of itself increase the yield of bread 
per sack, in fact frequently on the contrary, because, in the event of too 
much flour being carelessly let down, the latter will more easily be worked 
into, or absorbed by, the dough than would be the case in hand kneading. 
However, as a rule, the installation of machinery compels or suggests a 
more systematic procedure than hitherto reigned, then the weighed quantities 
of flour, and measured quantities and temperatures of water, lead to results 
more economical and uniform. As a matter of fact, where the same flour 
has been sent to two establishments, the yield in the machine one was 
less, because the foreman liked tight dough, which he would not have been 
so willing to make by hand, and the quantities of flour added were not 
definitely ascertained. 



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(ACTUAL SIZE.) 



MACHINERY 20 1 

Where flour is delivered in 140-lb. bags, there is not much difficulty 
in making a blend of known weight, although, of course, a far more satis- 
factory arrangement in large trades is to have an automatic weigher 
immediately above the kneader. There are some on the market that 
weigh a bushel at a time, and others that more conveniently hold and 
slowly discharge sufficient for the whole batch. The consistency of dough 
by its means, and also a measuring tank, can be obtained always exactly as 
required, and without any watching during kneading, the saving of material 
and the uniformity of mixing, and, therefore, subsequent regular speed of 
proof, are obvious. 

It is not necessary in England to have separate machines for sponge 
stirring, although in Scotland and Ireland they are found of great advantage. 
They usually consist of a shaft with blades, that is let down vertically into 
the ordinary sponge or ferment tub. Like a kneader, they do the work 
better in half the time, doing the work well to the bottom of the tub, which 
is not always well done by the arm. These tubs, that sometimes take four 
men to lift, are also obviously better raised and emptied into the kneader by 
machinery. Some people in England, when using a dough kneader, still have 
sponges, which are unnecessary and a nuisance, and, moreover, still continue 
to break them, which is still more unnecessary, before adding to machine 
kneader. The fact that a sponge can be thoroughly incorporated in a 
dough, without pieces giving holes, and without previous breaking, shows 
the superior mixing powers of a machine. In the same way, when lard is 
added, it need not be melted or rubbed into the flour, but merely thrown 
into the machine. 

The average baker, having first decided on an engine or motor and a 
kneader, will probably find his next best investment in a tank, fitted with 
hot and cold water, and a thermometer for the purpose of getting the right 
amount of water at the right heat for adding to his flour, instead of the 
greater labour and uncertainty of pails and hand dipping. If, however, 
he had a mixed trade, he might prefer a whisk or sponge machine, whereby 
he would save labour, and certainly get better sponge goods and cakes, 

2 c 



202 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

and more yield, in spite of some opinions of better goods by hand when 
properly done. The construction and quality of these tanks, like other 
appliances, varies. Even when, as in the best tanks, the hot water 
runs in at the bottom and the cold at the top, the mixture is not always 
perfect, and is sometimes drawn off before accurately gauged in temperature 
by the thermometer. It is best to let the hot and cold run in at once, 
regulating the flow as the thermometer alters. Some have a movable 
perforated plate inside for mixing. It would be as well to test occasionally 
by inserting another thermometer in the top, and a little practice will 
ensure accuracy. The temperature of the water necessary to add to the flour 
in order to get a dough of a certain temperature, will have to be greater with 
a machine than without, especially for the first dough of the day in cold 
weather. Other variations will be seen by consulting the list of tabulated 
methods. 

The next machine that an average baker could well do with, if not 
running himself short of cash, and injuring credit with his millers, is a flour 
sifter immediately above his kneader. Not only do these reject a surpris- 
ingly large amount of refuse, as can be seen at the tail of such machines at 
any time, but they enable the sacks to be more completly emptied and shaken 
without harm, which is often a larger item than it may appear. They also 
enhven the flour, enabling it to absorb its full quantity of water, and to more 
readily make an even dough. Flour will always be found to take more space 
after sifting than before. Those that have brushes revolving on the sieve 
for rubbing the flour through, do the work in less than half the time of the 
vibrating sieves, where the flour gets through merely by shaking. The 
brush pulverises any lumps, which may sometimes be an advantage, but if 
the lumps are discoloured by damp, or other undesirable matters are present, 
as occasionally, then, of course, the forcing through is a disadvantage. A 
revolving reel covered with wire or silk, as in flour mills, is very efficient in 
some cases. 

Having a sifter, one frequently next desires a blender. When wheats 
are mixed and allowed to stand together for a number of days, it is well 





A SELECTION OF SHAPES. 



204 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

known that up to a certain point they considerably improve one another 
each day, and yield better results. There are certainly advantages in blending 
flour beforehand, say, once or twice a week, and storing in hoppers, and it 
is sometimes worth doing even when again weighed off in sacks. It at 
least assures exact quantities of the various flours each day, and eliminates 
another source of irregularity, and can be made to effect economies with less 
risk. Some blenders are merely hoppers, fitted with slides at the bottom, 
and sometimes with rollers, for regulating the flour into a worm or screw con- 
veyor. These work satisfactorily with dry hard flours, but are apt to clog or 
run less freely with softer flours. The safest plan is to shoot all the grades 
into a blending machine, to be mixed together, as in a kneader. The 
blender and sifter are sometimes combined in the same machine, with certain 
advantages. The flour should certainly be sifted just before doughing, if 
the blending has been done some days ; and there are certain advantages 
occasionally in sifting before blending, so if one is very particular, sifting 
could be done by a reel or vibrating sieve before blending, a:nd by a brush 
sifter before doughing. 

There is another machine that might be adopted more than it is by the 
average baker, namely, a brake. At one time a good deal of loaf bread 
was braked in this part of the country, as it now is in others ; the brake con- 
sisted of a long wooden pole fastened on a pivot to the wall, and being 
placed on top of the dough was not very comfortably "ridden" by the 
men. It made beautifully smooth and regular texture, but the work was 
hard. The old one has died out in these parts, and the new one has not 
been adopted. Most dough would be improved by more labour than it 
usually gets, except at exhibition time, and such a brake, provided, of course, 
recovery was given, would oftentimes supply the missing link, giving the 
smooth and regular texture, squeezing out the gas bladders which afterwards 
grow into holes. If the bladders and holes, or envelopes of holes, can be 
seen when cutting a moulded loaf through before baking, it is quite certain 
they will be present, and usually in an expanded degree in the loaf after 
baking. In some towns of Scotland and Ireland brakes are much used for 



MACHINERY 205 

the French and square or batch bread, the loaves being half moulded and 
passed through the brake, whereby, in addition to the other points already 
named, there is a greater uniformity of firmness, so that all loaves prove 
alike, which they will not do with the different handling of different moulders. 
Uniformity as well as finish, and rendering moulding easier. Where the 
bakery plant is most complete, the brake is less required, because in the 
same way that a well-made machine dough, when quickly fermented, and 
not allowed to get dry, cold, or skinny on the surface, does not require 
cutting back, so is a dough that has passed through a loaf divider consider- 
ably compressed, and already braked as to need less handing up or 
manipulation, being, in fact, almost half moulded. Also the machine 
moulders, which have just recently made their appearance, give the 
desired uniformity. 

The machine loaf dividers have evolved from the experimental stage, 
and some of the types are now a complete commercial success. No large 
factory can afford to be without them, and in the smaller ones it is chiefly a 
question of ways and means. The best machines are a considerable saving 
in time, or the number of men required for the same work ; but, perhaps, the 
regularity, and therefore the saving in the weight, is the chief recommenda- 
tion. Although hand scalers get very expert, there are often considerable 
variations, to say nothing of occasional straying lumps, and we oftentimes 
receive loaves overweight from men that on occasions may be hauled up for 
the contrary. Correctly speaking there is no legal weight In England ; the 
law merely requires bread to be sold by weight. Custom, however, has 
established loaves of 2 and 4 lbs., and when found less than this they are 
taken as evidence of not having been weighed. Uniformity in weight, or 
knowing what one is doing, is certainly of importance to the seller, whether 
for wholesale, family, or counter trades. Large factories have for some long 
time been accustomed to a machine that was fed by dough previously 
weighed in bulk, and then cut by its knives into forty-eight half-quartern 
pieces requiring to be carried away in a tray. These large ones for power 
were similar in principle to the small bread or scone dividers, worked by 



2o6 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

hand, to be seen in very many small bakehouses. This older type of loaf 
dividers is now becoming superseded by those machines that are fed with 
unweighed dough at the top, and discharge the weighed pieces on the 
moulding boards automatically. 

We know of some of these loaf-dividing machines — even the most 
expensive ones — in use in bakeries doing weekly less than loo sacks with 
most satisfactory and economical results. Other figures could be produced, 
but it will suffice here to repeat a printed statement of a Glasgow baker, 
to the effect that three men did i6o dozen half-quarterns (1920 loaves, 
960 quarterns or 10 sacks) per hour, which formerly took nine men. 
Times for other batches and conditions will be found amongst the tabulated 
methods at the end of this book. 

This completes the chief machines that are normally required in a 
bread bakery. Although operatives at one time opposed machinery, as 
others did railways, enough has been said to show that machinery means 
gradually raising bread-making from a domestic calling, which it still largely 
is, to a more important and more concentrated industry. More system 
will be created, with the result of more work in fewer hours, better health, 
and better wages, especially for the leading men, and also more independence 
and better results for the employer. One has only to look around — take 
the biscuit trade for example — to. see the" real and inner meaning of these 
remarks, and to realise the evolutions born of time. 

When arranging the position of machines, it should be remembered that 
a long drive, that is, a long belt, will better grip a pulley — the larger the better 
— and prevent slipping, than a short, and also that the belt can thus be slacker 
and last longer. Resin, especially in lumps, and also even when finely 
powdered, is destructive to belts, although an easy means of getting the 
machine driven, when not troubling to preferably shorten the belt. The 
latter frequently stretches, particularly when new. It is best to apply the 
resin only after dissolving in oil, and then allow belt to dry before using, 
because when wet the oil might increase the slipping rather than otherwise. 
Where bearings are oiled by needle lubricators (inverted bottles with rod 



OVENS AND FIRING 207 

projecting), it is as well to see occasionally if the oil is flowing freely, even 
if the bottle may yet be half full. The grease lubricators are cheaper, more 
certain, cleaner, and usually used in mills and on heavy machines, but 
require attention, or turning, more frequently than the others, which they 
may not get in places where there is only a little machinery, and not well 
supervised. 



OVENS AND FIRING 

A BAKER cannot be a baker without an oven. There are a large 
number of different types of ovens of very different efficiency and 
characteristics, and even a larger number of opinions concerning them. 
We will refer first to the steam-pipe drawplate oven, which is suitable for 
all but the smallest trades. Some years ago these ovens were not nearly 
so perfect as they are now, the pipes were fewer, the heating less 
satisfactory, the withdrawn plate supported on fixed rails, which were in 
the way, and occupied space in the bakehouse, and prejudice prevented 
many men from even looking at them. It might be mentioned that being so 
well known to, and so closely connected with, the various engineers and 
oven builders, we are particularly anxious to deal with principles only and not 
willingly in this place favour or otherwise any particular firm. These 
drawplates, whereby the entire surface of the oven on which bread 
is baked is drawn out into the bakehouse, are usually made entirely of 
iron, but in some cases they have their baking surface covered with tiles. 
These tiles, on which also the name of the baker can be embossed so as 
to mark his loaves, are more cumbersome, but more closely resemble in 
their effect the thicker and more porous bottom crust of the older fashioned 
ovens. These plates can be ' withdrawn, then loaded with the batch 
and set into oven easily in less than two minutes, and an even less time is 
necessary to empty it or "draw" the batch. Batches, with the exception 
perhaps of the first, can come out regularly throughout the whole day easily 



2o8 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

at every hour. We know where six drawplates, of rather larger size than 
usual, are doing 600 sacks per week, or 100 sacks per oven, but a more general 
and a fair allowance would he about fifty sacks per oven per week, varying, 
however, considerably with other conditions. Not only is there an advantage 
in time and baking capacity, but every loaf can be set exactly in its place, 
and also by unskilled labour in greater quantity instead of one skilled man at 
the oven's mouth, or at most two. (There are, in some few cases, two 
doors to a peel oven, enabling two men to set simultaneously, meeting one 
another's loaves in the centre of the oven.) All loaves going in and coming 
out together, they get the same amount of baking, becoming uniform in 
colour and weight. 

Some of these steam-pipe drawplate ovens are costly, which hampers 
their adoption by some ; space, however, cost, and fuel can be lessened per 
oven when two are built as deckers ; but, although the plates can be got very 
closely to one another so as to be worked from the floor level, their con- 
venience and capacity is somewhat lessened for quick trades. Drawplates 
,can be, and are, fitted to hot air and other special ovens. Some bakers 
complain of bakeries being made hot by drawplates, but it must be 
remembered that the plate is out for only a total of three or four minutes 
for setting and drawing instead of the door of peel ovens being open fully 
a total of thirty minutes ; and the furnace is almost always outside at the 
back instead of side flue and Scotch ovens and others being fired at the 
front, some of them under the oven door and very hot to the legs. 
Although drawplates are eminently suitable for crusty bread, we have seen 
good batches of crumb)-, and even Scotch squares, baked uniformly and in 
less time than in other ovens, the loaves being kept square by a box 
arrangement. 

The principle of heating by steam pipes is the same in all cases. Each 
pipe is about 1 2 feet long, running only from the furnace to the other end of 
oven, having no join or curve, and has about a ^-inch bore, which is partly 
filled with 2 or 3 pints of water. The pipes being sealed and tested to a 
high pressure and slanted towards furnace, the water is boiled at a sufficiently 



OVENS AND FIRING 209 

high temperature for baking, and the success and price of the oven depends 
largely on the differences in the quality of these pipes and the number of 
them used. In some cases there will be one row at top and two rows at 
the bottom as against in others one and one respectively. Some of 
the more substantial and brick built ovens on the steam-pipe and peel 
system are expensive, but of good value, being marvellously durable ; others 
which are becoming very popular, are built of a more portable character, 
having iron plates lined with silicate cotton and merelv the furnaces of 
brick, and fired at side. Prices vary according to prices of materials, and 
also according to the work and details of building. These peel ovens also 
often have iron soles which give out heat more quickly than tiles, and 
therefore, when mismanaged, but not otherwise, occasionally burn the 
bottoms. Cottages baked in shallow metal pans are, however, often preferred 
to those baked on the oven bottom. Externally heated hot air ovens — flues 
pass under and over them — are usually low crowned and built in two decks, 
sometimes three, and therefore very suitable for cakes, the top one being 
cool enough for rich or wedding, or other similar goods. 

Vienna ovens should have slanting soles for holding steam, and for 
easily drawing rolls. Other ovens are of different construction to those 
which are sufficiently described above to any baker, who has now greater 
facilities of seeing them than formerly. Some of these might be classed as 
chamber ovens. One type that is now coming more prominently before the 
trade consists, in principle, of two or three iron boxes placed in a chamber, 
which is heated by hot air entering at the top from the furnace, then spread- 
ing round the baking compartments, and finally, when cooler and heavier, 
by having circulated round the boxes or ovens, is drawn off, contrary to any 
other type, at the bottom, after being therefore economically used to the 
utmost. In these the heat can be quickly regulated. Other ovens that are 
used in America, but only seen by the writer in one bakery in this country, 
consist of a huge chamber, round which the products of combustion circulate 
in flues, instead of directly entering, as in the case just described, and within 
it a revolving reel or drum with trays, being constructed, filled and emptied 

2 D 



2IO THE BOOK OF BREAD 

on practically the same principle as the big pleasure wheel at the Earls Court 
Exhibition, and at Blackpool, etc. The continuous character, and the 
perfectly regular baking of all the loaves, and the suitability for tin bread, is 
sufficiently obvious. 

Another American oven is known as the " crustless," specially 
designed for sandwich bread to save waste. Although this oven has come 
specially under the writer's notice, in connection with other inventions of the 
same firm, he does not know of any working in this country. The dough is 
prepared in the usual manner, and, not being baked by direct exposure to 
the heat rays, is steam-heated in a completely closed iron tank on an entirely 
different system to the so-called steam, or steam pipe, ovens hitherto 
mentioned. The steam is derived from the exhaust steam of the plant. 
Another uncommon type, which makes delicious cake like bread, and which 
also we believe originally came from America, is the vacuum oven, only one 
installation of which we have seen in this country. The air is exhausted 
from the oven, whereby, the pressure being removed, water boils at a low 
temperature, and the bread is raised entirely, without any fermentation, by 
the absence of pressure, and by the steam produced from the water within 
it. There are electrically heated ovens, chiefly used on a small scale for 
flour-testing purposes ; also reel or rotary ovens for biscuit-baking, where 
trays or tins of goods are put in unbaked at one end and delivered baked 
at the other. The reel or drum oven, as described above, is loaded and 
unloaded at the same spot. 

This completes practically all the chief types of so-called externally 
heated ovens, that is, where the products of combustion do not come in 
contact with the interior. In spite of their many advantages of continuous 
baking, the firing being kept going while the batch is baking and even 
made up ready for next batch, the absence of fumes and dirt in contact 
with goods, the absence of soot hangers, the absence of scuffling or 
cleaning out with damp cloths, and injuring — especially when the scuffle 
is very wet — the oven soles, there are still many bakers who prefer, and 
still erect, the internally heated ones, such as the so-called "furnace" 



OVENS AND FIRING 211 

or side flue oven, the Scotch oven, the wagon or chaffer, and the wood 
oven. 

The wagon is peculiar to Lancashire, and has hitherto been very 
popular, with, however, now signs of waning in the Manchester district. 
It consists of a movable furnace or basket fired with coal and wood, 
deriving its draught through a long iron pipe of about 4 inches diameter. 
This pipe has its opening in the centre of the oven door, and is shortened 
when the wagon is shifted, for purposes of regular heating, nearer to 
the opening. Wood ovens that are fired by burning faggots on the sole, 
are liked by some because of flavour, although there have recently been 
cases of poisoning by burning painted wood, and also because of so-called 
economy ; but we know cases of four oven soles being required in three 
years, each sole consisting of sixty tiles, costing, by the time all was paid 
for laying, etc., about a shilling each. 

The Scotch oven is a difficult one to root out of Scotch favour. It is 
fired by coke, and is certainly economical and durable. The furnace is usually 
in the right hand corner, and is fired entirely, and relieved of its clinkers 
entirely, through the oven door. In some recent cases there is a special 
arrangement, whereby the furnace bars are not fixed permanently as usual, 
and can be raised so that clinkers can be extracted through the ash pit door 
instead of oven. The crown is high, carefully shaped for purposes of draught, 
and the soles are frequently made of stones or tiles 8 inches thick. There 
is one flue placed, as opposed to the English furnace or "side flue" oven, 
in the front, about a foot from the crown, on the left side of oven door when 
the furnace is on the right. The Scotchman says there is nothing to equal 
it for close set bread. 

The side flue, like the Scotch, usually has its furnace on the right side, 
but is fired through a separate furnace door, having its one flue in the 
diagonal or back corner, controlled by a damper or register at the front. 
It is fired usually with coal, but occasionally more economically with coke, 
when built with a differently shaped and larger furnace, or, as it can be, easily 
and cheaply converted. The coke furnace requires to be wider, bigger, 



2 1 2 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

and higher, say, about 3 feet high and nearly half as broad, and fire- 
bars as long as the height, and then a shaft about ten times the height of 
furnace. 

This completes all the leading types of ovens, with the exception of 
those for portable and field use. Gas ovens, with no flames inside, for 
caterers' or household use, can be obtained from an internal size of 2 x 2 x 
1 2 feet, up to 4 X 2 J X 1 5 feet. 

In conclusion, one need merely say the selection of ovens must be 
according to cash at command, size, character, and scope of trade, and 
space or ownership of premises. Some builders give better value than 
others, but some low priced ovens, where the top one soon sags into the 
bottom, or otherwise falls to pieces, as occasionally seen, are, of course, 
dear at any price, and the greatest personal caution, or the obtaining 
of an independent outside opinion from anyone whose business it is to 
make a special study of the subject, will always be fully repaid. Two small 
ovens are always better than one large. The size of an oven is often 
styled according to the amount of crumby set or plain bread it will take, 
which, of course, is misleading when thinking of long loaves, tins, or crusties. 

Theproperfiringof ovens is of the utmost importance. First of all, there 
is the draught, which owes its origin and degree to the differences in weight 
between the air in the chimney and the air outside. Therefore, as hot air 
is lighter than cold, the hotter the air in the chimney or shaft, the greater 
the draught. Further, as a long chimney contains, all other things equal, 
more hot air than a short, the longer the chimney, the greater the draught 
likewise. Therefore, it follows that a furnace, when once started, draws better 
in cold weather, because the outside air, being colder and heavier, is in greater 
contrast to the inside air. Likewise, the admission to the chimney of more 
cold air than necessary decreases draught. Similar, in principle, to this is 
when stopping the excess, by holding a newspaper, or blower, in front of a 
domestic fire, or by stopping up one flue, when, in the same chimney, two 
meet. As seen in the article on ventilation, a shaft over a gas-burner draws 
off more air when the burner is lighted ; also, the shaft draws better when 



OVENS AND FIRING 213 

smooth, and with no rugged places, and with no big places, or with no narrow 
parts, and should not have a narrow pot on top, or more bends, than absolutely 
necessary. Although an excess of cold air decreases draught in a chimney by 
equalising weight, there must, of course, be sufficient admitted to the furnace, 
as otherwise the capillary attraction, caused by the velocity of- the wind 
passing over the top of the chimney, which always exists in proportion to the 
velocity of the wind, even with no fire, could not be permitted. Thus, the 
importance of removing clinkers and keeping fire-bars clear. These can often 
be detected, by looking under the bars when the fire is burning, by the 
dark places produced. 

A steam jet, or tray of steaming water, underneath the fire, 
increases draught, and, when properly regulated, indirectly increases 
heat, by brightness and chemical changes, but not because of the 
popular idea of burning hydrogen, which is opposed to the laws of 
science. As heat depends on the completeness of the combustion rather than 
on the amount of fuel, it is no economy — in fact, on the contrary, — to put 
on rubbish, as often done, which only impedes the combustion of the other 
fuel. If the object is merely to get rid of the rubbish, and to check combustion 
when banking up fires overnight to save time in morning, in the same 
way that wet coke and cinders are added, the circumstances are rather 
modified, as that perhaps is preferable to the worse and ineconomical evil, in 
the case of most continuous ovens, of letting out the fire entirely. When 
properly banked up overnight with wet coke, the damper should be out 
only a little way, and then when fully drawn in morning, a bright fire with 
a little additional coke is soon produced. The coke, in the case of pipe 
jovens, should be broken small, and very evenly spread, added at frequent 
intervals in small doses, so that the fires remain small and bright. Coke 
being nearly pure carbon — the coal minus the gas and water — to the extent 
of about 95 per cent., wants about ten times its weight of air to burn 
properly, which it cannot do with the same effect if put on in large quantities 
at once, making the fire dull, and unless spread over the pipes evenly, which 
are all separate from one another, the oven cannot be equally heated. 



214 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

Too much fuel, and also impeded draught, will sometimes make ovens 
" blow back." Also, small fires require less draught for good combustion, 
and the bigger draught often carries off much of the heat. 

On the other hand, too little draught, which makes soot and smoke with 
coal, makes with coke a poisonous gas, known as carbon monoxide, to which 
fact even the eminent M. Zola recently owed his death. This gas is 
unfortunately almost odourless, therefore giving no warning like ordinary 
gas, and i per cent, of it in air is sufficient to kill, while one-third of that 
quantity is dangerous. Even a bunsen burner, however, evolves some. 
This gas is very stupefying, burns with a blue flame on the furnace, when 
it does not escape to do its mischief, and combustion of the coke being thus 
imperfect, much heat is lost. In fact, it is owing to imperfect handling 
that these pipe ovens often take more coke than necessary, and in cases are 
less in favour than they deserve. Coke, by-the-by, should be measured 
each day, and be well selected, hard, porous, and not dusty. To render 
management easier, some two or three firms are now arranging to fire 
these ovens by gas, not the ordinary kind as referred to, and expensive to 
use in ordinary gas ovens, but the non-luminous gas as previously mentioned 
as being made on the Dowson principle in connection with gas engines. This 
can be ready each day before commencing to bake, and by playing on the 
pipes overcomes unequal stoking, or badly regulated draught, saves room, saves 
clinkers, therefore increases efficiency, with less wear and tear on pipes, and 
can be regulated to a nicety from the bakery and front of the oven by the 
foreman — advantages that will probably be found will more than compensate, 
in large places, the cost and working of the gas-making plant. This would 
overcome the objection in some cases of using the ends of the bottom pipes 
as furnace bars, instead of having separate bars, although, of course, these 
ends must always have some water left and unconverted to steam, or would be 
burnt through much sooner than some we have seen in Hampshire that have 
been erected over thirty years. 

Referring now again to the internally heated or side flue ovens, the coal 
should likewise be put on in small instalments frequently, and then at the 



OVENS AND FIRING 215 

front, the hot or burning coal being pushed back. The smoke from the 
newly added coal has then less opportunity of showing itself at the top of 
the shaft or wasting, being more consumed by passing over the hotter and 
brighter burning coal, and also for a little while the furnace door should 
be left slightly open. Small and dusty coal is more likely to clinker on 
the furnace bars. Although side flue ovens are built of brick (the more 
material the more the heat is absorbed, and then afterwards given out 
gradually) they, by their internal and non-continuous firing, quickly rise and 
fall in heat. They require knowledge and judgment in the time allowed for 
them to equalise or "lie down," and for setting the different sorts of bread, 
because, although required to be fairly evenly heated so as not to burn or 
boil, the back wants to be cooler than the front, because the loaves there 
go in first and come out last, and the other cool place is close to the oven 
door where the loaves go in last and in the ordinary way, unless shifted 
during drawing, come out first. The lack of uniformity here is an advantage 
in some cases and a disadvantage in others. Brick radiates slower than 
Iron, making thicker and more porous crusts, and stone makes harder crusts 
than porous tiles ; and all such masonry work, when ovens are new, requires 
heating and drying very gradually, and for a longer period than those ovens 
built more largely with Iron, If cracking is to be prevented. 

A list of the different heating values of fuel has been published by us 
elsewhere, and here it will be merely necessary In connection with draught 
to mention that i lb. of coal requires for combustion 300 cubic feet of air, 
coke 270, wood 130, and coal-gas 340, and that if the air were supplied to 
the furnace hot, as, for instance, by passing where heat was going to waste, 
the fuel would be better consumed. In writing to a correspondent the other 
day concerning his fuel bill, we said he had nothing much to complain about 
in burning "close on," as he said, a ton of coal per week for four ovens of 
ordinary furnace type, but that he did not need four ovens for forty-five to 
fifty sacks. Nothing was said as to baking other goods in addition to 
bread, and bread alone should be done In two ovens, which would not, of 
course, take as much fuel as four. We mentioned having ourselves done 



2i6 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

thirty-five sacks in one side flue oven at a push, and it is easier work to do 
sixty in two ovens, of which we know instances. Instances of drawplate 
work are given above. We remember, some few years ago, listening to a 
paper when the reader said his fuel (coke) cost him i |d. for baking 6 bushels 
of bread — one sack. 

Taking two instances immediately under our present acquaintance, we 
find one business baking twenty sacks per week in fifteen batches, and about 
;^ 1 5 in confectionery goods with one oven, and 5 cwt. of coal (costing £ \ per 
ton), namely, 5s. per week for the twenty sacks, or 3d. per sack (this was also 
the exact figure and condition in a larger trade), when not reckoning the smalls, 
which practically cost nothing, as they are baked between the batches, and 
after the bread is out, using the heat that would almost as readily be lost 
before the next day's baking. Another instance is a trade of thirty-six sacks 
per week, and smalls in two ovens at a consumption of 3 tons a month, 
which works out at about 5d. per sack, at the present usual price of £1 per 
ton. For the ordinary furnace coal oven, we used to reckon \ cwt. for first 
batch, and \ cwt. for second. So much, however, depends on the oven, the 
construction of furnace, the kind of fuel, the size of batches, and the number 
of sacks baked, that it is best to answer by instances, as other noted person- 
ages did by parables. Other actual cases are 300 sacks per week, at an 
average of 3d. per sack ; another, 200 sacks at an average of 4|d. ; another, 
300 at 5d. ; another estimate is 2d. per sack for 300 sacks weekly, and 4d. 
for smaller quantities. Others work out at 4d. to 6d. per sack, and some 
small ovens, two working all day, take per day i cwt. of coke. Some prefer 
anthracite, which is like coke, burning almost smokeless, giving good heat, 
but in some places is cheaper than coke, requires more draught, and 
clinkers less. Wood takes less draught, and gives less heat. 



TROUGHS 2 1 7 



TROUGHS 

A CCORDING to standard dictionaries, a trough is a long, hollow vessel 
for containing food or water, etc., and is correctly pronounced " trof " 
instead of " tro," but one never hears anyone call a baker's trough a 
"trof" The care of troughs and such like utensils is often very much 
neglected in many districts, but in Scotland this detail, like many others 
that account for the high average of skill there, receives very much more 
attention. Because of the effect on fermentation, cleanliness of utensils is of 
more importance in long and slow processes than in short and quick, where, in 
the latter case, larger quantities of yeast are added from other sources instead 
of having to be grown in the bakery. When at a bakers' exhibition at Mayence 
in Germany, exactly ten years ago, and also on many other visits to the 
continent, the author particularly noticed the large amount of iron and 
enamelled troughs exhibited, which, although perhaps not common in 
continental bakeries, must have considerably more demand than in this 
country, or they would not be on sale in such quantities. Many were fitted 
with a lining or hollow jacket for the purpose of adding hot water in winter 
or ice in summer, so as to keep the doughs at a more even temperature all 
the year round. The bottoms were cylindrical, or rounded at the junction 
with the sides, so that there were no corners to scrape out, and, in fact, 
while the enamel remained in good condition, cleaning and keeping sweet 
was obviously reduced to a minimum. Although they would not wear 
away like wood or require relining with all the risk of a putrefying mass 
accumulating behind, the enamel would chip occasionally and act in the 
same way as the other enamelled utensils more usually used here. 

These enamelled troughs have much to recommend them from a public 
or inspection standpoint, giving a much better appearance and being more 
inviting than even a clean wooden one. They were, of course, on wheels 
such as sanitary authorities are now more often insisting upon, so as to 



2l8 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



give dust and refuse more chance of being removed from under them. 
Although feehng colder to the hand than wood, they would be of exactly 
the same temperature. Everything in the bakehouse, no matter of what 
material it may be made, is of the same temperature as the surrounding air 
unless, of course, some artificial heat be applied to otherwise affect. 
The air equalises all in the same way as everything, whether wood or iron, 
when put into a bucket of water will be of same temperature. Although it 
is necessary to mention the above in order to answer many curious ideas 
received in letters on this subject, iron troughs, and — the same thing in this 
respect — large kneading machines, certainly have an effect on doughs made 
in them, according to the following conditions. 

An iron trough as compared with a wooden one does not chill the dough, 
as sometimes said, in the same way as the first plunge into a cold bath chills a 
man ; but because iron is a better conductor than wood it allows the heat of 
the dough to escape through it sooner, in the same way as taking off one's coat 
does not immediately strike cold but allows the heat of the body to exude 
sooner. The body will get cold, or have the sensation of cold, when a coat 
is removed, strictly in accordance with the heat of it as generated by 
vigorous action, in accordance with the difference in temperature between 
it and the surrounding air, and in accordance with the time, by the 
removal of the coat, that it is exposed to the difference. This, without 
further words, will be seen to apply in all points to a dough in a trough. 
A hot dough will more quickly lose its heat, but a cold one will not be 
made colder, will not be chilled, in fact, as sometimes might be the case, the 
iron trough would on the contrary allow the temperature of the dough to rise 
sooner than a wooden trough, by being in a bakehouse warmer than that 
required for the dough when finished making. 

By reason of the above it is one thing to make a dough in an iron trough 
or machine and another to let it lie there afterwards to prove. We know, how- 
ever, of a fairly large business where there is not a single trough in the bakery^ 
all doughs being made by a very quick process and kept in the machines 
of which there are several, till ready for scaling. The larger the trougn 




A SELECTION OF SHAPES. 




PRIZE IRISH BATCH, OR TURNOVER, LOAF (hALF-SIZE). 



2 20 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

or machine, or the more material about it, the greater will be the loss of heat, 
there being more to absorb the heat, and we have frequently found that a 
certain well-known massive machine required water lo degs. hotter in order 
to make a dough of same temperature as that made in a smaller wooden 
trough, or lo degs. hotter for the first dough than required for a second, 
which followed quickly and was of the same temperature, when made ; this 
would more particularly be the case when the water was put in first and 
some few minutes allowed to elapse while the engine was being started and 
the flour let down from the sifter above. 

In"the matter of keeping the troughs in good condition, it will be found 
desirable to lard them once or twice a week according to the amount they 
are used. The greasing of a tin, or an iron kneader, is sufficiently general 
for its effect to be well known, but the above applies to wooden troughs 
which in the great majority of cases never get anything more than a scrape. 
The melted lard, butter or oil should be put on with a rag or brush only 
after the trough has been thoroughly scraped ; it is no substitute for scraping 
in the first place, but it will save it afterwards, as the dough will come out 
cleaner, that is, will stick less. Another little dodge not universally adopted 
and worth the doing is to sprinkle the trough with salt at the last turn when 
making the dough, this keeps the trough moist and thus renders scraping 
easier, whereas cones dry and stick on. There is nothing like injecting into 
old troughs a jet of steam once or twice a week to bring out any accumulations 
of scraps and germs that always, especially with troughs that have been 
worn and lined with slate or another piece of wood, get just where it is the 
most difficult to scrape. Steam has softened and brought out evil-smelling 
matters that were never thought to have been there. A wash once a week 
with warm water will also be worth the doing, and lids should be left up 
to sweeten troughs when the day's work is done, especially on Saturdays, 
when, as a matter of fact, in small businesses they are more often full of flour 
to save shooting on Sunday, when a sponge or dough is made over night. 
Lime is as well to use occasionally. One of the most handy aptiseptics is 
a solution of bisulphite of -lime, a two-gallon jar of which can be obtained 



VENTILATION 221 

cheaply from any chemist, and the troughs should be well saturated occa- 
sionally with this at the close of work, the sulphurous fumes being in that 
case kept in as much as possible. 



VENTILATION 

npHE subject of ventilation, which was last discussed by the author in a 
special and long article just fourteen years ago, has recently been forced 
on the trade by the New Factory Act, and is not pleasing to the pocket ; but 
in order to show that this is a far more important subject than many who 
feel the pinch like to believe, it would be well, in passing, just to quote the 
words of such an eminent authority as Dr James Johnston, who, in speaking 
of impure air, says " that ague and fever — two of the most prominent features 
of the malarious influence — are as a drop of water in the ocean when com- 
pared with the other less obtrusive but more dangerous maladies that 
silently disorganise the vital structure of the human fabric under the influence 
of this deleterious and invisible poison." The impurities likely to be found 
in the air are legion ; and when recently studying a sample of air as seen 
through the microscope, the author was much interested in some of the solid 
particles. But, notwithstanding the deleterious effect that an excess of flour- 
dust would have on the lungs, let us pass over the visible substances, and 
consider the so-called "invisible poison," which consists of vapours, gases, 
and, more especially, when in excess, carbonic acid gas or carbon dioxide. 

Many of these impure gases, exhaled from the body or rising from 
drains, cannot be detected by smell nor taste, and are inhaled without any 
knowledge on the part of those who breathe them ; others are smelt at first, 
but in a short time, if the impurity still remains, the nerves lose their delicacy. 
Therefore in many cases, to those surrounded by the poison, there is an absence 
of warning, which warning remains to be given only by any chance person 
entering the bakehouse whose nerves have not been acclimatized. The 



222 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

amount of carbonic acid gas in so-called pure air is about four volumes in 
every 10,000, but the air exhaled by a man, even when not undergoing any 
exertion, contains just a hundred times more of this noxious gas ; so it can 
easily be seen how soon pure air is rendered impure. Besides that exhaled 
from the lungs, there are also exhalations from the skin, eliminations of 
organic matter, formations of watery vapour, and escape of gases from the 
dough. 

If, therefore, we wish to keep the air of such a composition as to 
be consistent with health, we must have arrangements for supplying each 
man in the bakehouse with at least 3000 cubic feet of fresh air per hour. 
If we employ ordinary gas lights, tl^ese again have to be taken into our 
air-supply account. There is a great difference between lights from which 
the products of combustion are drawn off, and lights from which the products 
of combustion are allowed to remain in the bakehouse. For every cubic foot 
of gas consumed, about 2000 cubic feet of air must be admitted to properly 
dilute the products ; so a small burner, burning, say, only 3 feet per hour, 
requires 6000 cubic feet, which makes it equal to two persons ; and this is 
only a very moderate estimate, some authorities contending an ordinary 
burner destroys the air as much as six or nine persons. Let us now suppose 
our bakehouse is 20 feet long, 15 feet broad, and 10 feet high, and that we 
require two men to work in it all night. Since the bakehouse (20 x 15 x 10) 
contains 3000 cubic feet of air, and two men, to which we must add one gas 
burner, require collectively 12,000 cubic feet, we see that the atmosphere 
must be entirely renewed four times in every hour. How we can do this 
without the sensation of draught, and without, in cold weather, checking 
our fermentation, or how we can legitimately decrease the amount of air 
required, is the next point to be considered. 

Thorough ventilation consists chiefly of two operations. Firstly, in 
carrying off regularly and constantly the air which has become vitiated and 
used, etc. And, secondly, in introducing fresh to take its place without the 
sensation of draught. Perfect ventilation is not brought about by occa- 
sionally opening a window or a door, but there must be a system in which 



VENTILATION 223 

the inlets are balanced by the outlets. The next axiom is that fresh air 
must be introduced at a level low enough to mingle with the coolest and 
best air already in the room or bakehouse, and yield its oxygen to the 
occupants before it is contaminated by the hotter gases floating near the 
ceiling. All irregular entrances for air, either by badly fitting windows or 
through open doors, should be stopped. The air must be introduced in such 
a manner and at such a temperature as not to be felt. Thin windows are a 
hindrance to perfect ventilation, because their cold surfaces cool the hot and 
used gases, and thus cause them to descend to be breathed again by the 
occupants. On account of these cooling surfaces there always seems to be 
a draught near a large window by reason of the current of cooled air falling, 
although there may not be a single crevice in it ; and even if we fail to 
personally discover this draught, a sponge set away in a trough underneath 
the window for some eight hours would be more sensitive. In summer, 
means should be provided for cooling the incoming air, and in winter for 
warming it. The most efficient means for carrying off the impure air is an 
upright shaft leading from the ceiling direct into the outer air. The opera- 
tion is more effective and quicker if the shaft be warmed ; the longer, -the 
straighter, the larger, and warmer the shaft, the quicker the exhaust. 

Having enumerated the chief principles, to which, however, details could 
with advantage be added, let us now see how to apply them practically. 
Draught that is felt is due to one of two causes, either that the incoming 
air is improperly diffused, or that it is of a widely different temperature to 
the air already in the bakehouse. In order to concur with the axiom 
concerning the height at which the fresh air is to be introduced, we must 
have dados, or trunks or pipes, leading from the outer air into the bake- 
house, at a height of about 3 feet from the ground. The tops of these 
dados are covered with perforated zinc, so as to diffuse the current of the 
incoming air, and this precaution against draught — taking into consideration 
that storing air in the dado reduces gusts — is found sufficient, except at 
extremes of seasons. These dados could be furnished with water-pipes 
v/hich, in the extreme winter could be supplied with hot water, and with 



2 24 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

trays, which in extreme summer could be filled with ice, so as to temper the 
air as required to suit either season. These precautions for regulating 
temperature may seem excessive to some, but the author has visited several 
large bakeries that find similar arrangements serviceable, particularly in the 
store and sponging rooms. The amount of inlet space allowed to a single 
person should be about 24 square inches, although four times this amount 
of opening will be found to be too much for four persons, and 48 inches is 
large enough for any one inlet. The dados should therefore have valves, 
simple in construction, to admit of the inlet being regulated. 

Now we come to the outlet, which should be in strict proportion to the 
inlet. Outlets should not be near the inlets, but, on the contrary, should be 
near the roof of the bakehouse. Particularly also in the case of bakeries, 
where the draught of the furnace is sometimes so strong as to draw air from 
all openings, whether designed as inlets or otherwise, all outlets should be 
fitted with valves. These, conveniently of mica, are for preventing any 
reversal of the organised system whereby cold air incorrectly coming in at 
the top and thus falling by its greater weight on the workers, causes the 
draught to be felt, and also condensing and cooling the impure vapours and 
gases that by their lightness had risen to the top, and would, when cooled by 
cold air coming in at the wrong place, again mingle with and pollute the fresh 
air instead of being carried away. The outlet shaft is more efficient when 
heated, and after taking in at the ceiling of the bakery should, if possible, be 
run up alongside the furnace shaft, whereby its efficiency would be auto- 
matically increased, when the furnace was going and making the shaft hot, 
just when otherwise, as explained, it might have difficulty in acting at all. 
Shafts or exhaust pipes can also be rendered highly efficient by being placed 
over each gas flame, tapering out and placed, like the usual so-called " smoke 
consumers," over lights. This arrangement would not only ventilate the 
bakehouse generally, but would obviously at once take off in a concentrated 
form the products of the gas flame that would otherwise mingle with the 
rest of the air and then require a corresponding greater ventilation to be 
efficiently extracted. 



VENTILATION 225 

While speaking of the products of gas flames, it will be useful to refer 
to some exhaustive experiments recently published in the " Home Office 
Report on the Ventilation of Factories and Workshops." After giving the 
full details, the authors conclude with the significant words : — " The table 
shows clearly the great economy in gas consumption when mantles are 
used. Their much more general employment in factories and workshops is 
very desirable, with a view to avoiding excessive vitiation of the air, and at 
the same time obtaining a good and perfectly steady light. By the use of 
the incandescent electric light all the inconvenience due to air vitiation and 
heat from gas-jets can be avoided, though the extra expense as compared 
with incandescent gaslight is considerable." 

Much has been said about the difficulty of ventilating underground 
bakehouses, but if the matter be thought out, in accordance with the principles 
mentioned above, it will not be a difficult thing for anyone who has studied 
the question to advise and arrange for efficient relief, and be able to bring 
about considerable improvement in various ways, according to the individual 
conditions. It is, however, curious that many people who might be expected 
to know better, but are handicapped by not having given attention to the 
peculiarities and necessities of the bakehouse, cause much money to be spent 
unnecessarily, and also without much benefit. Much bad ventilation is due 
to bad regulation of the currents irrespective of the size or position of the 
opening, and this is now recognised in connection with railway tunnels, 
where there is a big difference in ventilation between one tunnel to accom- 
modate the up and down lines and separate tunnels for each direction. If 
the place is so small and awkward that these currents cannot be sufficiently 
supplied on the one hand by the dados or Tobin tubes, the air bricks in the 
walls, the Sherringham valve or slanting opening for directing the draught 
upwards, and, on the other hand, by the shafts over burners, or near or up 
the oven flues, or other regulated and valve-covered outlets, then a fan or 
propeller must be placed in the wall near the ceiling. 

These fans are now more often worked by electric power, and can also 
be hydraulic or water worked. The way in which difficulties can be over- 



226 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

come could be illustrated by instances from mines, and also from the familiar 
bee hive. These dome-shaped buildings are without windows or openings 
anywhere except one small hole in the front at the bottom, yet are 
numerously inhabited by active workers, and known to be well ventilated. 
If one takes small pieces of paper attached to threads, hanging them in 
front of this hole in the hive, there will be noticed two distinct currents, 
one entering and the other leaving. According to naturalists, there are 
just inside this door two rows of bees continually vibrating their wings in 
their respective opposite directions so as to produce these currents of air 
to probably ventilate a place that would seem far more difficult than the 
worst of bakehouses. 

In ascertaining the amount of organic matter or impurity in the air, the 
well-known ammonia process or other direct test is seldom employed, but 
the impurity is estimated according to the amount of carbonic acid gas or 
carbon dioxide found present, because the two usually bear a fixed ratio to 
one another. This is hardly fair in the case of bakeries because, as will be 
seen, the proportion naturally present in the air is so small that it can be 
appreciably increased by the gas, which is of exactly the same kind, from 
the fermentation of the dough. This carbon dioxide is not poisonous or 
injurious of itself, although not supporting life and suffocating anyone de- 
scending into a well filled with it, and allowance therefore should be made 
for this extra source ; but, on the other hand, through mismanagement of the 
oven furnaces, there is sometimes present a far more poisonous and stupefy- 
ing gas known as carbon monoxide. The composition of air when pure is 

Nitrogen ..... 79-oi 

Oxygen . . . . . 20.95 

Carbon dioxide .... 00.04 



100.00 



Although there are traces of other gases, such as the recently discovered 
argon, and also ammonia, and, in bakeries particularly, sulphurous acid gas, 



VENTILATION 227 

the above table clearly shows the relative importance of carbon dioxide, 
which is treated as an impurity when exceeding .06, that is, six parts in 10,000. 
There is more of it in the air at night, plants then exhale it, than dlay, and 
more in summer than in winter. In bakeries the amount will practically 
always be above the six parts per 10,000, but in a recent report of the 
Departmental Committee on various trades both the amount of this gas and 
the temperature came out very favourably to bakeries. In cloth factories 
the allowance is nine parts, but even in schools and lecture rooms various 
tests have shown fifteen and twenty parts. 

By reason of the well-known action of this gas in making lime water turn 
milky, it is very easy to test for oneself the air of a bakehouse by taking a 
flask of a known capacity, filling with the air to be tested, and adding a definite 
quantity of this lime water. For calculation purposes, a convenient size of 
flask would be one holding 10 fluid ozs. of air together with half an ounce 
of clear lime water. A rag should be put into and completely fill the flask, 
and be removed in the place where it is required to test the air, the latter, of 
course, then rushing in. On adding the ^ oz. lime water and shaking for about 
five minutes, the milkiness will form, provided the amount of gas amounts to 
the point at which it declares the air to be impure, namely, 6 parts per 10,000, 
The amount of the impurity will be gauged by the rate at which the milkiness 
forms, and the intensity of it. It can easily be increased, and the variations 
noted by way of experience or curiosity by inserting a tube and blowing into 
it one's breath. However unwelcome it may be, and however impossible of 
universal attainment in the bakery trade, or however unnecessary compared 
to other trades, it is a fact, nevertheless, that the 250 and 500 cubic feet of 
air space per man recently proposed by the authorities is not, in cases where 
gas is required for lighting and where men are in active physical work, in 
any way unreasonable or excessive, according to the recognised laws of 
hygiene. 



SECTION VI 



METHODS OF FERMENTATION 
AND MANUFACTURE 



" With caution judge of possibility, 
Things thought unlikely, e'en impossible, 
Experience often shows us to be true." 



METHODS OF FERMENTATION AND 
MANUFACTURE 

IVyT ANY hundreds of times throughout a very large correspondence and 
also by personal contact with a very large number of bakers, the writer 
has been asked what is the best method of bread-making. There is no 
universally best systern, except the one that gives an aerated and digestible 
loaf suitable to one's requirements in the most simple, shortest, or most 
convenient manner in accordance with circumstances. Exactly the same 
formula of method will give different results with different people, and often 
loaves made from very different methods can be distinguished only with 
difficulty. The different tastes and localities, the differences in men, 
materials, appliances, conveniences, style and size of trade, must govern 
the details of any method that one might wish to adopt ; and recognis- 
ing this point, it has been deemed advisable to append the accompanying 
tables of methods and also illustrations of loaves, which together 
constitute the leading feature of this book, and have been prepared at a 
very great cost of time and money, quite unprecedented in connection with 
the bakery trade. 
228 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 229 

The methods that are thus classified in counties or districts are only 
a very small proportion of those recently received ■ from correspondents, 
and with the exception of some supplementary ones to make them com- 
pletely representative, are given exactly as sent. Each one has been 
selected because of some special lesson that it teaches, either by the details 
given, or its relation to other methods, and the remarks made by us on the 
loaves that were produced. The methods given amount to no less than 
360 different ways of making bread arranged under thirty-two headings, 
and in addition to others supplemented by ourselves, are selected from 
upwards of looo that have been sent by correspondents from all parts of 
the world when seeking professional advice concerning their bread, which 
has been discussed either in the press or else direct by post. 

Tabulated matter is sometimes passed over as being more difficult 
to study than continuous letterpress, but in this case it must be remem- 
bered that the methods here given and the remarks on the loaves there- 
from, the excellences and faults of them, are the essence of some years 
of close study of actual practical bread-making operations and results, and 
the concentrated information in a convenient form of far more writing 
than elsewhere contained in the present book. As such therefore the 
pages of methods, if closely studied, closely compared and thoroughly 
considered, will convey more information, answer more of the ques- 
tions so often received, and give more new ideas than could possibly 
be done in many other ordinary pages. They should be studied before 
reading further here, because the following remarks, although necessarily 
full, are but supplem'entary to, and connected by, the information there 
contained. A very large proportion indeed of the senders of the loaves, 
far in excess of what might reasonably be expected, have subsequently 
been winners at the exhibitions ; and any other information that may be 
desired in connection with this subject, or any other of an individual 
character, can be had on application. 

By studying the tabulated methods it will have been seen that every 
district of the Kingdom is represented, and also every system of bread- 



< 



230 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

making that is at all general. The collection is certainly unique. Good 
bread will be seen to have been produced from the widely divergent 
methods ; in fact, at all times quality is as much, or more, dependent on the 
management and workmanship as the formula. Although good bread is still 
made from long and intricate processes, as seen by the Scotch list, it can also, 
as at exhibitions and in other instances given, be made from short and simple 
ones. The best all-round system will usually be found between the two 
extremes, because for commercial purposes quality must be judged and be 
largely subservient to convenience and economy. Tradition, or rule of 
thumb handed down from generation to generation by the accumulated 
experience of results without knowing reasons, must now be governed by 
science, which, correctly defined, is nothing else but the experience and 
perfected knowledge acquired by trained, intelligent, organised, and 
systematic observation. 

Not everyone has the training to correctly understand all the phases of 
experimental results, or the pluck or opportunity to tamper in their daily 
trade with a system they already know. Many a man can do daily with ex- 
cellent results what he has always done, but completely fails directly any 
condition is altered. To such men, who on that account do not believe 
anything can be right but what they themselves do, the accompanying 
tables should be of the utmost value. For years we have been advocating 
shorter and more simple systems than formerly in vogue, and have countless 
letters from those who have, as a result, discarded their prejudices, and who 
now make as good and better bread with less trouble and anxiety. Some 
of the most obstinate of our correspondents are now the most loyal and 
enthusiastic. There is no doubt that systems are much shorter than they 
were, that the former necessity for their length is no longer a necessity or 
advantageous, and that the next few years will see even a greater average 
shortness and simplicity of methods of bread-making throughout the world. 
Let us not forget that at one time ardent travellers thought they knew the 
entire world, and then Columbus discovered a continent that was bigger 
than their own, and is to-day of vast importance and prospects. 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 231 

The most prominent amongst short systems is that known as the 
straight or off-hand dough method. It is, however, erroneous, as is often 
the case, to consider a straight dough as necessarily synonymous with 
a short process, because a straight dough can be a long one. A straight 
dough is a dough that has been made from the whole of the yeast, salt, 
water, and the whole of any other ingredients, at one operation, that is to 
say, a dough that has not been preceded by a ferment or sponge. It is 
incorrect, as is sometimes done, to speak of a ferment and then afterwards 
to speak of the dough, into which it has been put, as a straight dough, and 
also to speak of the time as " from start to finish," as is also sometimes 
done by correspondents, as being from the period of making dough. The 
preliminary start that the yeast gets for, say, a quarter of an hour in a 
bucket with a little sugar, or malt extract, just while other things are being 
got ready, cannot be called a ferment as ordinarily understood, and is 
to be recommended. 

With such a preliminary start, a good average method for a sack 
of 280 lbs. flour would be three and a half to four hours in trough at 
80 to 85 degs. F. when made, and 3 J lbs. salt, 8 to 16 ozs. sugar, i^ to 
1 1 lbs. yeast (distillers' compressed), the variations being given to allow 
for different seasons of year, different qualities of flours and yeast, and 
different kinds of bread. Variations will need to be made for batches 
following one another, according to the conditions of the trade and 
conveniences, etc., but the above will be found a good standard to which 
to keep as closely as possible for all-round average commercial results. 
In country trades, or where time is not of so much object, and flour is 
softer and yeast dearer, it would usually be better to have six hours in 
trough at 80 when finished making, and i lb. of yeast. Longer time 
can be given with success, although not so desirable ; thus nine to ten hours 
could be given at 70 degs. when finished making, and 8 ozs. of yeast, and the 
intermediate times will usually be found to work out at about 2 to 3 degs. 
of heat in the mixed dough, or 2 to 3 ozs. of yeast for every hour. 

The great advantage of knowing different methods and studying the de- 



232 THE BOOK OF BREAD' 

tails as given in the accompanying tables, is being able to arrange one's work 
to suit one's convenience. Many have grown accustomed to what they 
would consider great inconveniences if they had now to commence, and 
any change seems more troublesome than it otherwise would. Such 
a system as suggested above is undoubtedly a saving in time, labour, risk, 
frequent attention at inconvenient periods, trough room, flavour, and waste, 
etc., therefore any extra cost for yeast is abundantly compensated. Even 
greater quantities of yeast, as dealt with under that heading, are not wasted, 
as, when properly managed, a more vigorous fermentation will cause a loaf 
to stand up better when containing more water, and anything up to 2 lbs. of 
yeast per sack can be made to pay for itself, although in many places it does 
not. 

Flour of only moderate strength will not stand an extreme in either 
direction, namely, either a very long process or a very short one, and 
is best suited by average time, as above. In the long method it gets 
changed too much, and in the excessively short one it gives no size, the 
extra heat required taking " the belly out of it." Heat is, of course, 
developed during fermentation by the chemical changes, and the sponge 
or dough will thus increase, provided its surface and surrounding circum- 
stances are such that the developed . heat is not evaporated to the air, 
as often is the case. Heat thus makes heat, as money makes money. 
Extra heat has more effect on speed and production of change than 
extra yeast, provided the latter is already normal, but extra heat or 
extra yeast food is of less effect than extra yeast when the latter is low. 

One of the chief reasons for failure when starting with off-hand doughs 
is the forgetting of the above and adding too little yeast, and also the forgetting 
that there has been no sponge, and then not sufficiently kneading the dough 
in order to clear it, or handling it sufficiently after throwing out of trough. 
Although some labour and time is saved, especially that of breaking up the 
sponge and the details appertaining thereto, a loaf to be well finished can well 
do with some of the labour that was saved, by having no sponge, applied to it 
during dough-making and after. With better flour than formerly, with more 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 233 

reliable yeast, with yeast in a more concentrated form, with machinery, with 
the tendency for larger trades, with higher wages, shorter hours, and with 
more difficulty to get space in large towns, the simplifying of manufacture is 
not only more possible, more convenient to the rest and recreation of the men, 
and to the master who does not want his bakery occupied at all hours of 
the day and night for one day's work, but is also imperative from a question 
of cost. This is true because, except in an exceptionally well-organised 
factory, it will always be found that the reduplication of stages during 
manufacture leads to loss of time and less ease in getting out the quantity 
of sacks per man, that is, more bustle with less result, the appearance of 
more work than indicated by the quantity of product. 

In spite of several expressions of opinion, that are not always borne 
out by facts, concerning dryness, yield, colour, volume, and pile, that are 
dealt with fully elsewhere, very few who try short straight doughs ever 
return to their former longer systems. Inasmuch as the majority of 
English prize bread is made from short methods, it is certain the latter 
are capable of the best of quality, and in order for this to be experienced 
in daily commercial operations the one thing needed is precision. It 
is obvious that the quicker the method, the more is the need of pre- 
cision and close attention to details, the same as with an express train 
compared with a luggage one ; but with the many modern appliances and 
materials that leave less and less to chance, and by keeping a careful 
record of the details of each day's work, which becomes easily done when 
once started, this necessary precision is not unobtainable. In days of mere 
guess work it has been found handy to have a dough on which to rely, so 
as to correct any errors made in the sponge, but in these more advanced 
days there is no excuse for such errors. One cannot, however, successfully 
revolutionise one's system in a day, and in order to be successful both as 
regards getting the system right, and also as regards satisfying customers 
who are always suspicious and fault-finding concerning alterations, it is 
necessary to make any change by very gradual stages, comparing results 
day by day. 

2 G 



234 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

The number of loaves discussed, and the number of methods, and also 
the varieties of the methods given, are fairly well in proportion to, and repre- 
sentative of, those received from the different places. It will be seen that 
every county in England is represented, and that the national loaf from the 
Midlands to the South is undoubtedly the crusty cottage, other crusty sorts 
and tin loaves are less numerous, and the crumby ones comparatively 
extinct. Further North, as in Lancashire particularly, and the coast of 
Yorkshire, the majority, on the contrary, are of the tin variety, and Lanca- 
shire very easily comes first, as having sent the highest average quality of 
any county. In Scotland, as here, there are many sorts, and, although 
there are " French " loaves and pans, the cottage is very decidedly in the 
minority, and the full-faced, crumby all round, is distinctly typical. The 
Scotch cottages are more "squatty" and with bigger heads than ours, paler, 
and similar in many respects to the Welsh cottage, as illustrated ; they are! 
although more spread, bigger and lighter than ours, less highly baked but 
smooth and short in crust, less sweet and more salt. It is necessary to 
here study the illustrations inserted throughout the book in order to better 
understand these and following remarks. 

Ireland, especially in the north, is more similar in style to Scotland 
than England, and has big and highly fermented bread, and a good deal of 
crumby. As a rule, its bread is from tighter dough than Scotland, less highly 
fermented and less well finished. The crumby, plain, or batch loaf in the 
north is not of the oblong Scotch shape, but often with four square sides, more 
like the rapidly departing London household or crumby. The crumby in other 
parts is long and narrow ; in Dublin, where tight doughs rule, it is unique, 
being most usually hexagonal, or six-sided, which sides are not greased like 
in many of the other districts. In the South of Ireland the crumby is usually 
of the turnover shape, moulded in one piece, something after the style of the 
Scotch French, but more particularly that of Guernsey. Other shapes are 
occasionally received. The pans are like Scotch pans, and not like so-called 
English tins. As in Scotland, the crumby is the rule and the cottage very 
exceptional, but almost everywhere crusty shapes, which are usually made 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 235 

from shorter systems, are decidedly gaining ground. Crust and sweetness 
is bound to prevail in the future. The Welsh cottage loaf is more like 
that of the county districts in the Midlands of England. As a rule, it is 
whiter, firmer, closer, smaller, more dumpy, more cakey, delicious, and 
shorter in eating than cottages in the South of England. 

Straight doughs have made far more progress in the districts 
just indicated as crusty. They are rapidly becoming the chief method in 
such districts, but in Scotland they are as yet very much the exception, 
being, comparatively, scarcely used for any but fancy or pan breads. We 
have had some failures from there, but success will in time become more 
general. From both the North and South of Ireland, however, we have 
received some excellent plain or crumby loaves, first cousins to the Scotch 
sorts, and suitable to Scotch trade, from straight doughs and short pro- 
cesses. In Dublin (more central Ireland) we know only one firm that adopts 
straight doughs, and fifteen who do not, the conditions of labour and the 
difficulty of altering being at present the chief deterrent. In the South of 
Ireland particularly, we have correspondents who say they are pleased with 
a good trial at what is almost a new system to them, and will never return 
to their former ten, twelve, and fourteen-hour sponges. 

England now chiefly uses distillers' compressed yeast and small 
quantities of salt ; the supporters of patent, or home-made, and brewers' 
yeast are quickly succumbing to the march of progress ; they are being 
swept in, although all the time they say, curiously, they prefer the old. 
Distillers' yeast, with, however, larger quantities of salt (less salt than 
in Scotland) and longer times than in England, has made fair progress 
in Ireland, and more so than in some parts of Scotland, but is destined 
to gradually, even in the latter country, supplant all others. At present 
the way is blocked by Glasgow's example, for similar reasons as at Dublin. 
As distillery yeast supplants the barms, so will methods of bread-making 
become quicker. This yeast in other parts of Scotland is becoming fairly 
general, but chiefly for use in the half-sponge system, and will make the 
adoption of straight doughs far more easy than any other; Straight 



236 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

doughs are perfectly possible with Parisian and compound barm, but the 
uncertainty of the strengrth and condition of the latter, and other reasons,^ 
do not allow it to compare so favourably for this purpose. 

Straight doughs, by usually extending over shorter periods, are not so 
subject to be affected by climatic changes, but of course cannot be so 
easily corrected as longer and divided processes. The greater evaporation, 
which, however, is largely water, during a long process than during a 
short, is dealt with elsewhere. As yeast is composed largely of nitrogen 
or proteid matter, it is obvious that it must consume this and get it from 
the flour when growing, and reproducing itself, but in straight doughs, 
especially when short, the consumption must be very small. As a rule, 
also, there would be less skin and scraps with a shorter or single stage. 
Some fail by using flour too harsh, instead of nicely mellowed, for the 
less time and fermentation given. 

A ferment strictly speaking is any body capable of setting up fer^ 
mentation, and the latter is a chemical change connected with and in- 
separable from micro-organisms. Yeast is therefore a ferment, but in 
bakers' language the latter is a stage of bread-making preliminary to a 
sponge or dough. It is more correctly a decoction of flour, potatoes, sugar 
or other matters in which a ferment (yeast) has been set to grow. The 
primary object of a ferment is to increase the quantity of yeast, and the 
best conditions for this are described under yeast manufacture. With 
home-made and brewers' yeast it is more essential than with distillers', 
because sufficiently large quantities of the former cannot initially be so easily 
added to the batch as of the latter. The home-made or compound barm, 
by being usually weaker or less concentrated, will require longer to ferment 
than the brewers' ; but, although some ferments have been all right up to 
thirteen hours or so when containing no potato skins, five or six hours 
should be fully enough for all-round results, and three hours or less can 
be given according to conditions. 

Although a ferment, being slack, soon rises with a cauliflower head as 
it should, and soon falls, it merely settles down, and does not cease to 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 237 

work (as some, seem to think, unless kicked or disturbed), but often 
develops a bad flavour which is communicated to the loaf, that may look, 
and even smell, perfectly healthy. The acidity may be developed in 
the ferment, although the flour in the dough may not be overchanged. 
The heat when finished setting should not be above or much below 
80 to 85 degs. F., and, if stood in a moderately warm and draught- 
less place, it should not be covered except by a wire sieve to prevent 
anything falling into it. The case of a barm or ferment standing a 
lono- time as in Scotland would be different. The rapidity or otherwise 
with which it is working can be conveniently ascertained, in addition to 
the bubbling and frothy appearance of the surface, by holding over it a 
lighted taper or a match which will be affected and extinguished according 
to the amount of gas being evolved. As that particular gas is heavier than 
air, there will always be a certain amount of it lodged in the tub if the latter 
be deep or not fairly filled with the ferment. 

A ferment should usually contain only a small proportion of the total 
liquor, all the yeast, no salt or lard, all such yeast foods as potatoes, sugar, 
malt extract, glucose or scalded flour, which are considered under special 
chapters, and a small portion of raw or ordinary flour, because of the body 
it gives and its albuminoids, its enzymes or unorganised ferments. The 
raw flour thus added should be a soft kind, as it works more rapidly and 
makes a better head ; and in Scodand, where the system of barms is more 
general, there are soft flours specially supplied for this purpose. In the 
case of a small batch of buns where the ferment liquor would be small and 
the sugar large, a part of the latter should be reserved till the dough 
stage, as too much checks the yeast. In a very strong solution of sugar, 
say about 50 per cent., yeast would not ferment at all, but be preserved. 
With a brewers' yeast ferment it is also often advisable to add a little 
distillers' yeast at the dough stage, therefore not all the yeast in the ferment 
as stated. One can also add, often with good results, a soft flour that has 
been baked, by putting into a slack oven on a baking-tin, and turning 
over as soon as pale baked and then sifting before using. The objection 



238 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

to this, however, is that it often gets overbaked and of bad colour ; it is 
of course very digestive, and the basis of many infants' and special foods, 
and could often be turned to account by a pushing baker. 

A ferment is handy as giving one a reliable test as to the state of 
one's yeast, before adding all the flour of the batch, after which it is difficult 
to add any other fresh yeast. Where the yeast, however, has been 
forgotten, we have known all of it to be added after dough-making, by 
making a thick batter of the yeast, and plastering it over the dough cut up 
into many small pieces, and then kneaded and allowed to prove in trough as 
usual ; this is better than throwing the dissolved yeast on the completed and 
whole dough all at once, and making a sloppy mess. A ferment, by 
developing and getting the yeast into a vigorous state, will often save time 
in the dough, when one does not want to use a lot of yeast and hot water 
for a quick dough right off, which otherwise would be necessary. As one 
also gets a good power of fermentation, and can have without great heat a 
short time in dough, therefore short time in contact with flour, the process 
of ferment and dough is a good one for mellow and softer kinds of flour 
and for busy trades without much bakery room. With ferment and dough, 
or with straight doughs with, say, 3 lbs. of yeast per sack, it is possible, as 
in an actual instance known, to do an enormous trade in an exceptionally 
small space ; there is not a trough on the premises, except a series of 
machine kneaders, which occupy no floor space, because suspended from 
ceiling, and there would not be room for a tithe of the troughs often required, 
especially when the oven drawplates are out. In all cases the individual 
element is a controlling factor, and most of the recognised methods being 
good, successful bread-making is more often due to the masterful mind that 
grasps all the circumstances, and knows all the points, rather than the 
slavish following of any stereotyped method. 

The sponge is another preliminary stage to the finished dough, but 
is losing popularity in most districts. It still, however, plays a very 
important part in the Scottish system, and is more successfully manipulated 
there than in any other part of the world. In England, especially in London, 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 239 

it used to be universal to have the three stages of ferment, sponge and 
dough, and this method had its advantages when using patent or home- 
made yeast, or the " thick " or liquid brewery yeast, but now there is seldom 
a ferment at same time as a sponge. The most usual method is now fast 
becoming that of straight dough, which as seen by the tables has enormously 
increased of late, then sponge and dough, then ferment and dough. Sponges 
in England are sometimes of a batter or thin consistency, and of short or 
"flying" duration, of an hour or less, but more usually they are of stiff 
consistency and of about eight hours' duration, with, less usually, an hour 
or two either more or less. Although generally stiff, there is hardly any rule 
as to their size or proportion to the whole batch ; they would usually contain 
about half the total liquor, and, being very little slacker than a dough, about 
half the total flour, but by a haphazard style they will often be much less 
than half 

In Scotland and Ireland the sponges are far more uniform than 
in England, and are divided principally into quarter and half sponges, 
being respectively quarter and half the total liquor. The so-called quarter 
and half, however, is respectively very often a fifth and three-fifths, being 
varied to suit convenience, and is usually larger if making crusty and cottage 
bread, and in a series of batches the first quarter is best larger than the 
second. The quarter, which lies for twelve to fourteen hours and occasionally 
sixteen, is usually stirred in tubs, such as is known in the south as a ferment 
tub, and is of moderate stiffness, and stiffer than the short sponge into which 
it is made before being made into a dough. It should be kept well 
covered if only a small one, or in cool weather, so that the liquor added 
to it for the next stage, or big sponge, need not be so hot. The two 
sponges for one batch may seem a little strange to the south countryman, 
and do not correspond to the slack ferment and the tight sponge of 
the South, inasmuch as they also sometimes are both employed in same 
batch with distillers' yeast — about 4 or 5 ozs. to sack — although the 
primary reason of them was, as in the ferment and sponge, undoubtedly 
to grow the home-made or Parisian barm. There is also a ferment, sponge 



240 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

and dough system adopted in Scotland, as given in the tables. As also seen 
by the tables, salt is added even to the quarter, the amounts being given in 
three figures to indicate the additions respectively at the quarter, " the" 
sponge and dough. The hard, strong or spring wheat, flour is added to the 
quarter, and the sponge (the second sponge is usually called " the " sponge) 
and the soft and good coloured to the dough, the flours there being as a rule, 
but not always and necessarily so, much more kept distinct and classified than 
in the South, where sponging and doughing flours are more often blended 
together and used indiscriminately for each stage. 

One of the advantages of the sponge system has been claimed to be the 
greater facility offered for using very divergent varieties of flour, although 
if different varieties be blended for offhand dough and allowed to stand 
blended together for some days, they quickly assimilate to one another. 
The coarser and darker flours need, and will stand a longer and more 
elaborate system of fermentation to bring out their colour by bleaching, 
as they will be dark if immature, and also to prevent them making 
the bread harsh, flinty, foxy, dry or chippy. A soft flour on the other 
hand, wants to be worked moderately quick and warm, but not exces- 
sively so. Where any lard or malt extract is in the bread it would 
not, especially the former, be usually used in the quarter, although a 
little sugar can be. The temperature is usually given as that of the 
water and not of the quarter when finished, and in a series of batches, 
the second quarter, according, of course, to its size and other individual 
conditions, should have its water lo degs. cooler, or be, say, 5 degs. 
cooler when finished mixing. 

The extent of ripeness must depend on the flour and what is to 
follow, and the drop of a sponge is not always a criterion of its ripeness, 
because a small, tight sponge in a deep, narrow trough would have con- 
siderable difificulty in falling, but a quarter should always have a slicrht 
drop when taken, and even to the second or third time. With distillers' 
yeast an inch would be enough, or even with compound barm, but with 
other barms anything from 2 to 9 inches can be given, the smaller drop 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 241 

needing warmer liquor when making into big sponge. The drop, of course, 
depends on the consistency, and in some places the quarter is slack and in 
others tight. The quarter system is usually adopted in the West of 
Scotland and in factories such as at Glasgow, being liked in large trades 
but sometimes adopted in small, and is associated with fuller volume than 
the half sponge on the East Coast, and has the perfection of texture and an 
exceedingly white and bleached, not yellow, crumb. This bleached or 
white crumb is usually further shown up and contrasted by a very deep and 
nearly black, but not burnt, top crust colour, obtained otherwise than by 
hot oven. 

Difference of opinion runs very high on the relative advantages of 
the two systems, the half sponge, which is more often adopted in smaller 
towns and villages and on the East or Edinburgh side, being considered 
better for flavour, but it is to be noted that the Champion Cup has three 
times gone to the same small town on the West and also usually to the 
West. The champion has also been won with high marks for flavour when 
the bread was made from distillers' yeast instead of the sometimes almost 
worshipped Parisian barm, which, like patent and brewers' yeast, is supposed 
and thought by some to be unapproachable in this respect. Although all 
Scotch bread made on these lines must contain a good amount of alcohol 
(there is said to be about half a gallon in 300 quarterns) and also acid, 
which south countrymen always call sour, the fermentation is usually well 
managed, especially considering the previous barm stage, and not so very 
often accompanied by that repulsive sourness often obtained from compara- 
tively short sponges, say, a total of ten hours, in other parts. 

The big sponge that follows a quarter (being well broken to con- 
sistency nearly of milk) is usually about half of total flour and nearly the 
whole of the water, making a batter like porridge, but not too thin (some 
have it fairly thick), as its ripeness is harder to judge, and when commenc- 
ing to drop in about one and a half hours it is ready for doughing. The 
better the stirring the better the sponge rises, and under normal circum- 
stances it should have risen about a foot, and be taken when just beginning 

2 H 



242 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

to fall in the centre and not at the sides. The stirring is not nice work, and 
is sometimes done only on top of tub, instead of getting to the bottom, and 
machinery is especially to be recommended for the purpose. The tempera- 
ture depends on ripeness and size of the quarter, the strength of the flour, 
and time, etc., and the variations for the different months and conditions, as 
will be seen in the tables, to which these remarks here are only intended as 
supplementary where explanation is useful. A good average, however, accord- 
ing to the month (excluding extremes), is 80 to 90 degs. F. for the water, 
always being much cooler than in the South, for the quarter, the sponge or 
for the dough. In a series of batches, as in the quarters, the second sponge 
should not only be about 10 degs. cooler in liquor, but also thinner or slacker. 
If sponge is well risen, it will not be necessary to wait for a fall, especially 
where the quarter was ripe, but where the quarter was young, or where the 
sponge is a half one and not preceded by a quarter, it should fall. 
According to the amount of strong flour used, or the amount of softer 
mixed with it, and the ripeness of sponge, the dough can usually be short, 
and, to some extent, can adjust too little or too much maturity allowed 
previously. 

The half sponge, not preceded by a quarter, is now becoming more 
general, especially on the East side with the gradual spreading of the use 
of distillers' yeast. It is made moderately tight, the last thing when the 
men leave at night, usually at 5 p.m., and taken when they come at 5 a.m., 
being twelve hours with 8 ozs. of yeast per sack, and a quarter of the total 
salt, namely, about i| lbs. out of 6 lbs. to the sack, and more in warm 
weather. Although the first of a series of sponges when taken should 
be well risen with bubbles of gas coming off and breaking rapidly, the gas 
should not be coming off too rapidly, as if like boiling, and the next sponges 
should, of course, be less free. 

The time of dough following these Scotch sponges, of course, varies 
according to conditions, as given in tables, but a good time is four hours 
after doughing till oven. If too long, loaf gets rank and crumbles in centre 
and loses flavour ; and if too short, is small, uneven, and perhaps close and 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 243 

foxy. One should judge whether dough feels short or tenacious. Some 
cut back at first rise and take at second. If a quarter has been employed 
the dough can be made slacker than if following a half sponge, and the 
bigger the proportion of liquor left for dough stage the longer the dough 
will be ripening. 

Sponges in England are usually, practically always, although we have 
seen them otherwise, made in troughs and not in tubs, and they are usually 
stirred, and broken up for dough-making, by hand and not by the special 
vertical sponge stirrers used in Scotland. The breaking is a very important 
part if holes in the bread are to be avoided, and this frequently takes much 
time when well done in a large trade. We have just seen twenty minutes 
over one sponge thus occupied, and two men took one hour to break the 
sponge and make it into 15 bushels of dough. Even if a sponge is stirred 
when a dough-making machine is used, it is not necessary to break the 
sponge in such a case, as the machine will succeed in well amalgamating the 
whole in far Jess time than necessary for the breaking alone. If the sponge 
is to ferment a long time, it should be only a small one, and have salt like the 
Scotch quarter. If it has a greasy, slimy, and wet, instead of a healthy dry, 
appearance all along the trough, it will have been too slow, with insufficient 
yeast, or cold, and is unready. Instead, however, of waiting longer, it should 
be taken and made into dough, with extra heat and also with additional yeast, 
and can thus be better compensated. When thus unripe it will probably 
have a smooth, uncracked, and rounded surface, and be resisting to the arm 
when pushed in, instead of breaking open or falling in with a rent when 
touched, and puffing off gas with a kind of hissing, and a piece will also be 
tough to pull in the fingers instead of breaking short. 

We have taken plenty of distillers' yeast sponges without allowing 
them to drop, and with no harm. With distillers' or dried yeast, there is 
usually enough yeast and to spare, and temperature in a subsequent stage 
— the dough — will usually make up for any little backwardness in the 
sponge, when the latter is judged as to its readiness by its drop. We 
know of sponges that have been over-ripe, and have not dropped, and. 



244 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

on the other hand, it is not impossible for a fairly slack one to be over- 
stimulated by heat, giving off gas rapidly for a while and then falling, 
but without sufficient power and size and yeast growth to carry the subse- 
quent dough in the usual time. One drop is enough for distillers' yeast, 
but patent and brewers' are better with a second or taken on the second 
turn. A strong flour, like an American, or a very stable one, although not 
necessarily of coarse strength, like Hungarian, will not drop so easily as a 
softer. A sponge should not be tight, especially with a strong flour, and 
will get ready sooner when slack. "' 

The softer the flour, and therefore more rapid the degradation, the 
smaller the sponge should be, so as to save the loaf from looking poor. 
Sponges usually being longer than doughs, the rule is to put the strong 
flour there, but in the case of short or flying sponges, the soft should 
be used, as being more rapid and also easier to break up when making 
dough. Small sponges are always best for flavour, by being usually 
less changed and leaving more sweet flour for the dough. If a sponge 
is over ripe, it should not be taken up cold and starved, as often done, but will 
make sweeter and better bread if taken warm with more yeast and then 
dough thrown out sooner than usual. We have before us some tables prepared 
at various times for guidance in taking up liquors for setting sponges, or 
making doughs, according to the time to be given and the heat of the 
atmosphere. These are best prepared for each bakery according to the 
conditions ruling, the consistency of sponge, amount of yeast, etc. There 
are also instruments sold for automatically indicating the variation required 
in the liquor, according to the rise or fall of the temperature of the air and 
mercury. Taking figures at random from a table we once prepared for 
sponges for a large firm, we see a sponge to be ready in twelve hours should 
have liquor 3 degs. cooler than for eleven hours with the atmospheric 
temperature at 60. Also with the latter at 62 the liquor should be 2 degs. 
cooler in each case. 

We have already said that the remarks under this section are intended 
as merely supplementary and for the purpose of explaining, and connecting. 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 245 

the facts mentioned in the accompanying series of tabulated methods. One 
of the objects of giving those many methods is to show the different ways in 
which similar results have been obtained, in which practically anything can 
be done to suit individual circumstances and requirements. This should be 
borne in mind in connection with the sponge-setting tables just referred to, 
and is further emphasised by an interesting letter, answered by us some time 
ago, that has just again come under notice, and is worth reproducing. 
It is as follows, and, to some extent, answers itself: — ''Re the quick method 
of fermentation advocated in your letters, will you kindly reconcile the 
apparent differences between experts ? Taking them in alphabetical 
order, Mr John Blandy (No. i) gives, in his article on the 'Seven 
Phases of a Loaf,' the recipe: 280 lbs. flour, 2I lbs. yeast, 2\ lbs. salt, 
water no degs. F., manhood stage four and a half hours, maturity 
six hours. Mr Jago (No. 2), at National Association Conference, two 
years ago, gave 280 lbs. flour, 19 ozs. yeast, 3 lbs. salt, water 95 degs. F., 
dough to lie three and three-quarter hours. Mr Owen Simmons (see pro- 
cess No. 3 given in the table a few pages further on), in a booklet written 
for a firm of yeast and malt extract manufacturers, gave, amongst others, 280 
lbs. flour, \\ lbs. yeast, i lb. malt extract, 2 J lbs. salt, water 115 degs. F. (in 
large iron machine) dough to lie two and a half hours. Mr Jago said that 
three and a half to three and three-quarter hours was the shortest time to give 
the dough, even with more yeast, to obtain a satisfactory (cottage) loaf, and 
Owen and Owen seem, as, I understand them, to endorse this, but in other 
letters give recipes for an hour less than Mr Jago said was required. What, 
in your opinion, is the shortest time I can get a batch in the oven with, say, 
3 lbs. or 3i lbs. yeast, cottage bread? You mentioned in a recent letter that 
some firms use 3^ lbs. yeast to sack. I have made up small lots of ' Hovis' 
and ' Eurissa,' and put in oven under the hour, but that, of course, was tin 
bread, and very slack dough." This is the letter from beginning to end, 
and it shows we have at least one man who studies his trade. 

Let us give two test batches that have recently claimed our attention. 
The first we give (No. 4) was made at the Borough Polytechnic Bakery, 



246 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

in sight of three of the above experts, by a very celebrated prize-winner. 
Two bushels best flour, 2 lbs. yeast, 2 ozs. malt extract, 60 lbs. water (6 
gallons), 23 ozs. salt, flour was 56 degs. F., water was 115 degs. F., and when 
mixed the dough was 82 degs. F. Quarter of an hour afterwards the dough 
was 85 degs. F., and after another hour it was 88 degs. F. This was hand- 
made at 5.15, and was in the oven at 7.35 {two hours and twenty minutes). 
This was a small batch of about eighty half-quarterns of beautiful bread. 
It was good size, but a few minutes longer on the boards would have been 
liked by some of those who saw it ; most of those present, however, bought 
and took away a loaf or two at 3d. each. Another batch (No. 5) of a sack 
capacity was 91 degs. F. when finished kneading, yeast li lbs., salt 3i lbs., 
four hours in trough. This was very ripe, and large, and fermented as fully 
as one dare go. The materials were good, and the oven was very hot, and 
the loaf was excellent. Had the oven been cooler, and the materials less 
stable, the freeness and fermentation would have shown themselves to have 
been excessive. 

We can vouch for all the five recipes for off-hand or straight-off 
doughs given above, although, as far as they go, all different, being good 
enough for good bread. No absolute recipe can be given — we find this 
difficulty when briefly writing correspondents — unless accompanied by 
very full particulars concerning the various other conditions that govern 
the speed of the maturity of dough. Even if the temperature of the water 
be given, that is not always a criterion of what the dough will be when 
kneaded, or what its mean temperature will be for all the time it is in the 
trough ; the temperature of the flour, the temperature of the atmosphere, 
varying hourl)', therefore the temperature of the troughs, etc. Not only is 
the time and heat affected by the season of the year, but also by the quality, 
character, and quantity of flour used. A slack dough comes along, of course, 
faster than a tight, and so does a weak flour faster than a strong. The time 
in trough and the heat in trough does not say how long it will be on the 
boards, or the heat it will be on the boards, and when recipes are given, as 
some of the above are, from actual tests made, these particulars have often 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 247 



affected. The style of bread also affects ; the more labour put into it, the 
more the fermentation will be checked. 

By reading and comparing recipes of some of the best loaves sent us, 
one will see they vary in their quantities of yeast and heats and times, 
although made mostly by the off-hand process. We will tabulate a few of 
the best — all off-hand doughs — taken entirely at random, being the first 
that catch our eye in looking through the list. Nos. i to 5 inclusive are the 
five recipes already given above. No. 6 is a batch from which we saw an 
excellent loaf; it was good size as large as required, cut well, and 
splendid to eat ; it was made because the bread order had been cut 
too short. No. 7 is a Bristol loaf, that for a long time was the best 
loaf we received, and earned a total of ninety-two marks ; it had nineteen 
each for crust colour, flavour, and volume, eighteen for crumb colour, and 
seventeen for texture. No. 8 is a loaf that obtained even more marks, 
having won ninety-five. No. 9 is a Liverpool loaf — eighty marks. No. 10 
is a Blackpool loaf, which was awarded eighty-eight marks. No. 1 1 is a 
Bolton loaf, which received eighty-seven marks. Where particulars give 
the time only up to throwing out, we have added one hour and a half to 
represent the time required from throwing out until commencing to set, so 
as to make all the times comparative, and we have deducted forty-five 
minutes where the time included baking. 



I 


Flour. 

S bush. 


Yeast and 
Yeast Food. 


Salt. 


Water. 


From Start 
to Oven Setting. 


2ilb. 


2ilb. 


110° F. 


4^ to 6 hours 


2 


s „ 


lilb. 


3 lb. 


95° F. 


si hours 


3 


s ,, 


i| lb. I lb. ext. 


2* lb. 


115° F. 85-90 mixed 


4 


4 


2 „ 


2 lb. 2 oz. ext. 


lilh. 


115° F. 82 


2i 




5 


s „ 


lilh. 


3ilb. 


91 


5* 




6 


2 „ 


I lb. 


fib. 


110° F. 86 


2* 




7 


5 >, 


i| lb. i2oz.ext. 


3 lb. 


113° F. 


4 




8 


5 -. 


2jlb. 


3* lb. 


115 (flour 60° F.) 


3f 




9 


S >, 


2 lb. 


3 lb. 


98 (flour 70° F.) 


4f 




10 


5 „ 


2 lb. looz.ext. 


3 lb. 


95° F. 


4i 




II 


5 ., 


2f lb. 


3|lb. 


— 


3l 





248 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

These figures will repay comparing and studying. All the processes 
given will produce, and have produced, good bread. The room in which 
we are now writing, at 11 p.m., is, with all the windows open, 80 degs. F., 
whereas we have frequently seen the same thermometer in the same place at 
45 degs. F. This is quite sufficient to alone account for any differences 
in the maturing of various doughs, although at the same temperature when 
kneaded. It should be noticed how closely the good loaf made by No. 7 
runs to No. 3. The latter has slightly less yeast, but, on the other hand, 
it has more malt extract and less salt. Nos. 4 and 6 were actual batches, 
witnessed by the writer, and made respectively in winter and summer. 
There is a big difference in the yeast there, showing, as we have said 
before, how extremely important is the heat, more so than the yeast, pro- 
vided there is already a reasonable quantity of the latter. Extra heat has 
more effect than extra yeast. It can be seen that these two were made at 
different seasons, because, although the water is hotter in the one case, 
the dough is cooler when mixed, showing that the flour and utensils more 
than compensated for the extra heat in water, also indicating that the atmos- 
phere was cooler, and that the tendency for the temperature of the dough 
to increase while fermenting would be more severely checked. The 
temperature of the dough when mixed, and also the mean temperature of 
the bakehouse, is, therefore, a more important criterion than the temperature 
of the liquor used, and many recipes do not give this. 

We have read somewhere that there are rather over 100,000 bakers in 
the United Kingdom of which about one-fifth are masters and, bv-the-bye, 
less than 1000 first-class roller mills. The bakers are distributed into 
about 85,000 in England and Wales, 19,000 in Scotland, and 3000 in 
Ireland, it may seem therefore that, in these supplementary notes, we are 
giving Scotland and Ireland undue prominence, but their systems are 
longer, and more intricate, and the smaller number of methods given in the 
tables do not allow so much space for inserting this fuller information. It 
would not be necessary, however, to apologise even if giving prominence 
to the smaller number, because one usually wants to read about that which 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 249 

one does not know so much, and, especially in the baking trade, much in- 
formation can be obtained by thinking out the doings and the principles 
underlying the results of others. Much can be learned from Scotland. 
We should say that the Scotch bakers, as a whole, possess and show in 
their bread a higher general average of skill and intelligence than the 
bakers of any other district in the Kingdom, not excepting Lancashire 
already mentioned for good tin bread. Although a certain Australian 
correspondent, who made a point of recently calling on us here, was surprised 
to find the writer possessed so few grey hairs, we have an unusually 
intimate acquaintance with the breads, and with the peoples, of all districts 
of this country as well as of all the chief parts of the world, and make the 
above statement only after consideration. 

Although always pleased to answer, as a matter of business, any inquiries 
for information, we have been frequently surprised at the extraordinary 
and incomprehensible lack of knowledge of many who are engaged in the 
trade, but we get far less of that sort of thing from Scotland than from 
anywhere. In spite, however, of the skill and comparatively greater general 
knowledge of the trade usually displayed, the goods produced are certainly 
more for the eye than the palate. There are nearly as many Scotchmen in 
England as in Scotland, but we never get an inquiry from England for 
Scotch bread, but often get an inquiry for English bread from Scotland. 
Englishmen do not like Scotch bread, and attempts to sell it in England 
have not been so successful as contemplated. We intimately know many 
Scotchmen in London, many of them are very prominent, and do large 
trades here ; and just recently, as before, one of them returning here after a 
visit to his native highland country, remarked what a treat it was to now 
get some bread — the London — that he could eat. At the exhibitions one 
finds colour, pile, texture, volume (last year's champion, a plain, was 
6f inches long, 3 J broad, and 6^ high when a week old), yield, and moisture 
are usually very good ; and the extent to which these points are valued may 
be gauged by the fact that the maximum of fifty marks has been divided 
by the judges into five for crust colour, ten for crumb colour, fifteen for 



250 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

flavour, ten for volume, and ten for texture, whereas the maximum of a 
hundred taken by the English judges, has been divided recently into four 
divisions of twenty-five each for colour, flavour, volume, and texture. The 
Scotch crust colour is taken at a low maximum, because there is a good 
deal of difference in the custom of different parts, that of the west coast 
being of a darker character than that of the east, and, of course, in a Scotch 
plain, there is not a vestige of crust anywhere but top and bottom, the 
sides being completely crumby. 

These crumby sides, that is, all the outsides of each pair of half- 
quarterns or half "loaves" (a "loaf" is a quartern) are greased with 
a brush with melted lard, or some vegetable oil — mineral oil should 
not be used — to make the sides part smoothly and easily, the only rough 
side being the one next to the other half loaf. This is also done in some 
parts of Ireland, but hardly ever in England, at least not for the ordinary 
run of English crumby bread, we knowing of only a few exceptions. This 
greasing not only improves the appearance of sides by causing them to part 
more smoothly, but also makes a large batch of crumby much easier to draw 
from oven. Some setters have an assistant with a brush, others have a 
tin of melted butter or lard on the oven stock, and dip their hands into it, 
applying, in that case, at last moment when on peel. The plain loaves 
that give the good pile and volume (they are usually smaller on the east 
coast than the west) are from slacker doughs than the smaller proportion 
of Scotch crusty, such as Coburg and cottage. The smaller proportion 
of the latter received and seen are very different to the English cottage, 
they are bigger, lighter, shorter, riper, more salted, and with smooth pale 
crust, indicative of longer fermentation and lard. The French loaves are 
not like the bread usually called French elsewhere, such as rolls and small 
bread and crusty all round, but are, as seen in the illustrations, a relation of 
the Guernsey shape, and originally were copied from France. 

The French and pan and other crusties are fairly generally recognised 
by bakers and local authorities as being " fancy " and not expected to weigh 
2 lbs., and do not have the weight, like many of the plain loaves, stamped 



252 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

or docked on their top ; but pan or tin bread in England is not recognised as 
fancy. Like "fancy" bread in England, there is not, in all pafts of 
Scotland, a very distinctive difference between so-called " French " and 
plain bread. Where there is none of the latter sold as such, the same 
shape even as sold elsewhere as "plain" is sometimes called "French." 
Like the various sorts of English bread, the two sorts, even when of 
different shape, are often off the same dough, and sometimes not even 
tightened up by more flour or added to by lard. Lard, however, is by no 
means always the rule. It is quite an exception in England, but not 
unknown. The putting of French bread in a shallow pan just before 
baking does not disqualify it in the competitions ; but in the English 
Section a cottage loaf, called a pan cottage, when thus put into a 
pan or tin, as here called, and now getting very general, is disqualified. 
Crusty and fancy sorts would, be very often made by a shorter system 
than the ordinary, sometimes in three or four hours. The cookies, which 
are a sort of bun, are often taken off the sponge before adding all the salt, 
and then sugar, and shortening is added. This finishes all we can, in this 
chapter, say concerning Scotch bread. 

As this chapter, the reader must be again reminded, is merely supple- 
mentary to the 360 tabulated methods, which should be read first, there is 
very little to say concerning wholemeal, brown, fancy, milk, and other 
breads, in addition to what is said there, and also under other important 
chapters, such as that on digestion of bread. A very common error, how- 
ever, is to make wholemeal dough too sloppy, and then bake it slowly for a 
long time. There is no advantage, in fact, on the contrary, in adding water 
which is in excess, and must therefore, in order to prevent clamminess, be 
afterwards driven off in the oven. The common practice of baking meal 
much longer than white bread is distinctly wrong, and has only come about 
by making doughs too slack, or rather not tightening them up sufficiently 
after first making. Wholemeal made only like a slack dough, and then 
put into oven almost last, as it usually is in a mixed batch, should be ready 
for drawing in nearly the same time as the white bread, instead of being 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 253 

shifted and given longer baking. The quicker it is made, handled, and 
then baked, the better, and, as it does not burn as soon as white, there is no 
better place for it, in the case of the side-flue ovens, than near the furnace. 
Although left in longer usually than white', it is more usually undersoaked, 
and this is due often, not only to the excessively slack dough, but also to an 
excess of malt extract — this has been noticed particularly at the exhibitions. 
When golden syrup is added, which is good for a change, and which is 
more refined, and therefore with less impurities and possible bad flavour 
than the similar substance known as treacle, there should be no malt 
extract, although, of course, the amount depends on the system of fermenta- 
tion, and the amount of yeast added for consuming it and preventing the 
stickiness. The stickiness will decrease the longer the dough is left. 

Hot water, and plenty of yeast, and short time is the secret of good 
brown bread ; the latter comes along more quickly and undergoes un- 
desirable changes in flavour quicker than white, because of the ferments 
in the bran and the presence of more impurities. If the meal is not strong, 
and sometimes anything is considered good enough for meal, too much proof 
in the tin, which is always to be avoided, causes the crumb to sink in the 
centre, making heaviness in one place and a large hole just under the crust. 
Although a loaf is not " wholemeal " if any white flour is added to it, the latter 
is frequently an improvement from a saleable standpoint. This point wants 
watching as regards inspectors and exhibitions. The safest plan is to sell 
the bread as "brown," and not "wholemeal," and this is very much more 
frequently necessary than many consider. Quite recently there have been 
several prosecutions and convictions for selling a perfectly good and whole- 
some article merely by a wrong name. Wheaten flour is, of course, flour 
made from wheat, but some assistants, when asked for it, have thought brown 
meal or wheat meal was meant, and on supplying such have found themselves 
branded like felons. A certain so-called wholemeal which has come under 
our notice as being much liked by bakers, and in preference to others of the 
district, we know to be made by the miller adding 25 per cent, of offal to 
an ordinary good sack of flour. It is a fine meal, and works well. This, 



254 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

of course, may be due to the fact that many millers — not all — do not 
make their meal from as good a grist of wheat as they use for their 
flour. 

Meal, to be really good, should be made from the same wheat as the 
best flour, or, perhaps, one should say, from the best grist of wheat used, 
because best and worst flour is sometimes made from the same wheat. 
A fine meal, although some ask for coarse because of its irritating action on 
the intestines, will usually make the better cutting loaf The latter will be 
often better still with a little strong flour added. When brown bread is put 
into a tin that is to be turned over, so that loaf is baked under the tin, one 
should be careful to put the closing squarely at the bottom, and not give 
much proof, so that the closing, when loaf is turned over, comes at the top 
and breaks out prettily instead of being "blind." If this closing be 
carelessly put at the side or not at the bottom, the prettj' top is spoiled. 
Of course, although flavour will be improved by proving in tins less, the 
loaf will be correspondingly closer. 

For a brown loaf, composed chiefly of rye meal and barley meal, 
one should take, for a small quantity, 5 lbs. rye meal, 5 lbs. barley meal, 
and 2 or 3 lbs. (or more) of the strongest white flour. Dissolve in a small 
bowl 4 ozs. yeast, 2 ozs. golden syrup, and handful of flour in small portion 
of water at 90 degs. Prepare bay of the meal and flour — well mixed — on 
the boards, take water very hot (less than a gallon altogether) and 3 ozs. 
of salt, partly mixed, then add the dissolved yeast ; the whole when then 
mixed should be of medium slackness and of a temperature, as accurately 
shown by thermometer, of 90 degs. F. Scale at once when mixed into tins, 
giving about half an hour there until well risen, and then bake with ordinary 
batch of other browns. This is much better than dipping out of sponge. 
Such meal must not stand ; therefore much yeast and heat is necessary. If 
wanted richer, take half milk, dissolving the yeast in it, and i oz. of lard 
to the quart of liquor. Rye and barley bread are a great exception in Eng- 
land, except in the northern counties, where in some districts, particularly 
Cumberland, they are rather popular. This is all that need be said here on 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 255 

brown breads, because we must leave proprietors of patent or special sorts 
to do their own advertising at their own expense. 

Amongst the tabulated methods we give the essence of some of our 
correspondence with, and the methods by which bread has been made and 
received from, Guernsey (Channel Islands), Kimberley, Capetown and other 
places in Africa, Queensland, New South Wales and other places in 
Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Madeira, Canada, America and 
Gibraltar. At various other times we have also seen bread from Bom- 
bay and Calcutta in India, from Malta, from Egypt, and from practically 
every large town in Europe. Perhaps the chief points impressed upon us were 
the great differences that exist in the various products that bear the one 
title " bread," the great differences between the taste and the skill of the 
various peoples (the quality and the character of the bread in almost all 
cases indicating the financial prosperity and the state of civilization), and 
also the great differences in the keeping qualities of the various breads. 

Many of the colonial breads were despatched five and six weeks before 
arrival here, and although still remaining quite wholesome in many cases 
inside, were very badly mildewed outside. Some of the European 
breads were about half as old, but were in more than twice the better state 
of preservation. The chief points to account for this would be that the 
majority of the colonial bread was in larger loaves and slacker baked, and also 
in tinned lined cases, which prevented evaporation of water and the free 
drying of the loaves. The European, on the other hand, consisted mostly 
of small loaves, more baked and with more surface of crust, and also not in 
tin cases, but in many instances were, on the contrary, sent in specially 
ventilated boxes. Bread kept in a closed earthenware pan as by some 
householders will certainly keep moist longer, but it will become mildewed 
and of bad flavour much sooner than when exposed to the air or merely 
wrapped in a cloth. At the present moment we have before us some 
half-dozen loaves that have been cut for examination ; some are now very 
dry and cracked in the crumb, and have practically no smell nor taste, all 
moisture and flavour having evaporated ; while some that have had their cut 



256 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

crumby surfaces or sections placed in contact with the crumby sections of 
the others are all ornamented in the centre of the crumb, where the contact 
was closer and the moisture less able to evaporate, with very pretty moulds. 
We regret to say we very often have loaves go like this in quite a few days, 
whereas at other times a single loaf will keep in a cloth a long while. 

When going abroad, and staying in the best hotels, one often thinks 
how very nice is the bread, but one forgets the fascination of change and 
the increase in the best of all sauces^ — appetite — and if one, like the writer, 
is sufficiently interested and desirous of finding out the character of the bread 
of the ordinary population and lower classes, a very different state of things 
will often be found, and the general average will be, at any rate according to 
our idea, distinctly below the bread of " the people " in this country. Such 
has been our own personal experience and we have before us many letters 
that bear out this and give other useful information, such as one from Mr 
Jansen of Holland, and also a large pile of cuttings on this subject that from 
time to time have been collected and filed in their proper place for ready 
reference, and we propose to give some of the information obtained by supple- 
menting, for a change, our own remarks in the tables by quoting from the 
National Baker, the British Baker and the Bakers Helper on this interest- 
ing subject, namely, the methods of fermentation and manufacture. 

For instance, in support of the above, it will be found that in the 
remoter parts of Sweden the poor people make and bake their rye twice a 
year, and store the loaves away so that eventually they are as hard as bricks. 
Further north still, bread is made from barley and oats. In Lapland, oats, with 
the inner bark of the pine, are used ; the two together well ground and mixed 
are made into large flat cakes, cooked in a pan over the fire. In dreary 
Kamchatka, pine or birch bark by itself, well macerated, pounded and 
baked, frequently constitutes the whole of the native bread food. The 
Icelander scrapes the " Iceland moss" off the rocks and grinds it into fine 
flour, which serves both for bread and puddings. In some parts of Siberia, 
China and other Eastern countries, a fairly palatable bread is made from 
buckwheat. In parts of Italy chestnuts are cooked, ground into meal and 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 257 

used for making bread. Durra, a variety of vanilla, is much used in the 
countries of India, Egypt, Arabia and Asia Minor for making bread. Rice 
bread is the staple food of the Chinese, Japanese, and a large portion of the 
inhabitants of India. In Persia the bread is made from rice-flour and milk ; 
it is called "lawash." The Persian oven is built in the ground, about the 
size of a barrel, the sides being smooth masonry ; the fire is built at 
the bottom and kept burning until the wall or sides of the oven are 
thoroughly heated. Enough dough to form a sheet about a foot wide and 
about two feet long is thrown on the bench and rolled until about as thin as 
sole leather, then it is taken up and tossed and rolled from one arm to the 
other, and thrown on a board and slapped on the side of the oven. It takes 
only a few moments to bake, and when baked is spread out to cool. This 
bread is cheap, sweet, and nourishing. 

A specimen of the "hunger bread" from Armenia is made of clover 
seed, flax, or linseed meal, mixed with edible grass. The best thing that 
can be said of Armenian bread is that it will sustain life, as it is a hard 
dose for people accustomed to the loaves from our own bakeries. It is 
a case of the survival of the fittest, and a person with poor digestive organs 
does not last long on "ek mek," which is the Turkish name for bread, as it 
is not a delicacy, but a stern reality. The flour is mixed in a bowl to the 
consistency of dough, the dough being rolled out to the thickness of blotting 
paper, and placed on a padded shield, which serves instead of a pan. The 
back of the shield is a straight board, and over the padding is a white 
cloth, which makes a smooth, oblong surface, and over this the rolled dough 
is placed, and lowered into the "toneer" for baking. The "toneer" is a 
round hole fitted up with a tile interior, and is larger at the top than at the 
bottom ; a tile pipe, through the bottom, provides a draught for the fire 
which is kindled in it. Great heat can be secured in this manner, and the 
tile soon becomes very hot, retaining its heat for a considerable time after 
the ashes and coals are removed. When the "toneer" has been relieved of 
its fire the shield is lowered by hand, and the dough slapped against the 
heated tile surface, requiring but a few such slaps to bake the dough, and 

2 K 



258 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

the bread is removed from the oven, an article of food, but far from 
being a relish. Great quantities are cooked in this manner, at each baking 
enough being made to last the family from three to six months. After 
being removed from the oblong pad, it is hung up in the store-rooms, or 
stretched on lines between poles, to prevent depredations by rats. This 
bread resembles wheat in its apparent indestructibility, and will last for a 
long time, being the principal article of diet in the breadstuff department. 
It can truly be called a "staff of life," even if it does discriminate against 
dyspeptics. The Turks, in raiding Armenian households, can destroy most 
of the stores quite easily, but this bread is hard to destroy, hence it survives 
the raids and prevents, in many instances, extreme want. 

In the Molucca Islands the starchy pith of the sago palm furnishes a 
white, floury meal. This is made up into flat, oblong loaves, which are 
baked in curious little oven.s, each oven being divided into oblong cells to 
receive the loaves. Bread is also made of roots in some parts of Africa and 
South America. It Is made from manioc tubers ; these roots are a deadly 
poison if eaten in the raw state, but make a good food if properly prepared. 
To prepare it for bread, the roots are soaked for several days in water, thus 
washing out the poison ; the fibres are picked out, dried and ground into 
flour. This is mixed with milk if obtainable, if not, water is used. The 
dough is formed in little round loaves, and baked in hot ashes or dried in 
the sun. In the Tropics the staff of life is the banana and plantain. The 
unripe bananas are dried in the sun and reduced to meal, and bread made 
from it is excellent and very nourishing. The plantain is not reduced to 
meal ; the ripe fruit is roasted or boiled and then eaten. There are some 
savage spots in the wilderness of the world where the natives consume 
earth as a part of their diet ; but earth-eaters in a civilised country of 
Europe seem an anachronism and an anomaly. Yet this is given as a fact 
of Sardinia at the present day. 

It has been stated by Deputy Cavallotti, that "While at Galtelli they 
are taking the roofs off the houses to sell the tiles in order to buy oats and 
make them into bread, that at Ulzulei and at Baunei they eat ' earth bread.' 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 259 

It seems incredible, yet it is strictly true. A hill situate in the vicinity is the 
granary of these two miserable hamlets. The women go there to make 
provision of a yellowish earth, which they infuse in water, in wooden vessels. 
Next they proceed to knead the residuum of mud into a paste, with the 
addition of a little flour ground from acorns, and put the so-called bread into 
an oven to bake. The loaves have all the appearance of fire-proof bricks. 
In the evening they mix this bread in boiling water with some strips of bacon, 
and place a similar mess before the labourers on their return from work, 
fortunate to be able to repose their weary limbs on a mat on the floor near 
a burning log after their frugal repast" ! It must be taken for granted that 
men whose lives are spent in such conditions are not well disposed in their 
mental organisation. Hence the coarseness, the brutality, and the greater 
frequency of delinquency amongst the Sardinians. This is the main, indeed, 
the unique cause of their rancour against Continental Italians, more lucky 
than themselves in the gifts of fortune. 

In many parts of Hungary good bread is made by the following 
process, without yeast. Two large handfuls of hops are boiled in 4 
quarts of water ; this is poured upon as much wheaten bran as it will 
moisten, and to this are added 4 or 5 lbs. of leaven. When this mass is 
warm the several ingredients are worked together till well mixed. It is 
then deposited in a warm place for twenty hours and afterwards divided 
into small pieces about the size of a hen's egg, which are dried by being 
placed upon a board, and exposed to a dry air, but not to the sun ; when 
dry they are laid up for use, and may be kept for six months. The ferment 
thus prepared is applied in the following manner : For baking six large 
loaves, six handfuls of these balls are dissolved in 7 or 8 quarts of warm 
water; this water is poured through a sieve into one end of the bread 
trough, and, after it, 3 quarts of warm water, the remaining mass being well 
pressed out. The liquor is mixed with sufficient flour to form a mass 
of the size of a large loaf ; this is dusted over with flour, the sieve with its 
contents is put upon it, and the whole covered, and left till it has risen 
enough, and its surface commenced to crack. This forms the leaven or 



26o THE BOOK OF BREAD 

sponge. Fifteen quarts of warm water, in which six handfuls of salt have 
been dissolved, are then poured upon it through the sieve ; the necessary 
quantity of flour is added (after the water and leaven or sponge is well 
mixed), and the dough is then well kneaded. This is left, covered up 
for half an hour or more in a warm place. It is then formed into loaves, 
and left another half hour to prove, before being placed in the oven, 
remaining there from one to two or three hours, according to their size. 
The great advantage of this kind of ferment is that it may be made for 
use in large quantities at a time, and would be found convenient for sea 
voyages, etc., or for persons living at a distance from any town, and where 
yeast cannot be readil)'^ procured. 

For the usual bread of France instead of using yeast, the start is made 
with a piece of dough of about 3 lbs., which is left for this purpose from the 
day before. This leaven is called "levain du chef," or, in short, "chef"; 
this is made fine in 3 quarts of water, and with additional flour worked into 
a medium firm sponge. In a couple of hours this is ready. As soon as it 
begins to drop, with 6 more quarts of water the sponge is broken fine, 
and more flour added. This sponge should be well worked, and a 
little slacker than the first sponge. This is the "levain premiere." 
While this is rising, the oven is heated, and when the sponge begins to 
drop, from 1 2 to 24 quarts of water with the usual amount of salt (from 6 
ozs. to 8 ozs. to 1 2 quarts) is put into the sponge, the sponge broken fine 
and worked into a good tight dough. One-third of this dough is put 
back and penned up. This is the second sponge for the next batch of 
bread. The remaining dough after letting it come up for about ten minutes 
(given a start), is scaled right out of the trough, moulded into loaves at 
once, put into long cloth-lined baskets, the shape of the loaf It is given 
about three-quarters proof. The oven has been scuffled out by this time, 
the loaf is turned upside down on to the peel, given three or four slanting 
cuts, put in the oven on the sole, and baked to a nice light brown 
colour. The French flours are mostly soft. The old dough used for 
the start, should either be put in a pail and i quart of cold water added, 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 261 

or more flour worked into it and rolled up into a cloth, well dusted, to keep 
it from getting too sour. As we do not have the baskets, it will do just as 
well to set the moulded loaves in cloth-lined boxes, like the Vienna, and 
pinch the cloth up between the loaves. A loaf made with compressed yeast 
with a straight dough, is very much sweeter. 

The native Indian makes a leaven from sour buttermilk. The process of 
making the active agent is a very simple one ; some flour is mixed with 
the milk, and a small quantity of "massala" is added. This massala is 
a secondary agent of a very unimportant character, except in the eyes of the 
Indian baker. It has been described as a relic of trade superstition, and 
the composition is regarded by native bakers as a trade secret. It will be 
thus seen that even where the trade is not highly developed, technical 
information is as jealously guarded in the bakehouse as what it used to be 
in Great Britain. Massala is formed from the following curious ingredients : 
— Gum mastiche, myrrh, powdered cloves, powdered nutmegs, coriander 
seeds, cardamoms, saffron, cinnamon, powdered liquorice root, seeds of the 
lotus, popcorn or parched maize, and a kind of coarse meerschaum which 
comes from the sea-coast, and is called "samunder sukh." Europeans in 
India make their bread in the following fashion: — Take some fresh toddy 
that is in a state of fermentation, and pour it into a bay with 2 lbs. of good, 
dry flour and a teaspoonful of salt. This is made into a stiff dough, and set 
aside to rise. The toddy is made from the date or palmyra. When 
palmyra is not to be had, a fermenting liquor is made by soaking fresh, dry 
peas in warm water until fermentation begins. This liquid is strained and 
is used for fermenting the dough. The Mussulman has a curious sort of 
leaven for raising his bread, known as "kummier." A certain quantity of 
aniseed is soaked in dhye for ten or twelve hours, and then strained ; it is 
then mixed with flour and set aside to lie for a couple of hours, when it 
is ready for use. The native, however, who uses the massala ties up in a 
rag his sour milk dough, and stows it away for twelve to fifteen hours, when 
fermentation sets in actively. A portion of this is used to make a dough. 
To make a batch of bread of 100 lbs. of flour in the Dutch 



262 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

manner one operates as follows : — The yeast to be used, from i ^ to 
2 lbs., is previously dissolved in some lukewarm milk of about 'j'j degs. 
F. The flour is then put on one side of the kneadi«g trough ; part, about 
14 lbs., is mixed with the dissolved yeast, and with as much luke-warm milk 
that the sponge be not too tight, about \\ to if gallons being required, 
according to the quality of the flour used. When properly mixed, this 
sponge, which should now have a temperature of about 25 degs. C. (j'] degs. 
F.), is made into a lump, covered and left alone for a quarter of an hour or 
twenty minutes. When fermentation has advanced sufficiently, this sponge 
is mixed with the remaining flour and milk of such a temperature that the 
dough when finished making is about 25 degs. C. {']'] degs. F.), and in such 
a quantity that the necessary firmness be obtained. During the kneading 
from i\ to 2 lbs. of salt are added, according to taste and quality of 
flour. The dough having been well kneaded, it is again made into a lump, 
and remains covered up for fifteen to twenty-five minutes ; then the dough is 
made into the desired shapes, which are quite different to English, covered 
again and left to rise until about half the size of the loaf is attained, when 
the batch is put into the oven. Larger batches and those made with water 
instead of milk require a much smaller proportion of yeast. 

We are indebted to the well-known technical publisher, Mr William 
Hartmann, for permission to translate the following article, with additions 
of our own, on the Bread Trade of Berlin. 

Berlin, the German Imperial city, and the capital of Prussia, had, at 
the end of 1900, about 1,900,000 inhabitants, for whom about 1800 bakers 
provided the most important food — bread. There are about ten bread 
factories in which bread is manufactured on a big scale, and which mostly 
produce one special kind, whereas all other proprietors of bakeries also 
bake more or less quantities of fancy bread and cakes. To this has to be 
added, of course, a considerable supply of country bread from the environs. 
Before we begin to speak of the kind of produce of the bakeries, it is 
advisable to give the following particulars of general conditions. 

The work is divided in all the larger bakeries ; the foreman arranges 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 263 

the dough and the yeast, with the exception of the bread and milk-bread 
dough. He weighs the salt and barm, heats the oven and bakes the goods. 
Bread and milk-bread dough are made by the kneader independent of help, 
whereas the third and fourth journeyman or the apprentices look after the 
other doughs. The working is generally carried on in the following way : — 
The foreman makes the yeast pieces ready, which are to be used by the 
third or fourth journeyman, and he weighs the salt and other ingredients, 
whereas the kneader makes the leaven and the milk-bread dough. During 
the rising of the yeast the v/ood at the back of the oven burns down. When 
beginning to make the doughs, the interior part of the oven is drawn out, 
and the oven so treated that it has time to cool down before the baking 
process begins. If the doughs are ready, the salt cakes are moulded first, 
whilst the other dough waits for half an hour to one hour, in order to 
effect a perfect rising. The men use this interval for their supper. The 
goods are, afterwards made up in the same order as they are to be baked, 
that is, Blechschrippen, Semmel (small loaves), Schrippen (rolls), barm- 
breads, milk-bread, Kniippel (hard kind of rolls), and at last salt bars, 
English bread, etc. All cakes, Blechschrippen (better class of rolls), 
Hornchen (little horns), etc., are placed on tins, whereas the white 
dough is placed on boards, covered with cloths, and has to stand in an airy 
room or in the yard before baking, to stiffen it. As soon as the cakes have 
risen enough, baking begins. Then come the salt cakes, and, if there is still 
sufficient heat in the oven, all the other goods. If the last goods are in the 
oven, the bread dough is made, and prepared for baking. Then follow 
more rolls, etc. The oven, which has been emptied by this time, is heated 
with wood. 

A short time after the bread is put in the oven its position is changed, 
and if there is enough heat, one begins to bake the white bread on the 
vacant places. These second goods are generally the best. During the 
morning this process of baking is repeated generally once more, so that 
there are fresh goods put in three times daily. The interval is used in 
making up the other bread and the second lot of cakes. The remaining 



264 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

time is employed with the necessary clearing up, and in making prepara- 
tions. In many bakeries they also make pastries. One can divide the 
Berlin baking into three parts — the bread loaf, white bread, and cakes. 
The bread, made of rye flour, mostly with a quantity of wheat flour, appears 
in different shapes in the trade. The most known shape is the long 
one, but there are also basket and other shapes. The usual price is 
50 pfg. (6d.). For bigger families, etc., they also bake loaves at 75 pfg. 
(gd.), and i mark (is.) ; for smaller requirements they often make loaves at 
25 pfg. (3d.), and 15 pfg. (2d.), the last mostly round. The bread is made 
with leaven. A principal item in this baking process is that the so-called 
Vorteig (old sour, half sour, and full sour) should be in a good healthy 
state. The old sour is a remnant of the batch of the previous day. 
By mixing with ih to 2| litres of water, one gets the old sour, and 
further, one gets the half and full sour, that form about half of the dough 
to be made. Considerable competition for the Berlin baker is experienced 
from the village bakeries in the environs of Berlin, which often causes so- 
called country bread to be sold by the town bakers. 

Besides the loaf bread just spoken of, many bakeries also sell " black 
bread." This is made of bread dough, but with the addition of second quality 
rye flour. But one must not confuse this " black bread " with the black bread 
as made in Holstein, Mecklenburg, and Hanover, which consists of rye groats. 
The Berlin "black bread" is baked in a long shape, and is distinguished by 
a darker colour and sharper taste than the usual bread. The Berliner buys 
small rolls made of this black bread dough (four for i^d.), which, sprinkled 
over with caraway seeds, constitute breakfast rolls. To make barm breads, 
the dough is mixed with some sugar and currants, rounded, and after the 
proof, is pressed five to six times by hand or with a stamp. For " Schrippen," 
" Semmel," etc., one puts 5 lbs. to 5^ lbs. of dough; for barm breads, 
2i lbs. to 4 lbs. into the divider, which cuts out thirty. The price, with 
the exception of the salt cakes, is four pieces for 10 pfg. Salt cakes are 
made of mixed flour (rye and wheat) with water, salt, and yeast, in weight 
of 350 grams to 450 grams for 10 pfg. (six pieces for ijd.). To make 



Section of Milk Loaf. 



SIZE.) 



FERMENTATION AND MANUFACTURE 265 

" Knuppel " and milk rolls, one uses only the best Hungarian wheat flour, 
pure milk, and some salt, and good yeast (no mixture with leaven). It is 
sold in four pieces for lo pfg. {i8o grams to 250 grams weight). In 
poorer districts they use cheaper wheaten flour, creamless milk, with the 
addition of butter and sugar. This translation, with additions, may not be 
so intelligible as we should like it to be, and would be omitted except that 
it contains at least some, points of interest. 

Writing of Canadian bread, Mr Wright, of Ontario, suggests the 
following ingredients to one pail (8 quarts): — "8 ozs. salt, 8 ozs. sugar 
(granulated), and 6 ozs. lard to be added at proper time. Here is a 10 
pail batch illustration : — Twelve hours sponge, shop to stand at 80 degs. F. 
Sponge: 5 pails water, 70 degs. F., 5^ ozs. yeast (compressed), if bags 
of Manitoba patent flour, 75 degs. F. This amount of water and flour 
makes a good medium sponge. Where a machine is used to do the mixing 
this will be dropped, well and sufficiently worked in twelve hours, but bakers 
know flour is sometimes stronger than others, at least different brands are 
not always the same strength, and care must be taken that the sponge is 
not on the rise when mixed, but down in the centre about a couple of 
inches of drop ; the second drop is generally sufficient work for this sponge. 
With a medium strong patent flour, the sponge being ready, 5 pails of 
water 80 degs. F., 5 lbs. of salt, 5 lbs. sugar, and 4 lbs. lard are now 
added, and the sponge and all broken up. Different kinds of bread (or 
shapes) can be made from this, such as Dutch, Vienna, snowflake, home- 
made, brown, whole wheat, etc. After the breaking-up sponge process, 
if bags flour, Manitoba patent, 80 degs. F., is added to full lo-pail 
sponge and water ; a good medium dough -will be the result of this mixture. 
This should prove in the trough one hour. When ready, throw out on tables 
and scale off at required weight, hand up on the table, then mould well 
into the pans, put away in prover till raised enough for the oven ; this will 
require about one hour, and should get a medium proof. It is now ready 
for b'aking. This leads us to the oven. It should be heated to about 
400 degs. Ovens differ in the length of time required to bring 



266 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

them to the necessary heat. The average will require about one hour 
to draw, and one and a half hours lay down. In this way a good 
oven has an* even heat and is solid. Before the dough is taken from the 
trough, the damper is drawn and the right amount of coal put on at once. 
When bread is handed up on the bench, the oven is shut off Allowing 
the time it takes to pan and the proving of the bread for the oven to 
lay down, in the baking process if oven is filled, the temperature will go 
down to 350 degs. The time for baking varies according to the different 
weight or size of the loaf, 2 lbs. bread taking one hour in nice solid oven, 
1 1 lbs. bread not more that three-quarters of an hour." 

Although many other methods and many other details concerning them 
could be given, we think this chapter is already sufficiently long, and 
important to have, by itself, fully justified the publication of this book. 
The tables both in preparation and in the printing have been exceedingly 
costly, and will be found to contain the information for answering the great 
majority of questions that are being continually asked by bakers in the 
ordinary course of their business. They give the results of an exceedingly 
large number of practical experiments and operations, saving therefore 
much time and money when seeking progress, and give much food for 
further ideas ; we must therefore be pardoned for saying that they cannot 
fail to be of immense importance, returning value strictly in accordance 
with the time and intelligence spent on their close examination and 
studying. 

HOME-MADE BREAD 

T TOME baking, although at one time more universal, seems to linger to 
its greatest extent, as far as this country is concerned, in the four or 
five most northern counties. We studied it closely when visiting Leeds and 
Newcastle. In Newcastle and district there is a population of about 
300,000, and yet, with the exception of the Co-operative Society, there is 



HOME-MADE BREAD 267 

only, as far as we could ascertain, about one leading firm of bakers to every 
30,000 people ; whereas in London there are nearly 4000 master bakers 
(about 13,000 journeymen), or one firm to every 4000 of the population 
{one of them doing nearly 3000 sacks per week), and many instances could 
be given where the proportion is higher. We have noticed that where 
home baking abounds, bakers' bread, with exceptions of course, seems far 
less appetising in appearance. Bakers say they have to make it like that 
of the home baker ; nevertheless, where better looking bread is made by 
bakers, there is less of it made by the housewife, which would seem para- 
doxical if the former assertion be true. There might be dislike by the 
housewife to sponginess and lightness after being accustomed to her own 
more filling product, or suspicion of whiteness that might be thought to be 
artificial, but we cannot see any reason for the roughly finished exterior, the 
daubs of dry flour, and the sickly paleness, absence of bloom, and half-baked 
and uninviting character of nearly all we saw in one large town. Much of 
the conservatism of those who make their own seems to us to be due to 
ignorance of what it really costs them, and to prejudice against the pre- 
sumed nefarious tricks and uncleanly ways of certain bakers to which some 
sections of the Press are so constantly referring and grossly exaggerating. 

It seems, then, that much good could be done if periodical popular 
lectures were given concerning modern methods of bread-making, pointing out 
the difference between what was and what is, and that the three halfpence for 
the cost of yeast per stone of flour, which seems to be all that the housewife 
reckons, is by no means the total cost of baking at home. Explanations 
concerning the economy of producing bread on a larger scale would certainly 
tell against those women who bake for some dozen of their neighbours, as 
is customary in some places. 

Then, the man with a corner shop, with his bakery on a level at the 
rear, could, without the expense of formerly, equip a neat machine bakery, 
and, instead of inviting periodical visits, which usually fall flat, and are 
also forgotten by the public (unless a special visitor's day is set apart and 
special demonstrations or lectures given), he could put plate glass all down 



268 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

the side, the same as he would to his shop, and, having everything in good 
order, there would be no objection to being on view from the street always. 
There would usually be onlookers, as there always are at even less interest- 
ing operations, and those that only looked once would feel that constant 
publicity had dispelled their former prejudice, and the advertisement would 
be such as to well repay the structural alterations and the white jackets for 
the men. The men would not be distracted by the visitors who were only 
in sight and not in contact ; they would soon get used to it, and take more 
pride in their work, and the quickness with which they could do it, never 
knowing when friends or superiors were looking. The public could not fail 
to be interested, and try goods out of curiosity, if nothing else, as they do 
at trade exhibitions, and if they did not like the sort, they might be more 
disposed to try some other kind they had seen made. Such a constant view 
would have a far greater effect than the occasional invite to the well-dressed 
lady who had bought something in the shop, and also a more beneficial effect 
than the costly and injurious system of house-to-house free samples. 

In the North coals for home use are cheaper, but home baking is far 
more general in America than here, and there coals are scarce and dear 
enough at the present moment. In the North the domestic ovens are different 
to that of the South ; they are mostly open ranges, with the oven, at the 
side, raised so that its bottom is on a level with the top of the fire, enabling 
the flames to draw under the bottom, up the far side, and over the top, 
instead of the oven being lower and side by side with the fireplace, as here. 
The home method we found mostly adopted was a batter sponge, sugar and, 
occasionally, milk being added — stand half hour, then make dough and stand 
one or one and a half hours ; scale direct into tins, being about three hours 
to the oven from the start. It seems that if bakers supplied a well-finished 
loaf from a lot of yeast and off-hand dough of about two hours in trough, 
whereby it was sweet and close, imitating the inside of a home-made loaf 
and not the outside, instead of usually now the reverse, and well-pushing, as 
indicated, to remove prejudice that they must gain trade always, instead of 
just at the time when the working class of women are busy at work and 



HOME-MADE BREAD 269 

unable to bake. Even in the districts where every house has a suitable 
bread-baking oven, and, moreover, every woman taught to bake, the hot 
weather or sufficiency of employment often decreases the home baking, and 
then is the bakers' chance to supply something extra good, whereby the 
housewife will not require to resume making her own. In some cases, 
however, although made at home, the bread is taken to the baker to be 
baked. We have found many correspondents gradually gaining ground, 
especially where they supply a good variety of sorts as a change, par- 
ticularly of the brown and fancy class, and by attention show the 
housewife how very convenient it is to buy instead of making. 

We have said that home baking is much more general in America 
than here, but it is there also gradually becoming less in the large towns. 
In New York there is already comparatively little done now, and it is 
becoming less in Philadelphia, and in Minneapolis some excellent bakeries 
have been built, but in Baltimore the home baking is still large, and bakers' 
bread, in spite of cutting prices in some districts, is not supplied so cheaply 
as here. The following process, which was prepared for the Washburn- 
Crosby Co., will be useful to reproduce, as supplementary to other domestic 
methods already given here and in the tables. 

To one quart of lukewarm liquor (composed of equal portions of water 
and sweet milk, or water alone) add two half-ounce cakes (i oz.) of com- 
pressed yeast and stir until completely dissolved, then add one teaspoonful 
of salt and three table-spoonfuls of sugar. When salt and sugar are 
thoroughly dissolved, stir in well-sifted flour with a wooden spoon until 
a dough is formed sufficiently stiff to be turned from the mixing bowl 
to the moulding board in a mass. The quantity of flour used to above 
liquor should be about three quarts ; to this flour may be added with 
excellent results, about two table-spoonfuls of lard if shortening is desired. 
Knead this dough, adding, if necessary, a little flour, from time to time, 
until it becomes smooth and elastic, and ceases to stick to the fingers 
or moulding board. Then put it in a well-greased earthen bowl, brush 
lightly with melted butter or dripping, cover with a bread towel or blanket 



2 70 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

and set to rise in a warm place for two hours, or until light. As soon 
as light, knead well and again place in earthen bowl, covering as before, 
and set for another rising of an hour, or until light. As soon as light, 
form gently into loaves or rolls, place in greased bread or roll pans, brush 
with melted butter or dripping, cover again with the towel or blanket, and 
let stand for one hour and a half (li), and then bake. 

The following points are also desirable to remember : — ( i ) Dough, 
when light enough to bake, should be nearly double the size it was when 
first set to rise, and should be as light that when lifted in the pan the 
sense of weight will be scarcely perceptible. 

(2) Bread should be put to bake as soon as it is light, and the oven, 
at the commencement of baking, should be at a temperature of 375 degs. 
by the thermometer, or hot enough to brown flour in two minutes without 
burning it. 

(3) The time of rising, of course, depends upon the temperature of the 
place where kept ; 7 5 degs. is the best. 

(4) During the rising see that the dough does not become chilled. 
The temperature must be kept uniform. 

(5) In using compressed yeast see that it is fresh, and not too soft. 




METHODS OF MANUFACTURE 



27 I 



K2 

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in water, although that quantity usual elsewhere. 

(6) 


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<ii 


c3 


^ 




s 


i-H 


1^ 














t» 








CD 








.g 






i 


(in 


^ 




5 


c3 
r-H 






ci 








E» 








i-H 





en 

Q 

§ 

EH 

XI 
CO 









O 



O 




O 
P 

a2 
o 

!a 
o 

H 

I 

o 
iz; 



IS 

H 
03 

03 
O 



g 
H 



<! 

M 



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o 
o 






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O 



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i:- O 

P C OT 

a) o 
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I 



.9 o 

o a 
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^^ 

o 

p 5 ^ 

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lis 

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g ""o • 

-^ g to 

sp a 

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1^ 






p H« 
O ^ 



>- eg 



s -S3 

P SrP 

■ g 

rP 

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Ph P Ji 
III 



i^: 




rp 


ca 


6r 


p 


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0() 




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n 


a 



'P 'TJ m 
00-gco 

%^^^^ 

J 00^^ 
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S-p g-f 

■5 a > 

"^ p2S 

"S 'S'° !^" 

rP P <I> 

_M) O-P -g 

4^ 

CO 



O 00 '^ 
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CO cN ca 

^ O 00 
o S^P t- 

^g-sg 



g 


g 


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, — 1 


rP 




15 


r-H 


1* 


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bf > 


w 


Lj 


p 






g 


5 


-p 


=1 


-p 


ri 


+J 






fe 


-a 











gSS5 

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.3 

a" 
p- 

o 

CO 

00' 

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g-g 

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o 

00 



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^ — 0^ 10 

="■ S 8 
CO 0.2 



p -P 

13 a 
a • 

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P,<J^°^ 

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278 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



o 
Q 



Q 
O 
K 

k 

m 

CO 
CO 



iM 


.*3 ^— ^ 
CO, 


cs3 




II 




P 


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60 


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1 






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3 c ^ 






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43 




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, 


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p4 




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1^ 



1:^ 



METHODS OF MANUFACTURE 



279 



o 

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GO 



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e 

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lis 

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S ^ P 

o ^ . 
d S§ S 

02 g o 

5 « CD 

tog 00 

xn 



bo 

3 



CO S g 

B 0„" 



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a +; 03 



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d (S coo 

a s =«-p 

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ft 

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28o 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



a 

■3 

O 

m 



o 

ci 



a 
o 

a 

Eh 



P 



ii5 
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o 



o 
o 

OQ 
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METHODS OF MANUFACTURE 



28 



\ 



I 

o 
o 

X 

d 

I 
I 

i 

o 



t 



Q 
O 
» 

B 

o 



a 






B 






O 

o 

Q 
•i 



>< 



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Is 

II 

o s 

a 8 
>. So 



O cu 
M ft 

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^^ 
ts . 
.as 

gco 
G3 



S K CD 
45 ^ (-1 

■^ S 
S ca 

•2'd 

4J O 
d ^ 






t« <D 



03 



ri iD O 
m ,(-1 03 



OP i^ 
O CO 

I" 
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ri o 



^1: 

II 



.#l>| 

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CD ^ 



co'S 






^^ 

^^ 

3I 
to > a 

m 



as 

a "'. 

S a 

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II 
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Q h 
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CD ^ 






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m 



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ca 
ft 



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C8 
60 



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o 



60 

§ 



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o 



ca _xj 
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CD^ 

w S 



5a 



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5J 



; lO 
3 CO 



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ca 

CO 



8 



aSi 

jij ""1 -(J 
boosts 
g d " 

■s °=^ 

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Ba 



-73 ft 



P 

c? 

H 
H 

jg 
o 

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02 



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CU t." , *J Ct> 

ja <y '^ d ^ 

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'd 00 ^ 

s s Ms 

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.a 



i 

60 



d 




2 N 



282 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



ft 

■< 

O" 

w> 
H 
ft 

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O 
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a 

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O 
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ro 

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METHODS OF MANUFACTURE 



ia 
Eh 



w 
15 



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O 

o 

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s 






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60 c3^ 



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a 
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n 
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296 



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METHODS OF MANUFACTURE 



307 



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METHODS OF MANUFACTURE 



309 



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SECTION VII 

USEFUL DATA 

" With all thy getting get understanding." 

Proverbs iv. 7 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

T TNDER this heading it is not intended to give fully such tables as 
may be found in any arithmetic book, or else in the British Baker 
Diary, but, in order to understand fully much of what has been written in 
the present work, and to more easily make various calculatiohs that one 
occasionally requires, it will be extremely useful to have set out in a con- 
centrated form some of the leading measures of weight and volume, so that 
their relation one to the other may be easily seen. It is also imperative 
that some consideration should be given to the very many different mean- 
ings that such simple words as pint, quart, quartern, gallon, bushel, and 
quarter have in different districts of the country, and even in the same 
district under different conditions. 

The most simple and convenient system of weights and measures is 
that known as the metric system, and universally adopted on the continent, 
and if adopted in the United Kingdom the present article would not be 
needed. The units in this system are the metre, being that of length ; the 
litre, that of capacity ; and the gram, being that of weight ; and the great 
advantage is that the unit of weight and capacity are directly connected 
with one another, the former being exactly a one-thousandth part of the 
latter. A further advantage is that greater, or smaller denominations are 

315 



3i6 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

expressed by prefixes, the words kilo, hecto, and deca meaning respectively 
looo, loo, and lo ; and milli, centi, and deci meaning one-thousandth, 
hundredth, and tenth ; so that in the following list one has only to remove 
the decimal point to translate one to the other, instead of, in our system, . 
having to multiply a yard by 3 in order to find the number of feet, and 
a foot by 1 2 to find the number of inches. 

Thus a 

Metre = 39.37 inches or 3.28 feet. Mile= 1.6 kilometres. 

Kilometre = 39.370 inches = 1093! yards. 

Litre= 1.76 pints = 6i.o cubic inches = 35.2 fluid ozs. 

Gram= 15.43 grains, or 0.03527 ozs., or i c.c. at 4 degs. C. 

Kilogram = 35.27 ozs., or just over 2 lbs. 2I ozs. avoirdupois. 

Kilogram = 2.20 lbs. avoirdupois or 2.679 lbs. troy. 

1000 c.c. = 1000 grams, or i litre, or if pints. 

Grain = 0.06479 of a gram. 

Ounce = 28.35 grams, or 437.5 grains, or 10 farthings. 

Pound = 0.45359 of a kilogram (or kilo). 

Cubic inch = 16.38 c.c. (cubic centimetres) or 252.5 grains. 

Cubic foot= (12 X 12 X 12) 1728 cubic inches. 

Cubic foot of water = 62i lbs. 

Gallon of water = 4541 c.c, or 4.54 litres, or 10 lbs. at 62 degs. F., or 
160 ozs., or 70,000 grains, or 277.27 cubic inches. 

Gallon of flour = 7 lbs. 

Gallon of bread = 8 lbs. 

Quart of water = 2 J lbs., or 2 pints, or J gallon. 

Quart (Winchester) = about 2 of above quarts (used in laboratories). 

Quart loaf = 2 lbs. 

Quartern of bread = 4 lbs. 5 h ozs. once legal, according to the Bread Assize. 

Quartern ,, =4 lbs., according to custom. 

Quartern of flour = 3^ lbs. 

Pint = i a quart, or ij lbs., or 20 fluid ozs. 

Pint (Scotch) = i a gallon or 5 lbs. See below. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



?>^1 



I sack of flour 

Or 5 bushels 
20 pecks 
20 stone 
40 gallons 

80 quarterns or pottles 
160 quarts or half-qtns. 
280 lbs. 



= I "sack" of bread, 

or 6 bushels 
24 pecks 
24 stone 
48 gallons 

96 quarterns or pottles 
192 quarts or half-qtns. 
384 lbs. (relatively) 



A sack of fruit, vegetables, or coal = 3 bushels (Chaldron = 1 2 sacks). 

,, wheat . . . =4 bushels. 

,, flour . . . = 5 bushels. 

„ bread . . . = 6 bushels. 

,, bran . . . = 6 bushels. 

A large sack (or a poke) of bran = 8 bushels. 
Cental = 100 lbs. 
Quarter =2 sacks. 

Quarter of wheat = 8 bushels or 480 lbs. (Imperial). 
Quarter „ ,, =496 lbs. off stands at Mark Lane, or 480 lbs. when 

sold " to arrive." See below. 
Quarter of bran = 16 bushels. Quarter of malt = 336 lbs. 
Stone of bread = 16 lbs. or 8 half-quarterns. 
Stone of flour = 14 ,, ,, ,, 

Barrel ,, ,, = 196 lbs., therefore 10 barrels = 7 sacks. 
Sack ,, ,, = usually 5 bushels of 56 lbs., sometimes 4 bushels. 
Pack ,, ,, = 240 lbs. (Liverpool). 
Bag ,, ,, =140 lbs. (usually gross weight). 
Area of round pipe = diameter x diameter x .7854, therefore 2-inch pipe 

equals four times the capacity of a i-inch. 
Circumference of round tub = diameter x 3.1416. 
To convert barrels into sacks multiply by 10 and divide by 7. 
To convert grams to ounces avoirdupois multiply by 20 and divide by 
567- 



31 8 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

To convert kilograms to pounds multiply by looo and divide by 454. 

To convert litres to gallons multiply by 22 and divide by 100. 

To convert litres to pints multiply by 88 and divide by 50. 

To convert millimetres to inches multiply by 10 and divide by 254. 

To convert metres to yards multiply by 70 and divide by 64. 

When referring above to the pint as adopted in Scotland we have given 
it as 5 lbs., or four times the amount of the pint understood in most parts of 
the kingdom, and we have always understood that and that only to be 
correct. It appears, however, according to considerable correspondence on 
the point, to be a somewhat elastic term, such as a quarter of wheat, be- 
cause some Scotchmen in writing us concerning their bread refer to their 
pint as being 4 lbs. ; another says 5 pints equal 20 lbs., which, of course, is 
the same thing ; another says he thinks his pint is 4 lbs. 4 ozs. ; and another 
says he found his pint 4 lbs. 6 ozs. This pint is in general use in Scotland, 
and is referred to there in exactly the same way as a pint would be in 
England, namely, without any qualifying prefix. The Winchester quart is 
about the same as a Scotch pint, and, although used extensively in labora- 
tories throughout the kingdom, is not adopted even in Winchester for 
general use. 

A quarter of wheat is even more elastic, and must often be mystifying to 
the baker who closely follows markets ; and it is usually in the wheat quota- 
tions that he will find information and warning as to what to be prepared for 
in flour. He will see the same grade or brand of wheat quoted under its 
name at widely different prices on the same day ; this is not due to differences 
in closeness of quotation, as one may be equal value to the other. This 
is due to the difference in the weight of the quarter, according to the position, 
whether "on spot" or "to arrive," and is understood between buyer and 
seller. There are variations in details, according to the country whence the 
wheat comes. Then, again, the Government returns concerning the prices 
of English wheat are made up per Imperial quarter of 480 lbs., but the wheat 
was probably sold by its "natural" weight, which may in cases vary to the 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 



319 



extent of nearly 10 lbs. per bushel or 80 lbs. per quarter. A Winchester 
bushel, by which curiously we have seen American crop returns made, is 
about double an Imperial bushel. A gallon of water varies in weight, 
according to temperature ; at 5 degs. F. more than given above it will 
weigh 90 grains less. A " pail " is a measure often spoken of by the 
baker, and even in letters of details to the author, and may mean any- 
thing; an ordinary 28-lb. lard pail will, however, hold about 3 gallons of 
water. 

Degrees Centigrade. 

1575. Pyrometrical heating effect of air-dried wood (20 per cent, water). 

kiln-dried wood (10 per cent, water). 



1675 
1750^ 
1675 

1750 
1850, 

1750 
2000. 
1800, 
2025 
2200, 

2350. 
2450, 
2200 

235O' 
2350. 
2400, 
2450, 
1 9 10, 
2458 

4521 
6000 
9873 (17803 F. 



kiln-dried wood (without water). 

gases from wood charcoal. 

gases from coke. 

gases from coal. 

best air-dried turf (25 per cent, water). 

best kiln-dried turf (without water). 

air-dried fibrous lignite (brown coal). 

kiln-dried fibrous lignite. 

sand coal (5 per cent, water). 

anthracite (5 per cent, water). 

air-dried black charcoal. 

air-drieid red charcoal. 

best air-dried peat charcoal. 

good coke (10 per cent, water). 

best coke (5 per cent, water). 

best coke (no water). 

alcohol burned in air. 

carbon burned in air. 

alcohol burned in oxygen. 

carbons in electric arc lamps. 

carbon burned in oxygen. 



THERMOMETRICAL SCALES. 



Table Bhswingr the relative Proportions of the Fahrenheit, Reaumur, and 
Oentlgrade Thermometrlcal Scales. 





g 


to 




a 


.S 




S 


w 




a 


u 




B 


ei 


M 




3 


h< 


s 


S 


im 


3 


•z 


u 





■s 


u 


p 


s 


J3 


tf 


a 


A 


a 




A 


tf 


fl 


A 


OS 


a 


£ 




c 


< 


« 


« 


« 


V 




a 








OS 








% 





9 


b. 


K 


t) 


b 


» 


" 


tt 


a, 





b 


PS 





^ 


a 





350 


141-3 


1766 


272 


106-6 


133-3 


194 


72-0 


900 


116 


87-3 


4<6 


38 


2-6 


3-3 


349 


140-8 


176-1 


271 


106-2 


132-7 


193 


71-6 


89 4 


115 


36-8 


46-1 


87 


2-2 


27 


348 


140 4 


176-5 


270 


105 7 


132-2 


192 


71-1 


88 8 


114 


36 4 


45-6 


36 


17 


2-2 


347 


140- 


175 


269 


105 31131-6 


191 


706 


88-3 


113 


360 


450 


85 


13 


1-6 


346 


139-6 


174-4 


268 


104 8 


131-1 


190 


70-2 


87-7 


112 


86-5 


44-4 


34 


08 


1-1 


34S 


139 1 


173« 


267 


104-4 


130-5 


189 


697 


87-2 


111 


35-1 


43-8 


33 


0-4 


0-6 


344 


138 6 


173-3 


266 


104 


130- 


188 


69-3 


86 6 


110 


34-6 


43.3 


32 


00 


00 


343 


1382 


172-7 


285 


103 6 


129 4 


187 


688 


86-1 


109 


34-2 


42 7 


31 


— 0-4 


— 0-6 


342 


137-7 


172 2 


264 


1031 


128-8 


186 


68 '4 


85-5 


108 


337 


42 2 


30 


— 0-8 


— 11 


841 


137-3 


171-6 


263 


102-6 


123 3 


186 


680 


85-0 


107 


33 3 


41-6 


29 


— 13 


— 16 


340 


136 8 


171-1 


262 


102-2 


1277 


184 


67-6 


844 


106 


32 8 


41-1 


28 


— 17 


— 22 


339 


136 4 


170-5 


261 


101-7 


127-2 


183 


67-1 


83-8 


105 


<l2-4 


40 6 


27 


— 22 


— 27 


338 


136- 


170 


260 


101-3 


12S-6 


182 


66-6 


83-3 


104 


320 


40-0 


26 


— 2-6 


— 3-3 


337 


135-5 


169 4 


259 


10O-8 


126-1 


181 


66-2 


82-7 


103 


316 


39-4 


25 


— 31 


— 38 


336 


1351 


168 8 


258 


100-4 


125-5 


180 


667 


82 2 


102 


31-1 


38-8 


24 


— S-5 


— 44 


33S 


134-6 


168-3 


257 


100- 


126- 


179 


66-3 


81-6 


101 


30-6 


383 


23 


— 40 


— 50 


334 


134-2 


167-7 


266 


99-6 


124-4 


178 


64-8 


81-1 


lOO 


30 2 


377 


22 


— 44 


— 5-6 


333 


1337 


167-2 


256 


99 1 


123-8 


177 


644 


80-5 


99 


29 7 


372 


21 


— 48 


— 61 


SS2 


1333 


166 6 


254 


986 


123-3 


176 


64-0 


80-0 


93 


29-3 


366 


20 


— S3 


— 66 


331 


132 8 


166-1 


253 


98 2 


1227 


175 


63-6 


79 4 


97 


28-8 


36-1 


19 


— 5-7 


— 72 


330 


132 4 


165-6 


252 


977 


122-2 


174 


63-1 


78-8 


96 


28 4 


35-6 


18 


— 6 2 


— 77 


329 


132- 


165- 


251 


97-3 


121-6 


173 


62-6 


78-3 


96 


28 


35-0 


17 


— 6 6 


— 83 


328 


131-6 


164-4 


250 


96-|< 


121-1 


172 


62 2 


777 


94 


27-6 


34-4 


16 


— 7-1 


— 88 


327 


131-1 


163-8 


249 


96 4 


120 5 


171 


617 


77-2 


93 


27-1 


33 8 


15 


— 7 6 


— 94 


32 li 


130-6 


163-3 


248 


96- 


120- 


170 


61-3 


76 6 


92 


26-6 


33-3 


14 


— 8-0 


—10-0 


325 


130-2 


162 7 


247 


966 


119-4 


169 


60-8 


76 1 


91 


26 2 


32-7 


13 


— 84 


—10-6 


324 


129 7 


162 2 


246 


95-1 


118-8 


168 


60-4 


75-6 


90 


25 7 


32-2 


12 


— 8-8 


—11-1 


823 


129-3 


161-6 


24.5 


94-6 


118-3 


167 


60-0 


76 


89 


26 3 


316 


11 


— 9-3 


— 11-6 


322 


128 8 


1611 


244 


94 2 


117 7 


166 


59-6 


74 4 


88 


248 


311 


10 


— 97 


—122 


321 


128-4 


1606 


243 


93-7 


1172 


165 


59-1 


73-S 


87 


24-4 


30 5 


9 


—10 2 


—12-7 


320 


128- 


l60- 


242 


93 3 


1166 


164 


58-6 


73-: 


86 


24-0 


30 


8 


—10 6 


—13-3 


319 


127-5 


169-4 


241 


928 


1161 


163 


68-2 


72-7 


85 


23-6 


29-4 


7 


—HI 


—13 8 


318 


1271 


158-8 


240 


924 


116-5 


162 


577 


72-2 


84 


231 


28-8 


6 


-115 


—14-4 


317 


126-6 


158-3 


239 


92- 


115- 


161 


57-3 


71-6 


83 


■'2-6 


28 8 


e 


—12 


—15 


316 


129 2 


157-7 


233 


915 


114-4 


160 


66-8 


71-1 


82 


2J-2 


277 


4 


-12-4 


-15 6 


31S 


125-7 


157-2 


237 


911 


U3'f 


159 


56-4 


70-5 


81 


21' 


27-2 


3 


—12 8 


-161 


314 


J25 3 


156 6 


236 


90-6 


113:. 


158 


56-0 


700 


80 


21-8 26 6| 


2 


—13 3 


—16-6 


313 


124 8 


156-1 


235 


90-2 


112 7 


1.5; 


55 5 


69-4 


79 


20 8 


•..■61 


1 


—137 


—17 2 


312 


124-4 


155-6 


234 


897 


112-2 


156 


551 


68-8 


78 


20 4 


25-5 





—14-2 


-177 


311 


124- 


155- 


233 


89-3 


111-e 


155 


54-6 


68 3 


77 


20-0 


25 


— 1 


—14 6 


-18-3 


310 


1235 


164-4 


232 


8'-8 


111-1 


164 


54-2 


67-7 


76 


195 


24 4 


- 2 


—15-1 


—18 8 


309 


1231 


l63-« 


231 


88-4 


1106 


153 


537 


67 2 


75 


191 


23-8 


— 3 


—16 5 


—19 4 


308 


122-6 


153 3 


230 


88- 


ilO 


152 


63-3 


66-6 


74 


18 6 


23 8 


— 4 


—160 


—20 


307 


122-2 


162-7 


229 


87 5 


109-4 


151 


52-8 


66 1 


73 


18-2 


227 


- 6 


—164 


-20 ."i 


306 


1217 


152-2 


228 


871 


108 8 


150 


52-4 


65 6 


72 


17 7 


22 2 


- 6 


—16-8 


—211 


305 


121-3 


151-6 


227 


866 


108 3 


149 


52 


65-0 


71 


17 3 


216 


- 7 


—17 3 


—216 


304 


120 8 


151-1 


226 


86 2 


1077 


148 


51-5 


64-4 


70 


16 8 


21-1 


-8 


—17 7 


-22-2 


303 


1204 


150 5 


225 


86-7 


107-2 


147 


51-1 


338 


69 


16 4 


20-5 


-9 


—18-2 


-227 


302 


120- 


150 


224 


86 3 


106-6 


146 


50-6 


63-3 


68 


16 


20 


-10 


—18 6 


—23 8 


301 


1196 


14J'4 


223 


84-8 


1061 


145 


50-2 


627 


67 


15-5 


19-4 


-11 


—19-1 


—28-8 


SCO 


1191 


1438 


222 


84-4 


105 5 


144 


497 


62-2 


66 


15-1 


18 8 


-12 


—196 


—24-4 


299 


118-6 


148 3 


221 


84- 


106- 


143 


49-3 


61-6 


65 


14-6 


18 3 


-13 


—20-0 


—260 


298 


118 2 


147-7 


220 


836 


104-4 


142 


48-8 


611 


64 


142 


177 


-14 


-20 4 


—25-6 


297 


117-7 


147-2 


219 


t3-l 


103 8 


141 


48-4 


60-5 


63 


13 7 


17 2 


-15 


-20-8 


—261 


294 


117-3 


146 6 


218 


>S-6 


103-3 


140 


48 


60-0 


62 


13 3 


16-6 


-16 


-21-3 


—26-6 


295 


116-8 


146 1 


217 


82-2 


102-7 


139 


47-5 


59-4 


61 


12 8 


16-1 


-17 


—217 


—27-2 


294 


116 4 


145-5 


216 


817 


102-2 


138 


47-1 


58-8 


60 


124 


166 


-18 


—22 2 


-277 


293 


116- 


145- 


215 


81-3 


101-6 


137 


46-6 


58-3 


69 


12 


ISO 


-19 


-22 6 


-28-8 


292 


115-6 


144 4 


214 


RO-8 


101-] 


136 


46-2 


577 


68 


116 


14 4 


-20 


—23 1 


—28-8 


291 


1151 


143-8 


213 


80 4 


100 6 


135 


457 


S7-2 


67 


11-1 


138 


-21 


—23-5 


-29 4 


290 


114 6 


1433 


212 


8O0 


100 


134 


46-3 


56-6 


66 


10 6 


13 3 


-22 


—24 


-800 


289 


114-2 


142-7 


211 


79-5 


99-4 


133 


44-8 


56-1 


55 


10 2 


127 


-23 


—24 4 


-30-6 


28S 


113-7 


142 2 


210 


79-1 


98-8 


132 


44-4 


65 5 


54 


97 


12 2 


-24 


—24 8 


-81-1 


287 


1138 


1416 


209 


78 6 


98-3 


131 


44-0 


65 


53 


S-3 


116 


-26 


—25-3 


—81-6 


286 


112 8 


141-1 


209 


78-2 


977 


130 


435 


54-4 


62 


8-8 


111 


-26 


—25 7 


-82-? 


285 


112-4 


140-5 


207 


777 


97-2 


129 


43-1 


53 8 


81 


8-4 


10-6 


-27 


-26-2 


—32 7 


284 


112- 


140 


206 


77-3 


96 6 


128 


42-6 


53-3 


50 


80 


10 


-28 


—26 6 


—38-3 


28^ 


m-6 


1S9-4 


205 


76-8 


SS-1 


1-27 


42-2 


527 


49 


76 


94 


-29 


—27 1 


-38-8 


262 


HI 1 :8i 8 


204 


76-4 


9.5-5 


126 


417 


62-2 


48 


7 1 


8-8 


-30 


—27 5 


—344 


281 


110 6 138 3 


203 


76-0 


95-0 


125 


413 


51 6 


47 


66 


83 


-31 


-28 


—35- 


280 


110-2 


137 7 


202 


75 6 


91-4 


124 


40-8 


61-1 


46 


6 2, 77 


-32 


-28-4 


-356 


379 


109 7 


137-2 


201 


76-1 


93-8 


123 


40-4 


505 


45 


5-7| 7-2 


-33 


—28-8 


-36-1 


278 


109-3 


136-6 


200 


74 6 


933 


122 


40 


500 


44 


6 3 S6 


-34 


-293 


—36-6 


277 


108-8136 1 


199 


74^ 


92 7 


121 


39 6 


49-4 


43 


4 81 61 


-35 


-29-7 


-37-2 


276 


108-4 135 5 


198 


73-7 


92-2 


121 


39 1 


48-8 


42 


^■4, 5 5 


-36 


- 30-2 


—37-7 


275 jlOS |1.35- 


1S7 


73^ 


91 6 


119 


S8 6 


49-3 


41 


*0; 5 


-37 


—30-6 


—38-3 


274 107 5 134-4 


196 


72-8 


91-1 


U- 38-21 


47-7 


40 


3-5I 4.4 


-38 


-31-1 


—88 8 


S73 1071;183 8 


195 


72-4 


90-6 


117 37-7 


47-2 


39 


» 1 8-i 


-39 


-316 


-89-4 


1 




1 


1 






1 


U-40l 


-32- 


-40 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



321 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS 



Prize Tin .... 


facing page 8 


,, Section of . 


> 


16 


Good Commercial Tin, Section of 




24 


Square Tin .... 


■ "■'' ■ , 


32 


,, Section of . 




48 


Prize English Crumbly 




64 


,, „ ,, Section of . 


, 


80 


,, Irish Batch ..... 




88 


Scottish Champion Batch .... 




96 


,, ,, ,, Section of . 




112 


„ ,, ,, Photo of . 




120 


English „ Cottage 




128 


Section of 




136 


How not to do it ! . 


page 137 


English Champion Cottage, Photo of . 


facing page 152 


Bashed Cottage .... 


,, 160 


Good Coburg ..... 




168 


,, Section of . . 


I 


176 


Notched Fancy Brick ... 




192 


Tin French, Section of . . . 


, 


200 


Selection of Shapes . . . . 


. page 203, 219 


Prize Irish Batch ..... 


• „ 219 


,, Malted Brown . . . . 


• » 251 


Wheatmeal, Section of .... 


facing page 256 


Milk, „ .... 


264 


Vienna Breads, Collection of . 


» 


280 



2 s 



122 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 

WORLD'S 



FINEST TLOUR 



^ 



OYER 40 

AWARDS 

obtained dnring 

1902, 

incladiog 6 
Champion Silver 

Cnps and 
17 Gold Medals 



^ 




FVfORLDUGHT] 



^ 





_ FINEST 

Flour 



TfemasRjgliY&SgnE!' 

LIVERPOOL.^ 




'W0RLDLI6HT' 

is described 

as 

' BEAUTIFULLY 

MILLED ' 

by the 

'London Miller.' 



'^ 



In Cotton Bag^s, 140 lbs., as above. 



"WORLDLIGHT" FLOUR 

USED ALONE ALWAYS INCREASES TRADE 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



3^3 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Acetic acid 

Acids. See Chemicals 

Acidity. See Sourness 

Age in Flour 

Air. See Ventilation 

Alum 

Antiseptics 



PAGE 
I 09, I I I 

129 
64 

66, 220 



Barm (see also Yeast and tables) . 58 
,, Virgin, Parisian and Compound 58, 60 
Barley Bread . . . . .254 
Baked Flour for ferments . . . 237 

Baking . 171 to 176 and tables 271-314 

Bakers, number of, in U.K. . . 248 
Baking Powder (see also Self-raising 
Flour and Chemicals) 



64 
206 
160 



Belts, care of . 

Binding Dough 

Bitterness . . . . 28 

Bladders 127 

Blenders 204 

Blisters 127 

Bloom. See Colour of Crust . . 84, 85 
Boric Acid and Borax . . . 66, 67 
Brakes for Dough .... 204 
Bread, Composition of . . . 135 
„ Brown. See Wholemeal 138, 175, 307-8 
„ Rye and Barley . . .254 
Butyric Acid . . . . 109, 1 11 
\Bursts in Crust . . . . . 157 

Carbon Dioxide 1 See Ventilation and 
Carbonic Acid Gas/ Fermentation 
Carbolic Acid. See Antiseptics 
Changes in Flour during Storage . 129 



Changes during 


Fermentation 


and 


Baking 


. 


132 


Changes during D 


gestion 


135 


Chemicals . 


. 61, 


64, 308, 311 


Coke . 


, 


213, 214 


Colonial Bread . 


* 


• 255 


Colour of Flour and Bread 


. 81-87 


,, Crust 


. 


. 84 


Commercial System . 


292, etc. 


Cookies 




252 


Cornflour . 




101 


Cores in Loaves 


. 


91 


Cottage Loaves 




234. 285 


Crumby Loaves 




• 234 


Crumbliness 




106 


Crust Cracks 




, .56 


Cutting Back . 




150 


Cubic Space 




222 


Dextrin . 




133 


Domestic Bread-making (see 


also 


Methods) . 




269 


Diastase. See Malt Extract 




,, Definition 


of 


18 


Range of 


action of 


19 


„ Kinds of 




17, 25 


Digestion of Bread 




135 


Digestive Organs 




136 


Dividers, Dough 




205 


Draught of Ovens 




212, 221 


Dryness . 


• 


99-105 


Extract of Malt. 


See Malt . 


15 


Embryo . 




24 


Endosperm 




24 



PA- 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 




THE BOOK OF BREAD 



S^'S 



Enzymes . . . . . . 25 

Engines, Gas and Oil . . '. 194 

Exhibition Points and Bread . . 81 

(and tables) 286, 287 (10 and 11) 

Electric Motors .... 197-8 

Ferments .... 

Fermentation, loss during . 

Methods of. 

(and also tables) 
Finish of Loaves 

Firing of Ovens . . 212- 

Foreign Bread .... 
Fuel. See Firing 
Flour. See tables . . 
,, Composition of 
,, Scalded . . • ,. 
,, Gluten of See Gluten . 
„ Self-raising . . .6 
Flavour of Bread 
,, in Flour 

Gas Engines .... 
Glazing ..... 
Gloss ..... 

Glucose ..... 
Gluten, Glutenin, and Gliadin 34-40, 130, 186 
Gluten, Percentage of . . . 35 
Bread . . . '. .39, 40 
Glycerine ..... 102, 132 

Gram 315 

Greasing Sides of Loaves . . . 250 

Hard Layer in Loaves ... 90 
Handing up . . . . .151 
Heat (see also Baking) . . . 293 
Holes in Bread. . . 88, 120-127, 281 

Home Baking . . 266 and methods, 292 

Hops 66, 51 

Hydrofluoric Acid .... 70 

Illustrations, Remarks on, and 

Particulars of . • • . . i j 
llustratiori of Prize Tin Loaf . .16 



25> 236 


188 


228-270 


271-314 


I4I-I56 


216, 319 


256 


271-314 


27 


32, 189 


34 


I, 63, 64 


. 72-81 


78 


194 


179 


159 


• 29-31 







PAGE 


Illustration of Section of the Same . 


24 


■ ', if J » 


Commercial Tin loaf . 


32 


M M 


Scotch Pan Loaf 


40 


)) M 


Section of similar one . 


48 


) ) >J 


Prize English Crumby 






Loaf 


56 


» J )) 


Section of same . 


64 


M n 


Prize Irish Batch Loaf 


80 


»j )) 


Champion Scotch Square 






Loaf 


88 


) ) )» 


Section of same . 


104 


)J it 


Section of another 






Champion Square . 


120 


j> J) 


A London Crusty 






Cottage . 


128 


>» 3» 


Section of ditto . 


136 


>; M 


Section of another 






Champion Cottage . 


144 


»i )) 


A Welsh Cottage Loaf 


160 


M n 


English Coburg or 






Brunswick 


176 


)) )) 


Section of ditto . 


184 


M JJ 


Fancy or Crusty Brick 


192 


n ij 


Scotch French Loaf . 


200 


)) }} 


Various Shapes of 






Loaves . . 203 


219 


)) M 


A badly made Fancy 






Brick 


^37 


H ) J 


Irish Prize Turnover . 


219 


)> >) 


Prize " Malted Brown " 






Loaf 


251 


J > >y 


Commercial Wheatmeal 






Loaf 


256 


7} J J 


Commercial Milk Loaf 


272 


'» >) 


Collection of Vienna 






Bread . 


288 


Irish Bread (see also illustrations and 




tables) 


• 234, 1 


.0^3-5 



Judging Bread, Points in . 



Kneaders 



Lard (see tables) 



8 1 ei seq. 

198 
102, 307, 309 



326 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



JOSEPH BAKER & SONS, 

LIMITED. 



HIGHEST AWARDS AT THE WORLD'S EXHIBITIONS 

INCLUDING 

34 GOLD MEDALS 



FOR 



BREAD AND CAKE MACHINERY, 

BISCUIT MACHINERY, 

PATENT CONTINUOUS BAKING OVENS. 




BAKER'S NEW PATENT DECKER DRAW-PLATE CONTINUOUS BAKING OVEN. 

COMPLETE MODERN BAKERY PLANTS OF ANY SIZE. 



Illustrated Catalogues, etc., seat free on application. 



ENGINEERS. WILLESDEN JUNCTION, LONDON, N.W. 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



Z'^1 



JOSEPH BAKER & SONS, 

LIMITED. 

BEST AND MOST UP-TO-DATE MACHINERY FOR 

CAKE-MAKING. 




ILLUSTRATION OF BAKER'S NEW PATENT CAKE MACHINE, 

COMBINED WITH EGG-WHISKING MACHINE, BOTH DIRECT 

DRIVEN BY ONE ELECTRIC MOTOR AND BAKER'S PATENT 

SPEED-REDUCING GEAR. 




BAKER'S PATENT DOUGH KNEADING AND MIXING MACHINE. 

DIRECT COUPLED WITH ELECTRIC MOTOR AND BAKER'S 

PATENT SPEED-REDUCING GEAR. 



AN INVALUABLE COMBINATION WHERE SPACE IS LIMITED. 



ENGINEERS, WILLESDEN JUNCTION, LONDON, N.W. 



328 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



Lactic Acid 


I 


09, III 


Methods — continued 




Lapland Bread . 




256; 


„ Essex 


. 277-8 


Leaven Bread. See Methods 






French 


260, 313 


Lime in Bread-making 




68, 


„ German 


262 


Litre .... 




315 


„ Gibraltar 


. 312 


Loaf Dividers. See Dividers 




265 


Gloucester . 
,, Guernsey . 


. 278-9 
• 311 


Machinery 




192 


,, Hampshire . 


279-281 


Malt .... 




15 


„ Herefordshire 


. 278-9 


Malt Extract. See Diastase 




15 


,, Hertfordshire 


. 281-2 


„ Manufacture of . 


'■'■ . 


16 


Home-hiade Bread . . 266 


,, Varieties of 




'17 




(and tables) 292 


„ Action of, on Ungelatinised Starch 


I 20 


„ Hungarian . 


259 


,, Composition of . 




21 


Huntingdonshire 


272 


,, When to use 




21, 22 


„ Indian 


261 


,, Quantity to use . 




18, 23 


. „ Irish . 


• 303-5 


,, V. Potatoes 




23 


Isle of Wight 


279-281 


Maize .... 




lOI 


Isle of Man 


• 287-9 


Manipulation. See Shape and Table; 




Kentish 


• 282-3 


Maltose .... 




133 


,, Kimberley. See 


Africa 


Measures, Metric System . 




315 


„ Lancashire . 


. . 287-9 


Methods of Bread-making. See Fer 




Lapland 


. 256 


mentation 






,, Leaven Bread 


259, 260, 313 


Methods of Bread-making . 




228-270 


Leicestershire 


• 283-4 


(and also tables) 


271-314 


,, Lincolnshire 


284 


„ African 


311- 


14. 258 


,, London 


• 285-6 


„ American . 




311-14 


,, Middlesex . 


. 285-6 


„ Armenian . 




257 


Milk Bread 


.309-11 


Australian . 




311-14 


New South Wales. See 


„ Bedfordshire 




272 


Australia 




„ Berkshire . 




. 296-7 


„ New Zealand 


.311-14 


„ Brown Bread 




307-8 


Norfolk 


289-290 


Buckinghamshire 




271 


N orthamptonshir 


s . . 290 


Cambridgeshire . 




272 


Northumberland 


291 


Canadian . 


265, 


311-14 


,, Nottinghamshire 


• 283-4 


Cheshire 




273 


Ontario. See Canadian 


China . 




256 


Oxfordshire 


271 


,, Cornwall 




274-6 


Queensland. See Australia 


Cumberland 




291 


Rutland 


290 


Derbyshire . 




274 


Scottish 


299-303 


Devonshire 




274-6 


Somersetshire 


. 291-2 


Dorset 




276-7 


Shropshire . 


} 292-3 


Durham 




291 


„ Staffordshire 


Dutch 




261 


Suffolk 


289-290 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



329 



WERNER, PFLEIDERER & PERKINS' 

STEAMPIPE OVENS FIRED WITH 

PRODUCER GAS 




'' Universal" Kneading^ and Mixing iViachines 
Sifters, Tempering^ Tanks, Water Heaters, &c 



PLANS, ESTIMATES AND AI,L PARTICULARS ON APPLICATION TO 

REGENT SQUARE, LONDON, W.C, 



33^ THE BOOK OF BREAD 

WERNER, PFLEIDERER & PERKINS' 

X^ATEST INDENTION 

"POINTON'S" PATENT 

MOULDING MACHINE 




Perfectly Moulds all Classes of Dough as fast as delivered 

by the 

" LEWIS & POINTON " DOUGH DIVIDER 



FOR FULL PARTICULARS ADDRESS 



REGENT SQUARE, LONDON, W.C. 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



n 



Methods — continued 




,, Surrey 


294 


„ Sussex 


• 294-5 


„ Swedish 


256 


„ Tasmania . 


• 313 


„ Vienna Bread 


309-11 


,, Warwickshire 


• 295-6 


Welsh 


• 305-6 


,, Westmoreland 


291 


„ Wholemeal Bread 


• 307-8 


Wiltshire . 


• 296-7 


„ Worcestershire . 


• 297-8 


„ Yorkshire . 


. 298-9 


Milk Bread 


.309-11 


Motors, Electric 


197, 198 


Moisture .... 


105, 130 


Moulding .... 


• 152 



Notching 



153 



Offhand Dough. See Straight Dough 
Over-ripe (see also Sourness) . . 156 
Ovens ..... 207-216 



Pile in Bread .... 

Potatoes ..... 
„ Against Malt Extract . 
,, Composition of, and Cost 
„ Dried Extract of 

Points when judging Bread 



93 
26 

23 

27 

27 
81 



Proving .... 
Processes of Bread-making. 

Quick Method, Emergency 



Ripeness . 
Ropy Bread 
Runny Dough . 
Rye . 

Salicylic Acid 

Salt 

Scalded Flour. 



150, 169-17 1 
See Systems 

273 

. 156 
115-120 

159 

• 254 

70 



40 (and tables) 271-314 
See Flour . 32, 189 



Scaling. See Dividers . . . 205 

Scotch Bread . . 299-303, 234 

(also illustrations and tables and 
following) 238 
Self-raising Flour 
Shape of Loaves 
Size of Loaves . 
Sifting 

Slipping of Belts 
Soda. See Chemicals 
Solanine .... 
Sourness (see also Flavour) 
Specific Heat of Flour 
Sponge Stirrers 
Sponges (see also Systems) 
Steam .... 
Staleness .... 
Sticky Dough . 
Storage. See Age 

Straight Dough (see also Systems) 231, 286 
Streaks in Loaves . . . . 91 



. 61 


,63 


141 


-156 


97. 


148 


188, 


202 


• 


206 




28 


109 


-115 


293. 


etc. 




201 




238 


176 


-180 




104 




160 



Succinic Acid . 
Sugar, Manufacture of 

,, Use of . 
Swedish Bread . 
System of Bread-making 



132 

29 

30, 237 

256 
228-270 



(and also tables) 271-314 

Tables of Methods (information on 

every practical point found here) 271-314 
Taints in Flour . 



Tank, Attemperating 


202 


Texture of Bread 


'88 


Thermometrical Scales 


320 


Tightness .... 


. 163 


Tin Bread 


147, 287 


Toughness 


168 


Troughs .... 


217 


Utensils .... 


. 217 


Ventilation of Bakeries . 


212, 221 


Vienna Bread . 


309-1 1 


Volume .... 


. 96-90 



Zl^ 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 




THE BOOK OF BREAD 

THOMSON'S 



?>?>3 



NEW PATENT 



DOOGH OIVIOIHG WMl 



PATENTS 



APPLIED 



FOR 




IN 



ALL 



COUNTRIES 



This Machine sub-divides accurately from bulk all kinds of bread doughs in any workable 
condition. The parts are made interchangeable and to gauge. 

The Machine combines simplicity, compactness, and accuracy, occupying small space, requiring 
comparatively little power, perfect in action, and embodies all the points experience, skill, and 
workmanship can produce. 

The Machine is made to scale any unit. Indices either British standard or metric. 

The Standard Machine has a range of from 20 to 40 ozs., and when so required, from 8 to 40 
ozs., rising by drams. 

Output, any required number between the rate of 2000 per hour as lowest, and 4500 as highest. 

Colour, lightness, and finish of the loaf are markedly superior. 

Condition and accuracy leave nothing to be desired. Excepting the difference of evaporation 
due to varying heat of Ovens, the accurate results obtained at the Baking Table are maintained 
at the Shop Counter. 

Inquire and ascertain what this Machine can save you. It has been adopted by the best 
Houses in the Trade, and comes TO STAY. 

BREAD AND BISCUIT OVENS. BREAD AND BISCUIT MACHINERY. 



DAVID THOMSON, Ltd., ENGINEERS, 

SLATEFORD ROAD, EDINBURGH. 

Telephone— No. 1438 CENTRAL. Telegraphic Address— " BAKERY, EDINBURGH." 



334 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



OVENS oIbakeryI 



THE HEAT TRAP OVEN 
IS THE BEST FOR 

BREAD or CONFECTIONERY 

MAXIMUM OUTPUT. 
MINIMUM CONSUMPTION OF FUEL. 

These Ovens are bnilt in the following forms: — 



PORTABLE 



FITTINGS. 

DOUGH TROUGH 






For limited spaces, 
or where "tenant's 
fixtures " are wish- 
ed for. 



BRICK-BUILT 



For Large or 
Small Bakeries, 
and to suit 
every class of 
trade. 

Either single 
or varying tem- 
peratures. 

1, 2, or 3 decks. 



Complete 

with 

Pinboard and Cover 



6 ft. long, made of Whitewood, 60s. 

6 ft. „ „ White Deal, 52s. 

Legs, 5s. set of i. Castors, 7s. set of i. 

^^^^■^ BREAD RACK 

as Illustration 

With 7 Lath Trays, mounted on 

Ball Bearing Castors, 

PRICE 




£2, 17s. 6d. 



ROUND LOAF PANS 



DRAWPLATE 

For _ 

Bakeries. 



Easy Run- 
ning, and 
have a 
Speciality. 

Single or 
Decker. 



1 lb. size, 3s. 6d. per dozen 

2 lb. „ is. 
6s. 

OBLONG BREAD TINS 

Hand-made 
1 lb. tins, 3s. per doz. 2 lb. tins, is. per doz. 
i lb. tins, 6s. per doz. 



SPONGE CAKE FRAMES 



FIRED FROM BACK, SIDE, OR FRONT. 

EXPLOSIONS IMPOSSIBLE. 

NO COMPLICATION OF FLUES OR DAMPERS. 

CONTINUOUS. ECONOMICAL. 

PARTICULARS FREE FROM 

COX & SON, Oven Builders, 

22B Brasshouse Passage, 
BIRMINGHAM. 



Ad. size, 10s. 6d. per doz. rows. 
id. size, lis. 6d. per doz. rows. 



DOUGH KNIVES, 8 in. long. Is. 3d. each. 

SCRAPERS, wood handle, Is. id. each. 
PALETTE KNIVES, 8 in. long. Is. 6d. each. 
BREAD RASPS, 2s. each. 

ALL UTENSILS SUPPLIED. 



vUa & bUJN, OUTFITTERS, 
22B Brasshouse Passage, 
BIRMINGHAM. 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



335 



PAGE 

Water to Sack . . . 163, 183 

Weights and Measures . -315-9 

Welsh Bread (see also illustrations 

and tables) . . .234, 305 

Wholemeal Bread . 138, 175, 252-4, 307-8 



Yeast 



Budding of 
Manufacture of 
Starch in 



42-61 
42 

47. 51 
49 



Yeast — continued 




Distillers' 


46, 235 


,, Brewers' 


50 


Patent . 


51 


,, Testing of 


• 53, 54 


Dessicated 


55 


,, Softening of . 


55 


Best Heat for. 


56 


,, Quantity per Sack . 


57 


Yield of Bread per Sack . 


181-91 1 



N.B. — The 45 pages of tables at end of book and the illustrations convey very much 
more information on almost every practical point than can be conveniently indexed. 



INDEX 



TO 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



Avery, W. & T., Ltd. 

Baker & Sons, Ltd., J. 

Bayley, J. T. . 

Bristol Distilling Co., Ltd., (Tiger 

Yeast) .... 
Collins & Co., T. 
Confectioners' Colours Co. 
Cook & Sons, W. . 
Cox & Son 
Cruickshank, J. 
Doddington & Son . 
Edme, Ltd. 
Gardner & Sons, Wm. 
Gillespie & Sons, A. 



PAGE 

356 

326-7 

348 

358 

353 
344-5 
334 
355 
350 
346 
356 
347 



Heaton, H. . . 


• 357 


Hughes, A. . . . 


• 356 


Isaac, Wm. 


• 351 


Liversidge & Sons . 


• 358 


Manchester Chemical Co., Ltd. 


• 342 


Mason, Ltd., W. F. . 


■ 324 


Montgomerie & Co., Ltd., 


■ 338 


Rhodes, S. A. . 


349 


Richmond & Chandler, Ltd. 


• 352 


Rigby & Son, Ltd., T. 


322 


Thomson, Ltd., D. . 


• 332-3 


Tonge, T. H. . 


354 


United Yeast Co., Ltd. 


340 


Werner, Pfleiderer & Perkins, 1 


.td. . 329-30 



33^ 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



Noted for 




Sole Manufacturers: 

BRISTOL DISTILLING COMPANY, Ltd., BRISTOL. 

AGENTS WANTED. 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 337 



SUBSCRIBERS TO THE EDITION DE LUXE 



OF 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



Mr E. Archibald, Kingston Bakery, Glasgow. 



Mr William C. Baines, loi Newland Avenue, Hull. 

Mr G. Bartlett, Manager, Peptine Maltine, Ltd., 58 Richmond Road, Aylestone Park, 

Leicester. 
Mr John T. Bayley, Malt Extract Maker, 15 Nona St., Seedley, Manchester. 
Mr T. Bursnall, Bakery Cottage, Cutler Heights, Bradford. 
Mr Joseph Burton, Model Machine Baker)', 7 Park St., Nottingham. 
Mr T. BuRDETT, 634 Stockport Road, Longsight, Manchester. 
Mr C. Baine, Managing Director, Messrs Wilson & Strain, Cromac St., Belfast. 
Mr Fred. B. Barling, 122 Albert Road, Woodstock, S. Africa. 
Mr F. W. Buxton, Victoria Steam Bakery, Aylestone Park, Leicester. 
Messrs Bonthron & Co., 106 Regent St., W. 
Mr H. A. Blyth, British Malt Products Co., 148 Bermondsey St., S.E. 

Mr Alexander Currie, 28 Westminster Terrace, Sauchiehall St., Glasgow. 

Mr W. H. CoLLYER, Baker, Calverton, Notts. 

Mr Percy T. Chirgwin, Market Place, Penzance. 

Mr C. Cocks, 14 Kepler Road, Bedford Road, Clapham, S.W. 

Messrs Cornwell & Son, 21 South St., Manchester Sq., W. 

Messrs Thomas Collins & Co., 106 Victoria St., Bristol. 

Mr W. B. Cooper, Mariners' St., Lowestoft. 

Messrs Cox & Son, 22 Brasshouse Passage, Birmingham. 

Mr W. Chalmers, 67 Cornwall Road, Bayswater, W. 

Mr W. CowiE, 51 Mortimer Road, Kensal Rise, N.W. 



Messrs Didsbury & Sons, i Woodchurch Road, Birkenhead, Liverpool. 
Mr W. DoNSON, 81 Bath St., Ilkestone. 

Mr W. Darbyshire, Lancashire Cash Bakery Co., Ltd., Blackpool. 

2 u 



338 THE BOOK OF BREAD 

BERMALINE BREAD 



THE ACME OF PERFECTION. 

Tell me not In mournful numbers 
Life is but an empty dream, 

Indigestion ne'er encumbers 
Those who live on Bermaline. 



Bermaline Bread 



The Finest Bread in the World. The acme of perfection. It stands alone inimitable. 

"Without a parallel." — The Tempest, Act 2, Scene i. 



Bermaline Bread 



Is partially pre-digested, and forms an ideal food for the invalid, the young, and 
the aged. 

" Here is everything advantageous to life."— 7%« Tempest, Act 2, Scene i. 



Bermaline Bread 



Positively prevents Indigestion, and its continued use will cure chronic Dyspepsia. 

" Not a resemblance, but a certainty." — Measure for Measure, Act 4, Scene i. 



Bermaline Bread 



Awarded Gold Medal at Glasgow. Prize Medal at Edinburgh. 
Certificate by Sanitary and Health Institute. 

"Of such possessions and so high esteem." — Taming of the Shrew, Act i. Scene 2. 



Bermaline Bread 



Becomes more popular daily. Sales increase phenomenally. Rapidly eclipsing 
all others. 

"And not without desert so well reputed." — Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act 2, Scene i. 



Terms and particulars from — 

MONTGOMERIE & CO., LTD., 

PARTICK, GLASGOW. 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 339 



Mr William Dodd, 51 Selwyn Road, Plaistow, Essex. 

Mr John Daniel, Baker and Confectioner, Aberavon, Glam. 



Mr Wm. Evans, Forth Farm, Forth, Glam. 
Mr W. B. Elder, Wellgreen Bakery, Stirling. 
Mr John Eason, i'] Tolbooth Wynd, Leith. 
Mr Thomas Earp, 6 Salmon St., Loughborough. 
Messrs Edme, Ltd., Mistley, Essex. 



Mr L. French, 78 Fark Road, West Dulwich, S.E. 
Mr S. Fussell, Cross Keys Brewery, Road, nr. Bath. 



Mr Alfred J. Gerry, Brunswick Road, Flymouth. 

Mr T. B. Gray, Union St., Coupar-Angus, N.B. 

Mr D. F. Goodwin, Town Mills, Kidderminster. 

Mr Frank Gunn, 72 Mytongate, Hull. 

Mr Arthur E. Gurley, 128 Lichfield Road, Aston, Birmingham. 

Mr John T. Godley, 515 Mansfield Road, Sherwood, Notts. 

Mr W. H. Green, Manager, Co-operative Society, Colyton, Devon. 

Mr T. Gelling, 50 Frescott Road, Fairfield, Liverpool. 



Mr Walter Hubbard, 508 Great Western Road, Glasgow. 

Mr Albert Horrocks, Newton Heath Steam Bakery, Goodier St., Newton Heath, 

Manchester. 
Mr John Hillas, Goodinge Road, Holloway, N. 
Mr W. Bertram Harris, 144 High St., Merthyr Tydvil, S. Wales. 
Messrs Thos. E. & J. Hughes, 88 Lidbury, Worcester. 
Mr Robert G. Hindle, 70 CreUin St., Barrow-in-Furness. 
Messrs Hayes Bros., Steam Bakery, Stockton Heath, Warrington. 
Messrs W. Handley & Son, George St., Salford, Manchester. 

Mr W. Jones, Kensington, Liverpool. 

Mr Edw^ard Jones, 183 Horseley Heath, Tipton, Staffs. 

Mr A. L. Johnston, 3 Bank Buildings, Wimbledon. 

Mr John Jennings, Adelaide Terrace, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Mr Adam Keddie, 74 Woodstock Road, Belfast. 

Mr R. Knapman, 12 Treherne Road, North Brixton, S.W. 

Mr Arthur W. Kay, 156 Rochdale Road, Royton, Lanes. 

Mr Wm. Kennaway, 5 Holburn St., Aberdeen. 

Mr Andrew Kiddie, Jones St., Kimberley, S. Africa. 



340 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



Two Triumphs 



of Manufacture 




FOR BAKERS 



& CONFECTIONERS 



THE BUTTER 
SUBSTITUTE 



"ELECTOL" 



THE BUTTER 
SUBSTITUTE 



EVERY VARIETY OF 



CAKE DECORATIONS 

UTEN5IL5 



ALMONDS 

CHEMICALS 

CHERRIES GLACE 

COLOURS 

CREAM POWDER 

BUTTER SUBSTITUTES 

PEELS 



ESSENCES 

ESSENTIAL OILS 

FRUIT 

GELATINE 

ICING AND OTHER SUGARS 

MARGARINE 

CREAM OF TARTAR 



TARTARIC ACID, Etc. 



THE UNITED YEAST COMPANY, Ltd, 

Registered Office : ii Dantzic Street, Shudehill, MANCHESTER 

LONDON BRISTOL LEEDS 

2 Sheppy Place, Minories Temple Street Blayd's Yard, Briggate 

NEWCASTLE=ON=TYNE SHEFFIELD 

Rosemary Lane, Pudding Chare 50 Nursery Street 

AND AT NUMEROUS BRANCHES 



PLEASE WRITE FOR 
Monthly Price List of Sundries, also our comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue of Bakers' Utensils 

FREE SAMPLES 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 341 

Mr W. H. Kenwig, 71 Mt. Vernon St., Liverpool. 
Mr John Kirkland, Borough Polytechnic, S.E. 

Messrs G. T. Lowe & Co., i Milton St., an.d Camden St., Derby. 

Mr Peter Lyons, Model Machine Bakery, 112 West St., Drogheda, Ireland. 

Mr Edward Luton, 226 North St., Ashton Gate, Bristol. 

Mr T. Percy Lewis, Cafe Royal, Malvern. 

Mr W. Lee, National Bakery School, Borough Polytechnic, S.E. 

Mr G. Macalister (John Crawford), 69 Parliamentary Road, Glasgow. 

Mr C. W. Makin, Chorley, Lanes. 

Mr H. J. MoGRiDGE, Malt Extract Manufacturer, Loampit Hill, Lewisham, S.E. 

Mr Chas. Muir, The Castle Bakery, Rothesay, N.B. 

Mr William Moore, 63 Park Road, Liverpool. 

Mr Walter Moore, 50 Lawrence Road, Liverpool. 

Mr H. C. Morris, 228 Hackney Road, N.E. 

Mr J. H. Morrison, c/o James Blackledge & Sons, Derby Road Mills, Bootle, Liverpool. 

Messrs Robert M'Dowell & Son, Torphichen St. Bakery, Edinburgh. 

Mr E. M'NicoL, 84 Shepherd's Bush Road, W. 

Mr James Mackenzie, 197 Morningside Road, Edinburgh. 

Mr George F. Mundie, 79 High St., Old Aberdeen. 

Messrs W. & F. Marchant, 86 Castle St., Reading. 

Mr H. V. Morris, 265 Park Road, Liverpool. 

Mr W. MosELY, Jacob St., Accrington. 

Mr J. Minson, 5 Bute Street, South Kensington, S.W. 

Mr John M'Call, Main St., Eskbank, New South Wales. 

Messrs John Montgomerie & Co., " Bermaline," Partick, Glasgow. 

Messrs Nicholas Bros., Bakers and Confectioners, Wilton Road, Salisbury. 
Mr W. NoRRis, 55 Abbeville Road, Clapham, S.W. 

Mr Robert Oughton, Nith Mount, Dumfries. 

The Orange River Colony Bakery Co., Hanger St., Bloemfontein, O.R.C., S. Africa. 

Mr August Pohl, 87 Water Lane, Brixton, S.W. 

Mr W. M. Felling, Avenue Bakery, Bedford Park, W. 

Mr George Robert Partridge, High St., Merstham, Surrey. 

Mr H. T. Page, 3 and 5 Great Western St., Aylesbury. 

Mr Frederick Pile, 360 Coldharbour Lane, Brixton, S.W. 

Mr John William Read, M.C.A., Baker and Confectioner, Grey's Road, Henley-on-Thames. 
Mr J. Redman, Henry St., St John's Wood, N.W. 



342 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



Looks down witK 
delight on the 



Best Things 




ALL SUNDRIES USED 
BY BAKERS, 
CONFECTIONERS AND 
PASTRY COOKS 



Samples and Particulars 

Manchester 

Compa 

1 

BRADSHAW STREET. SHUDEHILL 

MANCHESTER 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 

Mr James Raymer, Dogs Head St., Ipswich. 

Mr W. J. Rich, io Cracknore Road, Freemantle, Southampton. 

Messrs G. Russell & Son, Broad St., Limerick. 

Mr W. Ramsbottom, 139 Broad St., Pendleton, Lanes. 



Mr J. K. Smith, 4 East Hermitage Place, Leith. 

Messrs Wm. Skinner & Son, Ltd., 477 Sauchiehall St., Glasgow. 

Mr A. H. Smith, Southend. 

Mr J. W. Shaw, Hunter's Bar Bakery, Sheffield. 

Mr A. Scrivener, 54 Bromsgrove St., Birmingham. 

Mr Chas. Sanders, Broadclyst, Devon. 

Mr H. D. SiLLiTO, Church Lane, Goldenhill, Stoke-on-Trent. 

Mr Gilbert B. Soduy, 51 Seaside Road, Eastbourne. 

Mr Walter Stephens, 8 Townsend Hill, Plymouth. 

Mr C. H. Slack, The Electric Model Bakery, Boar Lane, Leeds. 

Mr A. Schaumloffel, 42 Romford Road, E. 

Mr Geo. Sutton, Burrow Hill, Chobham, Woking. 

Messrs J. Smith & Son, Pitlochry, N.B. 

Mr W. J. Stockham, Neath, S. Wales. 

Mr J. P. Stone, 79 Holdenhurst Road, Bournemouth. 

Mr F. Stevens, 45 Hope St., Wrexham. 

Messrs Simmons & Gifford, Wharf Mills, Winchester. 

Mr Owen Simmons, 360 Coldharbour Lane, S.W. 

Messrs S. Stevens, Ltd., 136 Queen St., Cardiff. 

Mr J. B. Seddon, 136 Stockport Road, Manchester. 

Mr George Taylor, 63 Mid St., Keith, Banffshire. 

Mr H. J. Thomas, Machine Bakery, Griffithstown, Mon. 

Mr J. J. Taylor, Crown Steam Bakery, Small Heath, Birmingham. 

Messrs Turner & Son, Ltd., Nottingham. 

Mr T. E. Turner, 13 Richmond Road, Kingston-on-Thames. 

Alderman Taylor, New Bond St., Bath. 



Mr Walter Whitmore, 3 Station Road, Redhill, Surrey. 

Mr W. J. Wilding, 9 Victoria St., Crewe. 

Mr J. J. Williams, 18 High St., Coedpoeth, Wrexham. 

Mr James Weare, Newbury, Gillingham, Dorset. 

Messrs J. B. Ward & Sons, New Road, Portsmouth. 

Mr Reginald Warren, 47 Cambridge St., Hyde Park Sq., W. 



Mr Edward Yates, Woolfold, Bury, Lanes. 



344 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



WILLIAM COOK & SONS, 

OVEN BUILDERS, 

BURNSIDE, PIERSHILL, EDINBURGH. 

We can convert your range of common ovens into our system of Steam Pipe Drawplates (by 
placing the fires at front), without in any way altering the shape of your bakehouse. 




The above illustration shows a range of "MATCHLESS" STEAM DRAWPLATE OVENS 
which were reconstructed from common ovens without encroaching on the bakehouse. We are 
reconstructing 36 ovens in all in this factory in London. Write for full particulars. 

We are specialists in Steam Oven building, and make them to fire from Front, Side or Back 
as may be found necessary. 



STEAM DRAWPLATE OVENS. 

STEAM VIENNA OVENS. 



STEAM PEEL OVENS. 

STEAM PORTABLE OVENS. 



For Particulars apply to the Patentees and Sole Makers — 

WILLIAM COOK & SONS, Burnside Works, Piershill, Edinburgrh. 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 345 

WILLIAM COOK & SONS, 

OVEN BUILDERS, 

BURNSIDE, PIERSHILL, EDINBURGH. 




The above is an illustration of our PATENT "MATCHLESS" STEAM 
HOT PLATE for baking Scones, Muffins, Crumpets, Pancakes, Oatcakes, 
and all Hot Plate goods. The baking heat can be regulated at will to suit 
any class of goods requiring either a slow or quick heat. 

The heat is perfectly uniform all over the baking area, and the saving in 
fuel when compared with gas plates is in some cases 90%. These are Facts 
arrived at after independent tests made by some of our customers. 

These Hot Plates are made in lengths varying from 6 ft. to 18 ft., and 
are all 2 ft. 6 in. wide. They are strongly and proportionately built, and will 
last a lifetime. 

For further Particulars, Prices and Testimonials, apply to 
the Patentees and Sole Makers — 

WILLIAM COOK & SONS, Burnside Works, Piershill, Edinburgh. 

2 X 



346 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



OVER 300 CUPS. MEDALS. 4 TROPHIES, AWARDED IN EIGHT YEARS. 




EDME LIMITED have the pleasure of drawing the attention of the readers 
of ' ' The Book of Bread ' ' to the merits of their celebrated and well- 
known ' ' Edme ' ' Gold Medal Malt Extract and ' ' Edme ' ' Yeast. 

The Extraordinary successes achieved by users of the above at the 
International Bakers Exhibition, London, 1903, and in previous years, 
justifies them in bringing ' ' Edme ' ' products prominently before the 
trade. (Our customers having practically secured the whole of the 
bread awards, including ''Champion Challenge Cup,'' ''London Gold 
Medal,'' ''Best Exhibit of Bread,'' etc., etc.) 

' ' Edme Limited ' ' solicit the favour of a trial order for either 



their ''Edme'' Gold Medal Malt Extract or ''Edme'' Yeast. 



Head Office and Works :— MISTLEY, ESSEX. 

Depots : — 80 Cedars Road, Stratford, E. , and Down Place, 

Hammersmith, W. 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



ESTABLISHED 1871 



347 



ANDREW GILLESPIE & SONS 

BAKERY ENGINEERS AND OVEN BUILDERS 
KINNINQ PARK, GLASGOW 




THE CELEBRATED "PREMIER" DOUGH MIXING AND KNEADING MACHINE 



Specialities — 

BREAD AND BISCUIT MACHINERY 
SCOTCH HAND OVENS 

DRAWPLATE OVENS 

TRAVELLING OVENS 



ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUES ON APPLICATION 



PLANS AND ESTIMATES PREPARED FOR COMPLETE BAKERIES 



Telephones: National, 1666 

Corporation, X225 



Telegrams : 

"CONSIDERATE" 



348 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



THE SUCCESS OF THE NEW CENTURY. 



STRAIGHT DOUGH RECIPE. 



280 lbs. Flour — temperature 60 deg. Fahr. 

2 „ Yeast. 

I „ Malt Extract. 

3J „ Salt 
16J Gallons of water — temp, no degs. Fahr. 

System : — Place the Yeast and Malt Extract in a small 
quantity of water at 85 degs. Fahr., and allow it to stand 
until all the remainder of water is in the trough, the salt being 
put in the first can of water (so as to keep it away from the 
yeast). When this has been done, add Yeast and Malt Extract 
and make into dough. Proof 1 hour. Knock it down and turn 
it over, and allow it to proof i hour longer. Then scale off, 
and proceed in the usual way. 

This method occupies four hours aU through. 

In making dough for Cottages and Cakes keep back some 
of the water, about i gallon, as this dough requires to be tighter 
than Tin dough. 



PIONEER MALT EXTRACT 

FOR WHITE AND BROWN BREADS. 



.^&^ 



LOOK AT THE AWARDS 

IN 

OPEN COMPETITIONS GAINED 

BY USERS OF ABOVE 

PRACTICAL RECIPE. 



( LONDON, 1900— Gold Medals and Champion Cup. 
I NEWCASTLE, 1900—7 Medals. 

LONDON, 1901—1 1 Medals and Diplomas. 

LIYERPOOL, 1901—1 1 Medals and Championship Cup. 
( NEWCASTLE, 1901— 13 Medals and Championship Cup. 

LEEDS, 1902—11 Medals and Championship Medal. 

LIYERPOOL, 1902—17 Medals and Championship Cup. 

LONDON. 1902—7 Awards and Best Provincial Bread. 

NEWCASTLE, 1902 — r4 Awards and Champion Cup. 

LIYERPOOL, N0T.5, 1902^— i6AwardsandChampionCup. 



Price 6d. per lb. can only be obtained from 

JOHN T. BAYLEY,'"''";S^TBr™ 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



349 



RHODES 



OVENS. 




THE CASH BAKERY, Ltd. 

Cork, Sep. 30, 1903. 

Mr S. A. Rhodes, 

121 Hyde Road, Afdwick, Manchester, 

Dear Sir, — We have pleasure in stating that 
your Steam Drawplate Oven, now in use for over 
five months, is doing excellent work. We bake on 
an average daily seven batches in it, the first being 
set at 8 A.M. and the last drawn at 7 p.m. The 
uniformity of the baking and bloom on crust is all 
that could be desired. Further, the saving in coke 
consumption is considerable. 

Yours faithfully, 

THE CASH BAKERY, Ltd. 

J. C. NEWSOM, Chairman. 

J. G. F. LOCKE, Secretary. 



STEAM DRAWPLATE OVENS. 
HOT AIR DRAWPLATE OVENS. 

(For Coke or Producer Gas Firing.) 

STEAM PEEL OVENS. 
HOT AIR PEEL OVENS. 

(Single or Decker Type.; 

VIENNA OVENS. PORTABLE OVENS. 

SPECIAL OVENS FOR MIXED TRADES. 




Send for Catalogue. 



S. A RHODES. 121 HYDE ROAD. ARDWICK, MANCHESTER. 



35"^ 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 








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THE BOOK OF BREAD 



35 



Sb ^afte 7Hanufaeturer(f 
Sb ^on/eefionertf 



ISAAC'S <^^j:> CREAM POWDER 42/.percwt. 

Equals the Best 98% Cream of Tartar. Carriage Paid. 

ISAAC'S "LITEEN" CREAM 32/.perowt. 

A pure rising powder, ready blended, requires no other Carriage Paid. 
chemical adding to it. 

ISAAC'S VEGETABLE BUTTER«^*g/;«»"'^- 

Superior to Lard, and more economical. PaUsi2/- " 

Carriage Paid. 

ISAAC'S EGG COLOUR for cake makers 

Made in Three Grades. 5/, 7/6 & 10/- per lb. 

ISAAC'S BUTTER FLAVOUR 7/6 per ib. 

Imparts to Cakes the rich flavour of Butter. 
\\ ounces sufficient for 1 cwt. Cake. 

TO A ar"C[ I700I?Mi^I?0 ESS. lemon 3/6, 5/6, 5/6 per lb. 
1 0/\/\\-» O tU^^\lx I\V^ li.:^ ESS. VAN ILLA 6/-, 7/6, 9/6 per lb. 

The above Goods are THE BEST of their kind. There's always a demand for 
BEST GOODS, but very few people can supply THE BEST, because they won't 
incur the expense, or take the care necessary to produce BEST GOODS. I take a 
delight in doing all that is wanted to produce THE BEST, and I respectfully ask 
you to give my goods a trial. 



SMALL LOTS supplied as under, Carriage Paid, for Gash with Order. 



^ 



<^5> CREAM POWDER, 
No. 1 CREAM POWDER, 
No. 2 CREAM POWDER, 
LITEEN CREAM, 
VEGETABLE BUTTER, 



1 cwt. 


28 lbs. 


7 lbs. 


42/- 


11/- 


3/- 


35/- 


10/- 


2/9 


32/- 


9/- 


2/6 


32/- 


9/- 


2/6 


42/- 


11/6 


4/6 



Special 



Quotations 



for 



One Ton Lots. 



I send any quantity desired of Butter Flavour, Egg Colour, Essence of Lemon, &c., on receipt of Cash. 



A SPECIAL SMALL BOOKLET ON CREAM POWDER sent free on receipt of Trade Card. 

WILLIAM ISAAC, Manufacturer, Warrington, Lancashire, England. 



35' 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



RICHMOND & CHANDLER, Limited 

MANCHESTER 

Manufacturers of "HODGKINSON'S" PATENT 

BREAD=KNEADINQ MACHINERY 

SPECIAL PRIZE MEDAL 

Awarded for Bread- Kneading Machine, International Health Exhibition, London. 

PRICES 

No. 1, to mix 14 lbs. 

No. K, for Hand, to mix 30 lbs. 

No. K, for Power, to mix 30 lbs. 

No. 2, to mix 60 lbs. . 

No. KA, to mix Haif=sack 

No. 3, for Hand, to mix 1 sack 

No. 3, for Power, to mix 1 sack 

No. 4, for Power, to mix 2 sacks 

PULLEYS EXTRA 




£5 


2 


6 


10 








11 


11 





14 


5 





20 10 





25 


10 





31 








69 









Extract from The British Baker, Confectioner and Purveyor, in their report on 

the New London Bakery of Messrs OFFEN & MOORE, Limited. 
^^= "We now come across an established favourite— the " Hodgkinson 
Kneader and Mixer," for Biscuit Doughs and large Cake Mixings. 
In this machine the mixing arms and kneaders work in opposite directions, 
and, from their peculiar shape and motion in working, catch the dough at a 
different point at each revolution. The manager informs us that he also uses 
the Machine for washing butter, &c." 

R. & C. are also Manufacturers of Chaff Cutters, Corn Crushers, and all kinds of Food=Preparing Machinery 

for Horses and Cattle. 

CATALOGUE FREE ON APPLICATION. 



GOLD MEDAL, PARIS, 1900 



SAFETY FEEDER CHAFF CUTTER5 

TO COMPLY WITH THE NEW ACT OF PARLIAMENT 




GREAT COMPETITION at the Royal Agricultural Society of 
England's Birmingham Show, June 1898. 

Sixteen Different Appliances were tested at the 
Trials. 

The Judges awarded the PRIZE of ;£io 
to Richmond & Chandler (Limited), for 
their " Multiplex " Patent Safety Feeder. 

Since Improved, and numerous other Prizes have been awarded. 



THE 
NEW 



CLIMAX' 



RICHMOND & CHANDLER'S CHAFF CUTTERS 

Have taken the Prize of the Royal Agricultural Society of England at Every 
Competition since 1854. 

MANUFACTURERS OF ROYAL FIRST PRIZE AND EXHIBITION MEDAL 

Chaff Cutters, Corn Crushers, Pulpers and Slicers, Horse Gears, 

Steaming Apparatus, Kneading Machines, Oil Cake 

Breakers, Chaff Sifters and Cleaners 

PATENT SAFETY 
FEEDER FOR 



CHAFF CUHERS 



SEND FOR LIST TO 



RICHMOND & CHANDLER, Ltd., MANCHESTER 



THE BOOK OF BREAD ^Si 

WE MAKE 

THE FINEST FLAVOURS 

AND 

THE FINEST COLOURS 

FOR 

THE FINEST CAKES. 

The Confectioners' Vegetable Colours 
and Fruit Essences Co., Ltd. 



OUR SPECIALITY IS 

Vni l^llUr The best Cake Colour 
lULIvllllLi Powder. 10s. per lb. 

rOO I mil nil ^^^ "Selected" Lemon is the very 
I NN I rlVllllll finest obtainable, and cannot be sur- 
L.UUi bUIIIUIVi passed for purity, aroma and strengfth. 

COLOURS FOR ICINGS. ii;ur.\.!tiirtir. 

ALL CONFECTIONERS' SUNDRIES. I^u^. 



Write for Current Price List to 

Manag^er, 
Messina Works, Hackney Wick, London, N.E. 



2 Y 



354 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



BUY DIRECT FROM THE MAKER 

INTERNATIONAL HEALTH EXHIBITION, 1895— ONLY AWARD FOR BAKERY FITTINGS. 
AWARDED MEDAL BY THE SANITARY INSTITUTE, 1902. 



Telegrams— tonge, irlams-O'-th'-HEIGHT." 



Telephone— 101 PENDLETON 




" Good Morning, Mr TONGE." 
"Good Morning, Sir." 

" I want another of your double 
proving Racks and Setters for 
my drawplate ovens, but I want 
the fronts covering. Putting 
covers over takes too much 
time. Can you make me some- 
thing to come to the bottom of 
Rack, and carry itself out of the 



^ way 



^^ Necessity is the Mother of Invention/^ and 

TONGE SCORES AGAIN. 

The illustration shows my Patent Proving Rack fitted with Spring Covers, 
which consist of Metal Rollers with Springs inside. They are so arranged 
as to cover and uncover the fronts of Rack in a moment, and will roll 
themselves up with the lightest touch clear of everything. Without donbt 
a revolution in Rack Covers. Can be fitted to existing Racks. These Racks 
are made for any capacity; also to suit any size of tin. The finest Draw- 
plate Setter known. 



The leading Manufacturer of the Day of — 

Moulding Tables, Kneading, Sponging, and Machine Troughs, Trucks, Racks, Patent Double and 
Single Provers (Portable and Stationary), Patent Proving Racks, Bread Rack and Setter Combined 
for Tin and Batch Bread, Improved Rotation Pipmg Stands, Boxwood Rolling Pins, Wood and 

Steel Peels, Ash and Hickory Shafts, etc. 



PATENT BAIL-BEAEIMG and AMERICAN CASTORS for TABLES, TROUGHS, TRUCKS, RACKS, etc. 



NOTE THE ADDRESS: 



TO TflXFrC ^^^ \5AKt,Hy Ml IKK, 

. n. lUllUJD, THE HEIGHT, PENDLETON. 



Telegrams: "OVENS, EDINBURGH: 



THE BOOK OF BREAD ^55 

Telephone: 877, EDINBURGH. 



JAMES CRUICKSHANK, 



ESTABLISHED 1868. 
TIME REGISTER. 



OVEN BUILDER, EDINBURGH. 



For 
Timing 
Batches 
in Oven. 




12/6 
Each. 



PATENT PYROMETER with Case 
and Tube. 




LARD CISTERN. 




Tin— 
14/- Each. 

Copper— 
25/- Each. 




QAS BRACKETS FOR OVENS. 

(Stationary or Jointed ) 




FURNACE BARS. 



Sizes in inches i3 20 2t 22 24 27 

Price each 1/- 1/2 1/4 1/6 1/7 1/9 



Scotch, Drawplate, Steam and Flued Ovens Erected. 




FURNACE 

FENDER for 

OVENS. 

Cast Iron— 
8/6 Each. 

Malleable Iron 

Built— 

10/- Each. 



HOT WATER AND STEAM APPARATUS FITTED UP, CONNECTED TO OVENS. 
CHAFFER AND FURNACE OVENS CONVERTED TO COKE OVENS. 



NEW IMPROVED PATENT WATER. HOT-PLATES. 




Made in Sizes from 6 ft. to 20 ft. long by 2 ft. 6 in. broad. 

These plates cost only 3d. to 6d. per working day for fueL No covers or arches to give way. No fumes. 

Perfect cleanliness. One damper regulates the heat, which is equal throughout. 

All classes of hot=plate goods. baked to perfection. 

Prices and References on application from Sole Maker— 

JAME5 CRUICK5HANK, TORPHICHEN 5T., EDINBURGH. 



35^ 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 




tt 



THE ONLY TRUE WEIGH" 

The * AVERY " AUTOMATIC FLOUR 
SCALE (Richardson's Patent) is the only Machine 
yet made to successfully weigh Flour by an 
automatic process. 




yiew in a 

Belfast 

Bakery where 

8 
"AVERY" 

Weighers 
weigh the 
flour passing to the Dough Kneaders. From a Photo. 

VJ rite for Illustrated Catalogue to — 

W. & T. AVERY, ^^°i «°"° "" «"'' 



MAKERS 



BIRMINGHAM 




GARDNER'S PATENT RAPID 
MIXER. 



For the 
CELEBRATED 

Patent 'Rapid' 

Flour Sifter, 

Flour Mixer, 

Blending Plants, 




GARDNERS 

TREBLE FEEDERS AND 

SIFTER COMBINED. 



- ^ ■= „ '^ 



m 

-i**^ 




Power Hoists, and Bakery 
Machinery, 

Apply 

W. GARDNER & SONS, 

Engineers, &c., 
BRISTOL ROAD, 

GLOUCESTER. 



C t! »S. 






'X r^ re 3 „ . _. 

» — = S -" ^ 

? c' =: X ~ '-r- -. 

re = ** re S 




GARDNER'S SIFTER FITTED 
UNDER FLOOR FOR HAND USE. 



w 



GARDNERS PATENT SIFTER AND 
MIXER FOR SELF-RAISING 

FLOUR, &C..&C. 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



351 



^otm Iftovelties in Siscuits. 



"BONNIE DUNDEE" 
"MIKADO" . 

"CREAMERY" 

"COCOANUT ROCKS" 
"ADELAIDE" 



A Marmaladip Sandwich 

To Sell at 4d. per lb. 

A sweet biscuit piped with Raspberry Jam 
and covered with fine Cocoanut 

To Sell at 6d. per lb. 

An Unsweetened Lunch Biscuit 

To Sell at 6d. per lb. 

A Rough Drop-Biscuit 



To Sell at 6d. per lb. 



A Rich Finger-Biscuit 



To Sell at 8d. per lb. 

ICE WAFERS. SUGAR WAFERS. FRUIT WAFERS. 



SEND POST CARD FOR FULL PRICE LIST. 



ALFRED HUGHES, 

BISCUIT MANUFACTURER, 

BIRMINGHAM. 



Peaton's 




Patent 
SIow= 

Combustion 
Furnaces. 




Patent Drawplate 

Steampipe Ovens 

and 

Modern Bakery 

Machinery. 



Catalogues, 
Consultations, 

Estimates and 
Plans free of 
charge. 



HENRY HEATON, '':^^^;^o^'[TS.''Li^T%':^s^oZ':'- LONDON, N.E. 



358 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 




J. LIVER5IDQE & 50N, 

LIMITED 

YAN, CART, & CARRIAGE BUILDERS 

Chief Factories 
196 OLD STREET, E.G. 561 OLD KENT ROAD, S.E. 



What is the reason of the popularity of 

COLLINS' OVENS? 

It is because they are the best value for money. 
They give complete satisfaction wherever erected. In 
support of this, note the fact that we have received 

OVER 100 REPEAT ORDERS. 

This in itself is convincing proof of their superiority. 
Write for a catalogue and read the opinion of others. 



THOMAS COLLINS & CO.. 

STEAM OVEN BUILDERS. 

106 VICTORIA STREET, BRISTOL. 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



359 



"TEE BOOK 

OF 

GflKES." 



IS THE 
COMPANION WORK 



TO 



"THE BOOK 

OF 

BHEM" 



By T. PERCY LEWIS and A. G. BROMLEY. 



Edition de Luxe, £i, lis. 6d. 

Limited to 250 Copies. 



Ordinary Edition, i6s. 



THE FINEST BOOK ON CAKES EVER PRODUCED. 

The Illustrations 

The usual methods of book illustration— woodcut, line, and half-tone—are all good in their 
way ; but while they convey an idea of shape and design, they do not indicate the true 
appearance of the Cake as regards colour. In "THE BOOK OF CAKES" all the fancy 
and decorated Cakes are shown in Colours. There are 

48 HANDSOME COLOURED PLATES ILLUSTRATING 

NEARLY 450 DESIGNS AND CAKES, 

ranging in price from one penny upwards. 

The Lithography is by one of the leading firms of Lithographers in the Kingdom. To 
ensure accuracy, the Illustrations were prepared from the actual Cakes represented. 
These Cakes— the best of their kind— were specially made for the purpose by the Authors 
and other prominent English and Scotch Confectioners. 



Contents 



The Recipes in "THE BOOK OF CAKES" are working: Recipes, clearly written, 
without unnecessary "padding." The Authors have sought to make their working 
instructions easy to follow, and where twenty words only were necessary to convey to the 
readers the method of making a Cake, they have not used fifty words to attain their object. 
It is impossible to give detailed particulars of contents, but the following will give a fair 
idea of the scope of the work : — 



WEDDING, BIRTHDAY, and CHRISTENING CAKES 
(8 Plates). 

DECORATED GATEAUX, at various prices. 

DECORATED SAVOYS. 

PENNY and TWO-PENNY FANCY and GENOESE 
GOODS, including Decorated Sponge and Genoese 
varieties, Cream Goods (Eclairs, etc.), Choux Fancies, 
Sandwiches, Presburgs, Maserenes, Apricotines, Choco- 
late Goods, Ginger, Viennese, Madelines, etc., etc. 

SHORTBREAD, Plain and Decorated. 

COUNTER GOODS. 

MERINGUE GOODS, Shells, Built Meringues, etc. 



PETITS FOURS, Glacg and Sec. 

MARZI PAN WORK, Fruits and Flowers, Cake Tops, etc. 

TRIFLES, Charlotte Russe, etc. 

NOUGAT. FILLINGS. 

SPECIMENS OF PIPING, Floral, Monograms, Letter- 
ing, Scrolls, etc. 

SIMNELS. FANCY BISCUITS. 

FANCY PASTRY. 

GENERAL CAKES, sueh as Genoas, Sponges, Madeira, 
Fruit, Cherry, Tennis, Luncheon,<Seed, Pound, etc. 

GINGERBREADS. 

A Chapter on MATERIALS. Etc., Etc. 



The Book contains 288 pp. (In addition to plates), same size as "Tlie Booli of Bread." 

|«flGMl{E|i & SOliS, 37 and 38 SHOE LAJlE, IiOJlOOH, E.G. 



360 



THE BOOK OF BREAD 



The 

BRITISH 
BAKER 

is unquestionably the "Times" of 
the Baking and Confectionery (Flour) 
Trade. 

FIRST IN CIRCULATIOH. 
FIRST IW INFLUENCE- 
FIRST IN VALUE. 

Upwards of 8000 Bakers read it 
regularly. 

Written by 

BAKERS 

for 

BAKER5. 



Annual Subscription, 

including Year Book 
and Postage, 



Id. 



Weekly. 



6/6 



B 



OOKS FOR 
AKERS. 



CAKE DECOSATIOM. By E. Schnlbe. 2nd Edition. The 
most complete and elaborate work on the decoration of 
cakes, containing beantiful photographic reprodnctions of 
cake tops, sides, and ornaments. Price 9s. 4d., post free. 

THE BRITISH BAKER'S SELECTED RECIPES. A 
collection of practical and ap-to-date recipes compiled 
from the writings of leading authorities. Illnstrated. Price 
2s. 8d., post free. 

THE PRINCIPLES OF BREAD-HAKIHG. By William 
Jago, 'F.C.S., F.I.C. Adopted as the standard work by the 
National Association of Master Bakers and Confectioners. 
Cloth CoYers, 2s. ; post free, 3d. extra. 

CAKES AND HOW TO HAKE THEM. By Fred. T. Yine 
(" Compton Dene "). Folly Illustrated. 3s. 6d. ; postage, 3d. 
extra. 2nd Edition now ready. 

ICES: Plain and Decorated. How to Hake and How to 
Serye. By F. T. Vine. Contents -.—Introduction ; tools and 
utensils necessary; how to make and how. to freeze ; recipes 
and instructions ; cream ices, water ices, puddings souffles, 
and fancy ices ; . sherbets, punch, and iced drinks ; how to 
model decorated ices, etc. 20 coloured designs of dished 
ices. Over 160 proYed recipes. Price 3s. 6d., bound in cloth ; 
post free, 3d. extra. 

HINTS ON MODERN CAKE-MAKING. By G. D. Lynm 
Contains working recipes, faults and flaws in cakes, etc. 
The best book for Slab and other factory cakes. Price 
3s. 9d., post free. 

YIENNA AND OTHER FANCY BREADS. By H. Gribbin. 
Giving full instructions for the manufacture of all Vienna 
and Fancy Breads. Price 3s. 9d., post free. 

THE BRITISH BAKER'S GUIDE TO BOOK-KEEPING. By 
W. Heycock Rippin. The simplest and best methods clearly 
explained. Price Is. 9d., post free. 

BOOK-KEEPING FOR SMALL TRADERS. By J. Allison. 
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SUITABLE GOODS FOR HOT PLATES. By H. Gribbin. 
The most complete work on Muffins, Crumpets, Scones, and 
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SUMMER COOKERY. By S. Hobbs. Being the Summer 
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CONFECTIONERY CRITIQUES. By H. G. Harris. Being 
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